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Sub-provincial city
Changchun Cultural Square
Changchun Cultural Square
Nickname(s): 北国春城 (Spring City of the Northern Country)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun is located in Jilin
Location of the city centre in Jilin
Coordinates: 43°54′N 125°12′E / 43.900°N 125.200°E / 43.900; 125.200Coordinates: 43°54′N 125°12′E / 43.900°N 125.200°E / 43.900; 125.200
CountryPeople's Republic of China
County-level divisions6 districts
3 county-level divisions
1 county
 • MayorCui Jie (崔杰)
 • Sub-provincial city20,532 km2 (7,927 sq mi)
 • Urban4,682 km2 (1,808 sq mi)
 • Metro4,682 km2 (1,808 sq mi)
Elevation222 m (730 ft)
Population (2010 census)[2]
 • Sub-provincial city7,459,005
 • Density360/km2 (940/sq mi)
 • Urban3,341,700
 • Urban density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Metro3,341,700
 • Metro density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code130000
Area code(s)0431
License plate prefixesA
GDP (2010)CNY 332.9 billion
 - per capitaauto
ISO 3166-2cn-22-01
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Sub-provincial city
Changchun Cultural Square
Changchun Cultural Square
Nickname(s): 北国春城 (Spring City of the Northern Country)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun is located in Jilin
Location of the city centre in Jilin
Coordinates: 43°54′N 125°12′E / 43.900°N 125.200°E / 43.900; 125.200Coordinates: 43°54′N 125°12′E / 43.900°N 125.200°E / 43.900; 125.200
CountryPeople's Republic of China
County-level divisions6 districts
3 county-level divisions
1 county
 • MayorCui Jie (崔杰)
 • Sub-provincial city20,532 km2 (7,927 sq mi)
 • Urban4,682 km2 (1,808 sq mi)
 • Metro4,682 km2 (1,808 sq mi)
Elevation222 m (730 ft)
Population (2010 census)[2]
 • Sub-provincial city7,459,005
 • Density360/km2 (940/sq mi)
 • Urban3,341,700
 • Urban density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Metro3,341,700
 • Metro density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneChina Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code130000
Area code(s)0431
License plate prefixesA
GDP (2010)CNY 332.9 billion
 - per capitaauto
ISO 3166-2cn-22-01
Changchun name.JPG
"Changchun", as written in Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese长春
Traditional Chinese長春
Hanyu PinyinChángchūn
Literal meaningLong Spring

Changchun (Chinese: 长春; pinyin: Chángchūn Manchu: ᠴᠠᠨᡤᠴᠣᠨ, Cangcon) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and county-level cities. The name, which means "Long Spring", originated from the Jurchen language. The six urban districts of Changchun's city proper have a total population of 3,341,700 in 2010 which correspond to the built up area.[2] Known as China's Automobile City, Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector.[4]


Early history[edit]

Changchun was initially established on Imperial Decree as a small Trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor. Trading activities mainly involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, Emperor Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting".

At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong and Hebei began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as "Changchun Fu".[5]

Railway era[edit]

In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun (the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway), constructed by the Russian Empire.[6] Soon after the completion of the railway, Changchun emerged as a major population center in Jilin province after the provincial capital Jilin City.

The South Manchuria Railway office of Changchun

After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, the Kuancheng station (Kuanchengtze, in contemporary spelling) became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station to the south - the new "Japanese" Changchun station, just a short distance to the south - became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge (after a short period of using the narrow Japanese gauge during the war).[7]

A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, and vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" (i.e. the standard gauge) would continue from the Changchun Station to the Kuancheng Station.[6][8]

Changchun expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway which continued to have different rail gauges, as well as permit licences until 1935. Changchun had railway repair shops, and branch lines originating in Changchun extended into Korea and Inner Mongolia.

