CentOS

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CentOS
Centos full.svg
CentOS 6.0.png
Default GNOME desktop in CentOS 6.0
Company / developerThe CentOS Project
(Affiliated with Red Hat)
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelFree and open source software
Initial release14 May 2004; 9 years ago (2004-05-14)[1]
Latest release

6.5 (1 December 2013; 5 months ago (2013-12-01)[2]) [±]

5.10 (19 October 2013; 6 months ago (2013-10-19)[3]) [±]
Marketing targetFree computing (desktops, mainframes, servers, workstations)
Available inMultilingual
Update methodYum (PackageKit)
Package managerRPM Package Manager
Supported platformsIA-32, x86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
Default user interfaceGNOME and KDE (user-selectable)
LicenseGNU GPL and various others
Official websiteCentOS.org
 
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CentOS
Centos full.svg
CentOS 6.0.png
Default GNOME desktop in CentOS 6.0
Company / developerThe CentOS Project
(Affiliated with Red Hat)
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelFree and open source software
Initial release14 May 2004; 9 years ago (2004-05-14)[1]
Latest release

6.5 (1 December 2013; 5 months ago (2013-12-01)[2]) [±]

5.10 (19 October 2013; 6 months ago (2013-10-19)[3]) [±]
Marketing targetFree computing (desktops, mainframes, servers, workstations)
Available inMultilingual
Update methodYum (PackageKit)
Package managerRPM Package Manager
Supported platformsIA-32, x86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
Default user interfaceGNOME and KDE (user-selectable)
LicenseGNU GPL and various others
Official websiteCentOS.org

CentOS (abbreviated from Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution that attempts to provide a free enterprise class computing platform which aims to be 100% binary compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL).[4][5]

As of versions 5.10 and 6.5, CentOS officially supports the x86 architecture with Physical Address Extension (PAE) and the x86-64 architecture, while a beta release is expected to be available for the PowerPC architecture.[6]

The first CentOS was based upon RHEL version 2.1AS, and was numbered as CentOS version 2.[1]

History[edit]

Originally, CentOS Linux (before it was thus named) was a build artifact for cAos Linux. Several of the cAos contributors at the time were really just interested in this build artifact for their own use, citing difficulties in collaborating with other noteworthy RHEL clones of the time.

In June 2006, David Parsley, the primary developer of Tao Linux, another Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) clone, announced that it would be retired and rolled into CentOS development. Tao users migrated to the CentOS release via "yum update".[7]

In July 2009, it was reported that CentOS's founder, Lance Davis, had disappeared in 2008. Davis had ceased contribution to the project, but continued to hold the registration for the CentOS domain and PayPal account. In August 2009, the CentOS team reportedly made contact with Davis and obtained the centos.info and centos.org domains.[8]

In July 2010, CentOS overtook Debian to become the most popular Linux distribution for web servers, with almost 30% of all Linux web servers using it,[9] although Debian retook the lead in January 2012.[10]

In January 2014, Red Hat announced that it would sponsor the CentOS project in order to establish a platform well suited to the needs of open source developers that integrate technologies in and around the RHEL-based operating system.[11] As the result of these changes, ownership of CentOS trademarks was transferred to Red Hat,[12] who now employs most of the CentOS head developers; however, they work as part of the Red Hat's Open Source and Standards team, which is separated from the RHEL team.[13] A new CentOS Governing Board was also established.[14]

Design[edit]

RHEL is available only through a paid subscription service that provides access to software updates and varying levels of technical support. The product is largely composed of software packages distributed under free software licenses and the source code for these packages is made public by Red Hat.

