Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey

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The Right Honourable
The Earl Grey
KG PC
Charlesgrey2.jpg
Charles, 2nd Earl Grey, painted in 1828
by Sir Thomas Lawrence
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
22 November 1830 – 16 July 1834
MonarchWilliam IV
Preceded byDuke of Wellington
Succeeded byLord Melbourne
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
22 November 1830 – 9 July 1834
Preceded byDuke of Wellington
Succeeded byLord Melbourne
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
24 September 1806 – 25 March 1807
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byCharles James Fox
Succeeded byGeorge Canning
Leader of the House of Commons
In office
24 September 1806 – 31 March 1807
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byCharles James Fox
Succeeded bySpencer Perceval
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
11 February 1806 – 24 September 1806
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byLord Barham
Succeeded byThomas Grenville
Personal details
Born(1764-03-13)13 March 1764
Fallodon, Alnwick, England
Died17 July 1845(1845-07-17) (aged 81)
Howick Hall, Howick, Northumberland
Political partyWhig
Spouse(s)Mary
ChildrenStillborn
Louisa
Elizabeth
Caroline
Georgiana
Henry
Charles
Frederick
Mary
William
George
Thomas
John
Francis
Henry
William
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge
ReligionChurch of England
SignatureCursive signature in ink
 
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The Right Honourable
The Earl Grey
KG PC
Charlesgrey2.jpg
Charles, 2nd Earl Grey, painted in 1828
by Sir Thomas Lawrence
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
22 November 1830 – 16 July 1834
MonarchWilliam IV
Preceded byDuke of Wellington
Succeeded byLord Melbourne
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
22 November 1830 – 9 July 1834
Preceded byDuke of Wellington
Succeeded byLord Melbourne
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
24 September 1806 – 25 March 1807
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byCharles James Fox
Succeeded byGeorge Canning
Leader of the House of Commons
In office
24 September 1806 – 31 March 1807
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byCharles James Fox
Succeeded bySpencer Perceval
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
11 February 1806 – 24 September 1806
Prime MinisterLord Grenville
Preceded byLord Barham
Succeeded byThomas Grenville
Personal details
Born(1764-03-13)13 March 1764
Fallodon, Alnwick, England
Died17 July 1845(1845-07-17) (aged 81)
Howick Hall, Howick, Northumberland
Political partyWhig
Spouse(s)Mary
ChildrenStillborn
Louisa
Elizabeth
Caroline
Georgiana
Henry
Charles
Frederick
Mary
William
George
Thomas
John
Francis
Henry
William
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge
ReligionChurch of England
SignatureCursive signature in ink

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG PC (13 March 1764 – 17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 22 November 1830 to 16 July 1834. A member of the Whig Party, he backed significant reform of the British government and was among the primary architects of the Reform Act 1832. His administration also saw the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. In addition to his political achievements, he has come to be associated with Earl Grey tea.[1]

Early life[edit]

Descended from a long-established Northumbrian family seated at Howick Hall, Grey was the second but eldest surviving son of General Charles Grey KB (1729–1807) and his wife, Elizabeth (1743/4–1822), daughter of George Grey of Southwick, co. Durham. He had four brothers and two sisters. He was educated at Richmond School,[2] followed by Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge,[3] acquiring a facility in Latin and in English composition and declamation that enabled him to become one of the foremost parliamentary orators of his generation. Grey was elected to Parliament for the Northumberland constituency on 14 September 1786, aged just 22. He became a part of the Whig circle of Charles James Fox, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and the Prince of Wales, and soon became one of the major leaders of the Whig party. He was the youngest manager on the committee for prosecuting Warren Hastings. The Whig historian T. B. Macaulay wrote in 1841:

"At an age when most of those who distinguish themselves in life are still contending for prizes and fellowships at college, he had won for himself a conspicuous place in Parliament. No advantage of fortune or connection was wanting that could set off to the height his splendid talents and his unblemished honour. At twenty-three he had been thought worthy to be ranked with the veteran statesmen who appeared as the delegates of the British Commons, at the bar of the British nobility. All who stood at that bar, save him alone, are gone, culprit, advocates, accusers. To the generation which is now in the vigour of life, he is the sole representative of a great age which has passed away. But those who, within the last ten years, have listened with delight, till the morning sun shone on the tapestries of the House of Lords, to the lofty and animated eloquence of Charles Earl Grey, are able to form some estimate of the powers of a race of men among whom he was not the foremost."[4]

Charles Grey in blue coat, white waistcoat and tied cravat, and powdered hair, by Henry Bone (after Thomas Lawrence), August 1794.

