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Union Territory
The Open Hand Monument
The Open Hand Monument
Nickname(s): The City Beautiful
Chandigarh is located in India
Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78
Country India
RegionNorthern India
Established1 Nov, 1966
Named forHindu goddess Chandi
 • Administrator of UTShivraj Patil
 • MayorPoonam Sharma
 • CommissionerVivek Pratap Singh
 • Union Territory114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Area rank33
Elevation350 m (1,150 ft)
 • Union Territory1,054,686
 • Rank29th
 • Density9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1]960,787
 • Official[3]Punjabi, Hindi, English
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code+91-172-XXX XXXX
ISO 3166 codeIN-CH
Vehicle registrationCH-01 to CH-04
HDI Categoryhigh
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area
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Union Territory
The Open Hand Monument
The Open Hand Monument
Nickname(s): The City Beautiful
Chandigarh is located in India
Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78
Country India
RegionNorthern India
Established1 Nov, 1966
Named forHindu goddess Chandi
 • Administrator of UTShivraj Patil
 • MayorPoonam Sharma
 • CommissionerVivek Pratap Singh
 • Union Territory114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Area rank33
Elevation350 m (1,150 ft)
 • Union Territory1,054,686
 • Rank29th
 • Density9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1]960,787
 • Official[3]Punjabi, Hindi, English
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code+91-172-XXX XXXX
ISO 3166 codeIN-CH
Vehicle registrationCH-01 to CH-04
HDI Categoryhigh
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area

Chandigarh, also known as The City Beautiful, is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Haryana and Punjab. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government of India and is not part of either state.

The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and is known internationally for its architecture and urban design.[4] The master plan of the city was prepared by Le Corbusier, transformed from an earlier plan by the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, however, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry.

The city experiences extreme climate and uneven distribution of rainfall. The roads in Chandigarh are surrounded by trees and it has the third highest forest cover in India at 8.51% followed by Lakshwadeep and Goa.[5][6]

The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country.[7] The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study,[8] and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.[9] The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city.[10] This is the first smoke-free city in India.[11]


The name Chandigarh, meaning "the fort of goddess Chandi",[12] is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula District.[13]


After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan.[14] The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[15][16] So, the government carved out Chandigarh of nearly 50 Puadhi speaking villages of the then state of East Punjab, India.[17]

Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents what Le Corbusier called the 'Second Machine Age'.[18] Two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made, and they were begun in 1956, but they were never completed.[19]

On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Haryanvi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current state of Punjab. Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was made into a union territory to serve as capital of both states.[20]

Geography and ecology[edit]


Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km2.[21] It shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.74°N 76.79°E / 30.74; 76.79.[22] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

The city, lying in the northern plains, has vast fertile and flat land. It has portions of Bhabhar in the north east and Terai in rest of the area.[23]

The surrounding districts are Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab, Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the Mediterranean Sea. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himanchal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.

The city experiences the following seasons and the respective average temperatures:

Climate data for Chandigarh
Record high °C (°F)27.7
Average high °C (°F)20.4
Daily mean °C (°F)13.3
Average low °C (°F)6.1
Record low °C (°F)0.0
Rainfall mm (inches)46.6
Avg. rainy days3.
 % humidity80766648456279848171697869.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours2792803413604033903102793003413002793,862
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation[24]
Source #2: Indian Meteorological Department (extremes)[25] (humidity and sun)[26]


Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations, while there are many chinar trees as well. Ashoka, cassia, mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species.[27] Deer, sambars, barking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, Rock Garden, Terraced Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.[28]


Others include Christians (0.7%), Jains (0.2%) & Buddhists (0.1%)
Religion in Chandigarh[29]
The Population of Chandigarh over the years.