CentOS developers use Red Hat's source code to create a final product very similar to RHEL. Red Hat's branding and logos are changed because Red Hat does not allow them to be redistributed.[15]

CentOS is available free of charge. Technical support is primarily provided by the community via official mailing lists, web forums, and chat rooms. The project is affiliated with Red Hat but aspires to be more public, open, and inclusive. While Red Hat employs most of the CentOS head developers, the CentOS project itself relies on donations from users and organizational sponsors.[13]

Versioning and releases[edit]

CentOS releases[edit]

CentOS version numbers have two parts, a major version and a minor version, which correspond to the major version and update set of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that was used to build that version of CentOS. For example, CentOS 6.5 is built from the source packages of RHEL 6 update 5.[16]

Since mid-2006 and starting with version 4.4 (formally known as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 update 4), Red Hat has adopted a versioning convention identical to that of CentOS (for example, RHEL 4.5).[17]

CentOS versionArchitectures[18]RHEL baseKernelCentOS release dateRHEL release dateDelay (days)
2.1i3862.12.4.914 May 2004[1]17 May 2002[19]728
3.1i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x3.12.4.21-1519 March 2004[20]23 October 2003[19]148
3.3i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x3.32.4.21-2017 September 20043 September 200414
3.4i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x3.42.4.21-2723 January 200512 December 200442
3.5i3863.52.4.21-3210 June 2005[21]18 May 200523
3.6i3863.62.4.21-371 November 2005[22]28 September 200534
3.7i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x3.72.4.21-4010 April 2006[23]17 March 200623
3.8i386, x86-643.82.4.21-4725 August 2006[24]20 July 200636
3.9i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x3.92.4.21-5026 July 2007[25]15 June 200741
4.0i386, x86-64, various4.02.6.9-59 March 2005[26]14 February 2005[27]23
4.1i386, IA-64, s3904.12.6.9-1112 June 2005[28]8 June 20054
4.2i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x, alpha4.22.6.9-2213 October 2005[29]5 October 20058
4.3i386, x86-64, IA-64, s390, s390x4.32.6.9-3421 March 2006[30]12 March 20069
4.4i386, x86-644.42.6.9-4230 August 2006[31]10 August 200620
4.5i386, x86-64, IA-644.52.6.9-5517 May 2007[32]1 May 200716
4.6i386, x86-64, IA-64, Alpha, s390, s390x, PowerPC (beta), SPARC (beta)4.62.6.9-6716 December 2007[33]16 November 2007[34]30
4.7i386, x86-644.72.6.9-7813 September 2008[35]24 July 2008[36]51
4.8i386, x86-644.82.6.9-8921 August 2009[37]18 May 2009[38]95
4.9i386, x86-644.92.6.9-1002 March 2011[39]16 February 2011[40]14
5.0i386, x86-645.02.6.18-812 April 2007[41]14 March 2007[42]28
5.1i386, x86-645.12.6.18-532 December 2007[43]7 November 2007[44]25
5.2i386, x86-645.22.6.18-9224 June 2008[45]21 May 2008[46]34
5.3i386, x86-645.32.6.18-12831 March 2009[47]20 January 2009[48]69
5.4i386, x86-645.42.6.18-16421 October 2009[49]2 September 2009[50]49
5.5i386, x86-645.52.6.18-19414 May 2010[51]31 March 2010[52]44
5.6i386, x86-645.62.6.18-2388 April 2011[53]13 January 2011[54]85
5.7i386, x86-645.72.6.18-27413 September 2011[55]21 July 2011[56]54
5.8i386, x86-645.82.6.18-3087 March 2012[57]21 February 2012[58]15
5.9i386, x86-645.92.6.18-34817 January 2013[59]7 January 2013[60]10
5.10i386, x86-645.102.6.18-37119 October 2013[61]30 September 2013[62]19
6.0i386, x86-646.02.6.32-7110 July 2011[63]10 November 2010[64]242
6.1i386, x86-646.12.6.32-1319 December 2011[65]19 May 2011[66]204
6.2i386, x86-646.22.6.32-22020 December 2011[67]6 December 2011[68]14
6.3i386, x86-646.32.6.32-2799 July 2012[69]21 June 2012[70]18
6.4i386, x86-646.42.6.32-3589 March 2013[71]21 February 2013[72]15
6.5i386, x86-646.52.6.32-4311 December 2013[73]21 November 2013[74]10

Add-ons releases[edit]

Software Collections (SCL) is a repository providing a set of dynamic programming languages, database servers, and various related packages that are either more recent than their equivalent versions included in the base CentOS system, or are available as official CentOS packages for the first time.[75]