An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911.[9] In 1936, the Japanese established Unit 100 to develop plague biological weapons, although the declared purpose of Unit 100 was to conduct research about diseases originating from animals.[10]

Manchukuo and World War II[edit]

City planning map of Changchun 1932

In 1932 the capital of Manchukuo, a Japan-controlled puppet state in Manchuria, was moved to Changchun from Jilin City (Kirin city) (less than 200 km (120 mi) eastward). The city was then known as Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; Wade–Giles: Hsin-ching; Japanese: Shinkyō; literally "New Capital"). Pu Yi resided in the Imperial Palace (Chinese: 帝宮) which is now the Museum of the Manchu State Imperial Palace. During the Manchukuo period, the region experienced harsh suppression, brutal warfare on the civilian population, forced conscription and labor and other Japanese sponsored government brutalities; at the same time a rapid industrialisation and militarisation took place. Hsinking was a well-planned city with broad avenues and modern public works. The city underwent rapid expansion in both its economy and infrastructure. Many of buildings built during the Japanese colonial era still stand today, including those of the Eight Major Bureaus of Manchukuo (Chinese: 八大部) as well as the Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Construction of Hsinking[edit]

Hsinking Master Plan Map (1934)

Hsinking was the only Direct-controlled municipality (特别市) in Manchukuo after Harbin was incorporated into the jurisdiction of Binjiang Province.[11] In March 1932, the Inspection Division of South Manchuria Railway started to draw up the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking( 大新京都市計画). The Bureau of capital construction (国都建設局) which was directly under the control of State Council of Manchukuo was established to take complete responsibility of the formulation and the implementation of the plan. Kuniaki Koiso, the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, and Yasuji Okamura, the Vice Chief-of-Staff, finalized the plan of a 200 km2 (77 sq mi) construction area. The Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking was influenced by the renovation plan of Paris in the 19th century, the garden city movement, and theories of American cities' planning and design in the 1920s. The city development plan included extensive tree planting, by 1934 Hsinking was known as the Forest Capital.[who?] By 1942, Hsinking's public green space per capita reached 2,272 m2 (24,460 sq ft), which was 5 times more than Japan's major cities.

In accordance with the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking, the area of publicly shared land (including the Imperial Palace, government offices, roads, parks and athletic grounds) in Hsinking was 47 km2 (18 sq mi), whilst the area of residential, commercial and industrial developments was planned to be 53 km2 (20 sq mi). However, Hsinking's population exceeded the prediction of 500,000 by 1940 - in 1941, the Capital Construction Bureau modified the original plan, which expanded the urban area to 160 km2 (62 sq mi). The new plan also focused on the construction of satellite towns around the city with a planning of 200 m2 (2,200 sq ft) land per capita. Because the effects of war, the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking remained unfinished. By 1944, the built up urban area of Hsinking reached 80 km2 (31 sq mi), while the area used for greening reached 70.7 km2 (27.3 sq mi). As Hsinking's city orientation was the administrative center and military commanding center, land for military use exceeded the originally planned figure of 9 percent, while only light manufacturing including packing industry, cigarette industry and paper–making had been developed during this period.

The population of Hsinking also experienced rapid growth after being established as the capital of Manchukuo. According to the census in 1934 taken by the police agency, the city's municipal area had 141,712 inhabitants.[12] By 1944 the city's population had risen to 863,607.[13] 153,614 among them were Japanese settlers.

Special City Government office of Hsinking 
Datong Avenue in Hsinking (1939) 
Manchukuo ministry building (built. 1935) 
Manchukuo supreme court (built 1938) 

Chemical destruction[edit]

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II the Imperial Japanese Army implemented in Changchun the headquarters of Unit 100 ("Wakamatsu Unit"), under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu.[14] This facility was involved in research of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Senior Sgt. Kazuo Mitomo described some of Unit 100's human experiments:

I put as much as a gram of heroin into some porridge and gave this porridge to an arrested Chinese citizen who ate it; about 20 minutes later he lost consciousness and remained in that state until he died 15-16 hours later. We knew that such a dose of heroin is fatal, but it did not make any difference to us whether he died or lived. On some of the prisoners I experimented 5-6 times, testing the action of Korean bindweed, bactal and castor oil seeds. One of the prisoners of Russian nationality became so exhausted from the experiments that no more could be performed on him, and Matsui ordered me to kill that Russian by giving him an injection of potassium cyanide. After the injection, the man died at once. Bodies were buried in the unit's cattle cemetery.