As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 1,055,450[2] making for a density of about 9252 (7900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre.[31][32] Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 818 females for every 1,000 males[2] –which is the lowest in the country,[citation needed] up from 777 in 2001. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.[2] 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.[2]

There is a substantial decline in the population growth rate in Chandigarh with just 17.10% growth between 2001-2011. Since, 1951-1961 it has come down from 394.13% to 17.10%. This is probably because of rapid urbanization and development in the neighboring cities.[33]

According to the 2001 census, 79% people in Chandigarh are Hindus, 16% are Sikhs and minorities are Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and Jains.[34]


Legislative Assembly by Le Corbusier

Chandigarh has been rated as the “Wealthiest Town” of India.[35] The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's Paradise".[36] Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of Indian Rupee symbol.svg 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[37] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.

Chandigarh ranks first in India in the Human Development Index, quality of life and e-readiness.[35] The main occupation here is trade and business.[38][39] However, the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), the availability of an IT Park and more than a hundred of government schools provide job opportunity to people.

Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.[40][41]

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like Beijing.[42]


Pawan Kumar Bansal, who was elected three times in a row from Chandigarh constituency in General Elections.
Kirron Kher is the current Member of Parliament elected from Chandigarh.

Chandigarh, being a Union Territory is not entitled to a state-level election, thus State Assembly elections are not held here and it is directly controlled by the Central government. However, one seat is contested here for the General Elections held after every five years.

The following Members of Parliament are elected till date from Chandigarh constituency:

1967Chand GoyalBharatiya Jana Sangh
1971Amar Nath VidyalankarIndian National Congress
1977Krishna KantJanata Party
1980Jagannath KaushalIndian National Congress
1984Jagannath KaushalIndian National Congress
1989Harmohan DhawanJanata Dal
1991Pawan Kumar BansalIndian National Congress
1996Satya Pal JainBharatiya Janata Party
1998Satya Pal JainBharatiya Janata Party
1999Pawan Kumar BansalIndian National Congress
2004Pawan Kumar BansalIndian National Congress
2009Pawan Kumar BansalIndian National Congress
2014Kirron KherBharatiya Janata Party

The city is controlled by a civic administration. In the Municipal Corporation, BJP candidate Davesh Moudgil defeated Congress' Sheela Phool Singh by 19-16 votes for the post of Deputy Mayor. One vote was declared invalid. There were 12 Councillors of Congress, 11 of BJP-SAD, two of Bahujan Samaj Party and one Independent in the 36-member Chandigarh Municipal Corporation according to December 2014.[43]

Places of interest[edit]

Sukhna Lake

Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:[44]

Sukhna Lake[edit]

Sukhna Lake is associated in Sector 1, adjoining the Rock Garden near the foothills of the Shivalik.[45] Sukhna is an artificial lake. This 3 km rain-fed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills.[46] It has The Garden of Silence within it.[47]

The atmosphere here is serene. Sukhna Lake is the venue for many festive celebrations. The most popular is the Mango Festival held during the monsoons. It is believed that a Swiss architect Pierre Jeanneret's ashes were immersed in this lake according to his will as he developed a deep bond with the lake.[48][49][50]

The garden is most famous for its sculptures made from recycled ceramic, Rock Garden

Rock Garden[edit]

The Rock Garden is situated in the middle of the Capitol Complex and the Sukhna Lake in Sector 1.[51] It is also known as Nek Chand Rock Garden after its founder.[52] It has numerous sculptures made by using a variety of different discarded waste materials like frames, mudguards, forks, handle bars, metal wires, play marbles, porcelain, auto parts, broken bangles etc.[53]

It is believed that Nek Chand himself went up the Shivalik hills and got different stones and materials with which he started designing the garden.[54]

The Rose Garden

Rose Garden[edit]

Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, or simply Rose Garden, is named after the former President of India, Zakir Hussain. It is situated in Sector 16.[55] The garden is known to be the greatest of its types in Asia.[56]

The garden is said to be spread about thirty to forty acres containing nearly 825 varieties of roses in it and more than 32,500 varieties of other medicinal plants and trees.[57]

Government Museum & Art Gallery
Musical Fountain, Sector 17, Chandigarh
Le Corbusier Centre, Sector 19
The entrance to Valley of Animals, Sector 49 in Chandigarh.