Grey was also noted for advocating Parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation. His affair with the Duchess of Devonshire, herself an active political campaigner, did him little harm although it nearly caused her to be divorced by her husband.

In 1806, Grey, by then Lord Howick owing to his father's elevation to the peerage as Earl Grey, became a part of the Ministry of All the Talents (a coalition of Foxite Whigs, Grenvillites, and Addingtonites) as First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Fox's death later that year, Howick took over both as Foreign Secretary and as leader of the Whigs.

A group of naked British Whig politicians, including three Grenvilles, Sheridan, St. Vincent, Moira, Temple, Erskine, Howick, Petty, Whitbread, Sheridan, Windham,and Tomline, Bishop of Lincoln, crossing the river Styx in a boat named the Broad Bottom Packet. Sidmouth's head emerges from the water next to the boat. The boat's torn sail has inscription "Catholic Emancipation" and the center mast is crowned with the Prince of Wales feathers and motto "Ich Dien". On the far side the shades of Cromwell, Charles Fox and Robespierre wave to them. Overhead, on brooms, are the Three Fates; to the left a three-headed dog. Above the boat three birds soil the boat and politicians.
In Charon's Boat (1807), James Gillray caricatured the fall from power of the Whig administration, with Howick taking the role of Charon rowing the boat.

The government fell from power the next year, and, after a brief period as a member of parliament for Appleby from May to July 1807, Howick went to the Lords, succeeding his father as Earl Grey. He continued in opposition for the next 23 years.

Lord Grey, c. 1820

Great Reform Act[edit]

In 1830, when the Duke of Wellington resigned on the question of Parliamentary reform, the Whigs finally returned to power, with Grey as Prime Minister. His Ministry was a notable one, seeing passage of the Reform Act 1832, which finally saw the reform of the House of Commons, and the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire in 1833. As the years had passed, however, Grey had become more conservative, and he was cautious about initiating more far-reaching reforms, particularly since he knew that the King was at best only a reluctant supporter of reform. Unlike most politicians, he seems to have genuinely preferred a private life; colleagues remarked caustically that he threatened to resign at every setback. In 1834 Grey retired from public life, leaving Lord Melbourne as his successor.

Grey returned to Howick but kept a close eye on the policies of the new cabinet under Melbourne, whom he, and especially his family, regarded as a mere understudy until he began to act in ways of which they disapproved. Grey became more critical as the decade went on, being particularly inclined to see the hand of Daniel O'Connell behind the scenes and blaming Melbourne for subservience to the Radicals with whom he identified the Irish patriot. He made no allowances for Melbourne's need to keep the radicals on his side to preserve his shrinking majority in the Commons, and in particular he resented any slight on his own great achievement, the Reform Act, which he saw as a final solution of the question for the foreseeable future. He continually stressed its conservative nature. As he declared in his last great public speech, at the Grey Festival organised in his honour at Edinburgh in September 1834, its purpose was to strengthen and preserve the established constitution, to make it more acceptable to the people at large, and especially the middle classes, who had been the principal beneficiaries of the Reform Act, and to establish the principle that future changes would be gradual, "according to the increased intelligence of the people, and the necessities of the times".[5] It was the speech of a conservative statesman.[6]

Retirement[edit]

Grey spent his last years in contented, if sometimes fretful, retirement at Howick, with his books, his family, and his dogs. He became physically feeble in his last years and died quietly in his bed on 17 July 1845, forty-four years to the day since going to live at Howick.[7] He was buried in the church there on the 26th in the presence of his family, close friends, and the labourers on his estate.[6]

Commemoration[edit]

Earl Grey tea, a blend which uses bergamot oil to flavour the beverage, is named after Grey. He is commemorated by Grey's Monument in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, which consists of a statue of Lord Grey standing atop a 41 m (135 ft) high column. The monument was once struck by lightning and Earl Grey's head was seen lying in the gutter in Grey Street. The monument lends its name to Monument Metro station on the Tyne and Wear Metro located directly underneath. Grey Street in Newcastle upon Tyne and Grey College, Durham are also named after Grey.