Siege of Changchun[edit]

Soviet martyr monument of Changchun,built 1945

Severely damaged during World War II, the city was taken by the Soviet Red Army in 1945. The Russians maintained a presence in the city during the Chinese civil war until 1946.

Kuomintang forces occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against communist forces. The city fell to the communists in 1948 after the 5 month Siege of Changchun by the People's Liberation Army. The siege caused famine with a civilian death toll of between 100,000 to 300,000. As of 2009 the history of the siege is still subject to official censorship in the PRC.[15]

People's Republic[edit]

Renamed Changchun by the People's Republic of China government, it became the capital of Jilin in 1954. The Changchun Film Studio is also one of the remaining film studios of the era. Changchun Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries since 1992.[16]

From the 1950s, Changchun was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry. Construction of the First Automobile Works (FAW) began in 1953 and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet ZIS-150 started in 1956. In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines.

Changchun hosted the 2007 Winter Asian Games, the second Chinese City to do so after Harbin in 1996.


Changchun lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China Plain. Its municipality area is located at latitude 43° 05′−45° 15′ N and longitude 124° 18′−127° 02' E. The total area of Changchun municipality is 20,571 km2 (7,943 sq mi), including metro areas of 2,583 square kilometres (997 sq mi), and a city proper area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi). The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 to 350 metres (820 to 1,150 ft) within its administrative region.[1] In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains. The city is also situated at the crisscross point of the third east-westward “Europe-Asia Continental Bridge”.[citation needed] Changchun prefecture is dotted with 222 rivers and lakes. Yitong River, a small tributary of Songhua River runs through the city proper.


Changchun has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of −15.1 °C (4.8 °F). Spring and fall are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in July to 66% in January and February, a typical year will see around 2,617 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −33.0 °C (−27 °F) to 35.7 °C (96 °F).[17]

Climate data for Changchun
Average high °C (°F)−9.6
Average low °C (°F)−19.7
Precipitation mm (inches)3.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
 % humidity66615349516578796961636663.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours188.5195.3239.2241.3261.2247.6220.3235.2234.8214.3174.6164.32,616.6
Percent possible sunshine66666560585447546363606059
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Administrative divisions[edit]

The sub-provincial city of Changchun has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities (市 shi) and 1 County (县 xian):[18]

Map#NameHanziHanyu PinyinPopulation (2003 est.)Area (km2)Density (/km2)
Changchun mcp.png
City proper
1Chaoyang District朝阳区Cháoyáng Qū740,0003791,953
2Nanguan District南关区Nánguān Qū610,0004971,227
3Kuancheng District宽城区Kuānchéng Qū470,000877536
4Erdao District二道区Èrdào Qū390,000965404
5Luyuan District绿园区Lùyuán Qū570,0003011,894
Total (City Proper)2,780,0003,019921
6Shuangyang District双阳区Shuāngyáng Qū380,0001,663229
Satellite cities
7Dehui德惠市Déhuì Shì920,0003,096297
8Jiutai九台市Jiǔtái Shì830,0002,875289
9Yushu榆树市Yúshù Shì1,230,0004,691262
10Nong'an County农安县Nóng'ān Xiàn1,120,0005,221215


Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

According to the Sixth China Census, the total population of the City of Changchun reached 7.677 million in 2010. The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 7.59million. The birth rate was 6.08 percent and the death rate was 5.51 percent. The urban area had a population of 3.53million people.