Leisure Valley[edit]

A continuum of various theme gardens, Leisure Valley is a linear park over 8 km long which starts from Sector 1 in the north and leaves Chandigarh at its southern most edge. It consists of many theme parks, botanical gardens and green belts.[58]

Other destinations[edit]

Other tourist destinations include The New Lake in Sector 42, Capitol Complex in Sector 1, City Centre in Sector 17, Open hand monument in Sector 1, Le Corbusier Centre in Sector 19, Government Museum and Art Gallery in Sector 10, International Doll Museum in Sector 23. There are many tourist gardens like the Garden of Fragrance in Sector 36, Butterfly Park in Sector 23, Valley of Animals in Sector 49, the Japanese Garden in Sector 31 and the Terraced Garden in Sector 33.[28]

Several other famous tourist destinations like Pinjore Gardens, Morni Hills, Nada Sahib, Kasauli lie in its vicinity.


Many projects have been proposed by the Chandigarh Administration. Some of them are:


There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. Other Institutions are Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hospital, Punjab Engineering College Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, DAV College, MCM DAV College for Women, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College-26, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Polytechnical College, Govt Home Science College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management etc. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.[63]

According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 107 government schools in Chandigarh and convent schools like St. John's High School, St. Anne's Convent School, Carmel Convent School and Sacred Heart School.[64]


The 8-lane national highway 21 road passing through Chandigarh.


Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[65] Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.[66]

The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.[67] CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Khab, Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Manali).[68]


Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore, Trivandrum and Amritsar. It also links other cities like Ambala, Kollam, Panipat and Kalka.

The Chandigarh Metro Rail is a proposed metro rail to serve the city locally and connect it to other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity. It is expected to start working by 2018 along with the extension of Kolkata Metro and proposed Indore Metro.

Chandigarh airport from inside.


Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur, Bangalore and Srinagar. Flights are available to Kullu-Manali also with Himalayan Bulls. A new international terminal is under construction. International flights are scheduled to ply from March 2015.[69]



Chandigarh has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. The most famous languages for newspapers being English, Hindi and Punjabi. Popular English newspapers are Hindustan Times, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Tribune. Hindi newspapers are also famous like Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari and Hindi edition of The Tribune. Several Punjabi newspapers like Ajit and Punjabi editions of other newspapers. Magazines like Brunch, Champak are published with these newspapers.[70]


Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Chandigarh through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. There are many news channels basically set-up in Chandigarh like News 24, PTC Punjabi.[71][72]

Radio stations[edit]

There are many radio stations in Chandigarh broadcasting on the FM band including Big FM, Vividh Bharati etc.[73]



Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams like Kings XI Punjab in The Indian Premier League (IPL). The Sector 16 Stadium provides a platform for cricketers in this region to practice and play inter-state matches.[74] The Chandigarh Golf Club has 7,202 yard, 18 hole course known for its challenging narrow fairways, a long 613 yard long, dogleg 7th hole and floodlighting on the first nine holes.[75]

There are many other sports grounds and complex like the Lake Sports Complex; Sports Complexes in Sectors 7, 42, 46; Table Tennis Hall, Sector 23; Hockey Centre, Sector 18; Football Centre, Sector 17; Skating Rink, Sector 10 and so on. Many personalities from this region have excelled in sports.[76]


It also has two gardens of international repute – the Rock Garden of Chandigarh in sector 1 and the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.

Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from Sector to Sector. It is known for its green belts in most of the sectors and other special tourist parks.[77]


Available internet providers in Chandigarh are: Bharti Airtel, Connect Broadband, Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL and Airtel 4G wifi among others. Same ISPs are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity).[78]

Notable people from Chandigarh[edit]

Milkha Singh, also known as the Flying Sikh, at Chandigarh Golf Club in 2012


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)". Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Business Portal of India
  5. ^ "Green Cities of India"
  6. ^ "Chandigarh has the third highest forest cover". Hindustan Times.
  7. ^ "Front Page News : Monday, July 26, 2010". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  8. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?: News". 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  9. ^ Meghalaya Human Development Report 2008 (p. 23)
  10. ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF’s Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express. 6 January 2014. 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Chandigarh History – History Of Chandigarh India – Origin & History of Chandigarh
  16. ^ The Official Government Website
  17. ^ "Displaced for making Chandigarh, their marginalization is still on". 
  18. ^ Frommer's India (2010) Pippa de Bruyn, John Wiley & Sons, p613 ISBN 9780470556108
  19. ^ "Capitol Complex, as Le Corbusier wanted it, remains incomplete". Indian Express. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 
  20. ^ "1st November 1966 - Haryana Day - History - Haryana Online - North India". Haryana Online. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  21. ^
  22. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Chandigarh
  23. ^ Chandigarh Geography The soil of Chandigarh and other geographical elements.
  24. ^ World Weather Information Service-Chandigarh, World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  25. ^ "Extremes of India". IMD. Retrieved January 23, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Climate profile for Chandigarh". Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b
  29. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 
  30. ^ "Census population" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ "Census observations". Census of India. 
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ a b Chandigarh has been rated as the “Wealthiest Town” of India.
  36. ^ "Chandigarh is also called the Pensioner's Paradise"
  37. ^ Chandigarh's the richest of 'em all
  38. ^ Occupation in Chandigarh. The people of Chandigarh and their occupation.
  39. ^ Chandigarh people, culture and occupation. The culture and people of Chandigarh.
  40. ^ CII (NR) headquarters are at Chandigarh. (Confederation of Indian Industry) The headquarters of CII North Region are at Chandigarh.
  41. ^ Confederation of Indian Industry. The Headquarters of CII (NR) are at Chandigarh.
  42. ^ The Hindu Business Line
  43. ^ Mayor and Councillors of Chandigarh. The mayor and Councillors of Chandigarh. Retrieved December 2014.
  44. ^ "Places to See". Chandigarh Tourism. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  45. ^ Location of Sukhna in Chandigarh This is the exact address where Sukhna is located.
  46. ^ About Sukhna Lake How was Sukhna made and when?
  47. ^ Garden of Silence is inside Sukhna The location of Garden of Silence is in Sukhna itself.
  48. ^ Pierre Jeanneret's biography One of the architects of Chandigarh was attached to Sukhna.
  49. ^ About Pierre Jeanneret The Swiss architect's biography who designed some of Chandigarh.
  50. ^ Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret Pierre's ashes were immersed in Sukhna.
  51. ^ Location of Rock Garden The Garden is associated adjoining Sukhna Lake.
  52. ^ About Rock Garden Retrieved from official website of Nek Chand.
  53. ^ How was Rock Garden made? The way how Nek Chand got the idea to make the famous garden.
  54. ^ Rock Garden - Places to visit in Chandigarh Nek Chand got stones himself.
  55. ^ Location of Rose Garden The Rose Garden is situated in Sector 16, Chandigarh.
  56. ^ [1] Largest rose garden in Asia (Retrieved from official website of Chandigarh Tourism).
  57. ^ About Rose Garden The trees and plants in Rose Garden.
  58. ^ Gardens and parks in Chandigarh Chandigarh has a straight row of parks from the North to the South end.
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ "City Beautiful". The Indian Backpacker. December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  64. ^ "Department of Education". 
  65. ^ Top Ten Towns with Highest Nos. of Car Ownership in India
  66. ^
  67. ^ Chandigarh Transport Undertaking ISBT
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ The Chandigarh page of News 24's website.
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^ Studied law from Punjab University, Chandigarh.
  90. ^ Studied law from Punjab University, Chandigarh and is currently residing in Chandigarh.
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]