Packages available from the SCL are not replacing the default system tools provided with CentOS. Instead, a parallel set of tools is installed in the /opt directory, and can be optionally enabled per application by using the supplied scl utility. For example, the default versions of Perl or MySQL remain those provided by the base CentOS installation.[75]

Add-on nameArchitectures[18]Base CentOS versionCentOS release dateRHEL release dateDelay (days)
Software Collections (SCL) 1.0[76]x86-646.4, 6.5[77]19 February 2014[77]12 September 2013[76]160
Developer Toolset 2.0[78]i386, x86-646.4N/A[79]12 September 2013[78]N/A

End-of-support schedule[edit]

In accordance with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle,[80] CentOS 5 and 6 will also be supported for ten years.[81] Previously, CentOS 4 had been supported for seven years.[82]

CentOS VersionRelease DateFull Updates[83]Maintenance Updates[83]
Old version, no longer supported: 319 March 200420 July 200631 October 2010
Old version, no longer supported: 49 March 200531 March 200929 February 2012
Older version, yet still supported: 512 April 20078 January 201331 March 2017
Current stable version: 610 July 2011Q2 201630 November 2020
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases without upstream equivalents[edit]

LiveCD and LiveDVD images are containing a bootable compressed file system, created by a set of custom scripts[84] using a kickstart configuration file.[85]

These live images can be also installed to hard disk, thus obtaining a fully functional CentOS installation. The set of packages installed that way on a hard disk can not be adjusted during the installation, as that is a simple transfer of the image existing on CD/DVD, to a hard disk. After booting from hard disk, yum can be used for adding or removing packages.[86]

MinimalCD images are containing a minimum of packages needed to have a functional installation, with no compromises made regarding security or network usability. These minimal images use the standard CentOS installer, with all of its regular features minus the selection of packages. Yum can be used after installation for adding or removing packages.[87][88]

CentOS versionRelease nameArchitecturesRHEL baseCentOS release date
4.7Serveri386, x86-644.717 October 2008[89]
5.1Live CDi3865.118 February 2008[90]
5.2Live CDi3865.217 July 2008[91]
5.3Live CDi3865.327 May 2009[92]
5.5Live CDi386, x86-645.514 May 2010[51]
5.6Live CDi386, x86-645.68 April 2011[53]
6.0Live CDi386, x86-646.025 July 2011[93]
Live DVDi386, x86-646.027 July 2011[94]
Minimal CDi386, x86-646.028 July 2011[88]
6.1Live CDi386, x86-646.19 December 2011[95]
Live DVDi386, x86-646.19 December 2011[96]
Minimal CDi386, x86-646.19 December 2011[97]
6.2Live CDi386, x86-646.220 December 2011[98]
Live DVDi386, x86-646.220 December 2011[98]
Minimal CDi386, x86-646.220 December 2011[67]
6.3Minimal CDi386, x86-646.39 July 2012[69]
Live CDi386, x86-646.315 July 2012
Live DVDi386, x86-646.315 July 2012
6.4Minimal CDi386, x86-646.49 March 2013[71]
Live CDi386, x86-646.422 May 2013[99]
Live DVDi386, x86-646.422 May 2013[99]
6.5Minimal CDi386, x86-646.51 December 2013[73]
Live CDi386, x86-646.51 December 2013[73]
Live DVDi386, x86-646.51 December 2013[73]

Architectures[edit]

CentOS supports only the x86 architectures:[6]

The following architectures are not supported by CentOS (as of version 6):

A Live CD version of CentOS is available at mirror.centos.org. A Live USB of CentOS can be created manually or with UNetbootin.

CentOS images are also available on Amazon's EC2 cloud, in form of prebuilt and already published AMI images.[100][101]

Repositories[edit]

There are several additional repositories provided by the CentOS project, offering software packages that are not included in the default base and updates repositories:[102]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  101. ^ "[CentOS-announce] Updated AMI's for Amazon EC2 are now available". centos.org. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  102. ^ "Available Repositories for CentOS". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  103. ^ "The Continuous Release (CR) Repository". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]