Personal life[edit]

Grey married Mary Elizabeth Ponsonby (1776 – 1861), only daughter of William Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby and Hon. Louisa Molesworth in 1794. The marriage was a fruitful one; between 1796 and 1819 the couple had ten sons and six daughters:

Mary was frequently pregnant and during his absences in London or elsewhere Grey had a series of affairs with other women. The first, most notorious, and most significant, which antedated his engagement to his future wife, was with Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, whom he met at Devonshire House – the centre of Whig society in London in the 1780s and 1790s – shortly after his arrival in the capital as a young recruit to the House of Commons. Impetuous and headstrong, Grey pursued Georgiana with persistence until she gave in to his attentions. She became pregnant by Grey in 1791, but she refused to leave her husband the duke, and live with Grey, when the duke threatened that if she did so she would never see their children again. She went abroad with Elizabeth Foster, and on 20 February 1792 at Aix-en-Provence, gave birth to a daughter who was given the name Eliza Courtney. After their return to England in September 1793 the child was taken to Fallodon and brought up by Grey's parents as though she were his sister. This affair was a significant step in the process by which he became a member of the Whig party, led by Charles James Fox.[6]

Lord Grey's Ministry, November 1830 – July 1834[edit]

Lord Grey atop the Grey's Monument, looking down Grey Street in Newcastle upon Tyne
Inscription on Grey's Monument

Changes

In popular culture[edit]

Charles Grey is portrayed by Dominic Cooper in the 2008 film The Duchess, directed by Saul Dibb and starring Ralph Fiennes and Keira Knightley. The film is based on Amanda Foreman's biography of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire.

He is also a secondary character in Emma Donoghue's 2004 book Life Mask.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kramer, Ione. All the Tea in China. China Books, 1990. ISBN 0-8351-2194-1. Pages 180–181.
  2. ^ http://fretwell.kangaweb.com.au/pdfs/Edward%20Kay.pdf
  3. ^ "Grey, Charles (GRY781C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  4. ^ Thomas Babington Macaulay, ‘Warren Hastings’, Edinburgh Review LXXIV (October 1841), pp. 160–255.
  5. ^ Edinburgh Weekly Journal, 17 September 1834.
  6. ^ a b c E. A. Smith, 'Grey, Charles, second Earl Grey (1764–1845)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2009, accessed 13 February 2010.
  7. ^ GRO Register of Deaths: SEP 1845 XXV 130 ALNWICK

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Parliament of Great Britain
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Lord Algernon Percy
Sir William Middleton, Bt
Member of Parliament for Northumberland
1786 – 1800
With: Sir William Middleton, Bt
Thomas Richard Beaumont
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Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
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18011807
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Member of Parliament for Appleby
May 1807 – July 1807
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Nicholas William Ridley-Colborne
James Ramsay Cuthbert
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Lord William Russell
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July 1807 – November 1807
With: Lord William Russell
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Lord William Russell
Political offices
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The Lord Barham
First Lord of the Admiralty
1806
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Charles James Fox
Foreign Secretary
1806–1807
Succeeded by
George Canning
Leader of the House of Commons
1806–1807
Succeeded by
Spencer Perceval
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
22 November 1830 – 16 July 1834
Succeeded by
The Viscount Melbourne
Leader of the House of Lords
1830–1834
Party political offices
Preceded by
None recognised before
Leader of the British Whig Party
1830–1834
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None recognised before
Whig Leader in the Lords
1830–1834
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The Viscount Melbourne
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Charles Grey
Earl Grey
1807–1845
Succeeded by
Henry Grey