As in most of Northeastern China the ethnic makeup of Changchun is predominantly Han nationality (96.57 percent), with several other minority nationalities.

In 2010 the sex ratio of the city population was 102.10 males to 100 females.


Changchun achieved a GDP of RMB332.9 billion in 2010, representing a rise of 15.3% year on year. Primary industry output increased by 3.3 percent to RMB25.27 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 19.0 percent, reaching RMB171.99 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 12.6 percent to RMB135.64 billion. [3]

The city’s leading industries are foodstuffs, photoelectronic information, biology and medicine, and automotive. Changchun is the largest automobile manufacturing base in China, producing 9% of the country's automobiles in 2009.[19] As cradle of the auto industry, and home to FAW, China’s biggest vehicle producer, one of Changchun’s better known nicknames is "China's Detroit".[20]

Changchun is increasingly faced with competition from nearby cities, seeing its dominance of the northeast as a regional industrial powerhouse diminish as other nearby cities continue to narrow the gap.[21]

Foreign direct investment in the city was US$640 million,[when?] up 10.1% year on year. However, investors still need to be convinced. iN 2004 Coca-Cola set up a bottling plant in the city’s ETDZ in 2004 with an investment of US$20 million.[21]

Changchun is an important transportation and communication hub of Northeast China - it is situated as the Northeast Asia's geometric center. South Liaodong peninsula coastline, north to Russia and Eastern Europe, east to North Korea, South Korea, Russia, and west to Mongolia.

Changchun's main industry is the manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery. It produces 50 percent of passenger trains (see Changchun Railway Vehicles), and 10 percent of tractors made in China.

Changchun is the largest automobile research and development center in China. The first Chinese truck and car was made in Changchun. FAW (First Automotive Works) Group is based in Changchun. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupies a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun includes the Red Flag luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi, Volkswagen, and Toyota. In 2009, FAW sold 1.94 million units of auto, up 26.9% year on year.

The GDP per capita was ¥43,936 (ca. US$6,635) in 2010, ranked no. 59 among 659 Chinese cities.

Changchun hosts the yearly Changchun International Automobile Fair, Changchun Film Festival, Changchun Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition.

Other large companies in Changchun are Yatai Group, a major conglomerate involved in wide range of industries and Jilin Grain Group, a major processor of grains.[22]

Development zones[edit]

Changchun High Technology Development Zone[edit]

The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 km2 (19 sq mi). There are 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories. The zone is presently[when?] focusing on developing five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology.

Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone[edit]

Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities.[21] The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 sqkm, of which 30 sqkm has been set aside for development and utilization.[23]

It is located 5 kilometres (3 miles) from downtown Changchun, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the freight railway station and 15 km (9 mi) from the Changchun international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries: namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output. In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered are 179 that are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007.[21]

Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone[edit]

Founded in 1993, the Changchun Automotive Trade Center was re-established as the Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square meters. Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The Changchun Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center.[21]



Changchun dialect is phonologically close to the Northeastern Mandarin language, but the dialect itself carries with it strong cultural and regional connotations.[clarification needed]


Ginseng is considered one of the treasures of Northeast China - in the dish Ginseng Chicken, ginseng is placed inside a less-than-one-year-old chicken. Another local favorite is chicken cooked with Maotai wine, which adds the famous Chinese liquor Maotai to flavor the dish. Many of Changchun's local dishes are a fusion of Korean and Chinese recipes since Changchun has a big Korean minority population.[clarification needed]

In Changchun, deer tail is considered a fine delicacy and an aphrodisiac. Many a wedding night involves the consumption of these once fluffy tails. In order to remove their fur, they are soaked in lukewarm water. Locals then stewed the tails for hours in a pot with many seasonings, including Chinese cinnamon.

The Songhua River is abundant in White Fish,[clarification needed] which is quite tender and has mild taste. The fish is either steamed with soup or “dry steamed” without soup. 'Sweetened red bean paste covered with snow' is a popular dessert - it gains its name as local people throw some white sugar on it before eating.


Changchun is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. The city is developing its city layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone.[21]

Road network[edit]

Changchun is linked to the national highway network through the Changchun–Harbin Expressway, the Changchun–Jilin-Huichun Expressway and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun-Jilin North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities.[21]

Changchun is served by a comprehensive bus system - most buses (and the tram) charge 1 Yuan (元) per ride. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal and even animal-drawn carts are relatively common.


Changchun has three passenger rail stations, most trains only stop at the central Changchun Railway Station (simplified Chinese: 长春站; traditional Chinese: 長春站), where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin City, Harbin, Shenyang, and Dalian, as well as other major cities throughout the country such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The new Changchun West Railway Station, situated a few miles to the west, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway.[24]

Despite once having the most complex tram system in Northern China, there is now only one remaining route open, route 54 (see Changchun Tram). However, Changchun is notable for having China’s first urban light rail system, opened in 2002, which was developed from the existing tramway system. There is currently one line encompassing 14.6 km (9.1 mi) of track with plans to expand the system to an eventual 179 km (111 mi) of track.[21]


Changchun Longjia International Airport (simplified Chinese: 长春龙嘉国际机场; traditional Chinese: 長春龍嘉國際機場) opened in 2005 and serves as the main civilian airport for both Changchun and Jilin. By Taxi, it takes about 45 minutes to reach downtown from the airport. A new high speed train (CRH), which started service to the airport in 2011 takes about 10 minutes to reach the downtown train station. Domestic flights are available to 26 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Chengdu and Shenzhen. Currently international and regional flights are available to Hong Kong, Taipei, Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya.


Changchun is headquarters of the 16th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.

Universities and colleges[edit]

PRC State key laboratory in Jilin University

Changchun has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University are two key universities in China.[16]



See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Geographic Location". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 4 July 2008. 
  2. ^ a b "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  3. ^ a b "2010年长春市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 Statistics Communique on National Economy and Social Development of Changchun, 2010" (in Chinese). 5 June 2011. 
  4. ^ "Changchun Business Guide - Economic Overview". Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  5. ^ "History". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Changchun Ⅱ- Le chemin de fer de Changchun (French)
  7. ^ Luis Jackson, Industrial Commissioner of the Erie Railroad. "Rambles in Japan and China". In Railway and Locomotive Engineering, vol. 26 (March 1913), pp. 91-92
  8. ^ "Provisional Convention ... concerning the junction of the Japanese and Russian Railways in Manchuria" - June 13, 1907. Endowment for International Peace (2009). Manchuria: Treaties and Agreements. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 108. ISBN 1-113-11167-4. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ "侵华日军使用细菌武器述略". 人民日报社. 2005-06-16. Retrieved 2013-01-28. (Chinese)
  11. ^ 「特別市指定ニ関スル件廃止ニ関スル件」(康徳4年6月27日勅令第142号)
  12. ^ 新京特別市公署『新京市政概要』7頁
  13. ^ 『満洲年鑑』昭和20年(康徳12年)版、1944年、389頁
  14. ^ Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45 , and the American Cover-Up. London: Routledge, 1994.
  15. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (2009-10-02). "China Is Wordless on Traumas of Communists’ Rise". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  16. ^ a b "Society". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  17. ^ 长春城市介绍
  18. ^ "Administrative Districts". Changchun Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  19. ^ Changchun: Economic News and Statistics for Changchun's Economy
  20. ^ "Spacing: Understanding the Urban Landscape". SpacingToronto. 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08. [dead link]
  22. ^ The China Perspective | Changchun Economic News and Data
  23. ^ | Changchun Economic and Technology Development Zone
  24. ^ "Harbin-Dalian high-speed rail went into operation on December 1". Website of Jilin Province Government. 2012-11-27. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  25. ^ 亚泰主场迁至经开体育场


External links[edit]