Caulking

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

Caulking is one of several different processes to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping. The oldest form of caulking is used to make the seams in wooden boats or ships watertight, by driving fibrous materials into the wedge-shaped seams between planks. A related process was formerly employed to join sections of cast iron sewerage pipe.

Caulking is also the term to describe the process used to make riveted iron or steel ships and boilers watertight or steamtight.

The same term also refers to the application of flexible sealing compounds to close up gaps in buildings and other structures against water, air, dust, insects, or as a component in firestopping. In the tunnelling industry, caulking refers to the sealing of joints in segmental precast concrete tunnels, commonly by using concrete.

Contents

Marine use

Wooden ship caulking

Dried-out caulking on the Severn trow Spry, now displayed on-shore.
The tools of traditional wooden ship caulking; caulking mallet, caulker's seat, caulking irons, cotton and oakum.
A caulking mallet, tar pot and a piece of petrified tar found on board the 16th century carrack Mary Rose.

Traditional caulking (also spelled calking) on wooden vessels uses fibers of cotton and oakum (hemp fiber soaked in pine tar). These fibers are driven into the wedge-shaped seam between planks, with a caulking mallet and a broad chisel-like tool called a caulking iron. The caulking is then covered over with a putty, in the case of hull seams, or else in deck seams with melted pine pitch, in a process referred to as paying.

Modern marine sealants are frequently used now in place of the pitch, or even to supplant the oakum and cotton itself.

Iron or steel ship caulking

In riveted steel or iron ship construction, caulking was a process of rendering seams watertight by driving a thick, blunt chisel-like tool into the plating adjacent to the seam. This had the effect of displacing the metal into a close fit with the adjoining piece.[1] Originally done by hand much like wooden vessel caulking, pneumatic tools were later employed. With the advent of electric-arc welding for ship construction, steel ship caulking is truly a lost art.

Boiler use

The same technique described above for making riveted steel or iron ships watertight was also used to make riveted boilers watertight and steamtight.[2]

Building construction

Man applying caulk to baseboard
Silicone caulking extruded from a caulking gun
Silicone-based caulk on this upturned bathroom sink will spread smoothly, sealing the gap, when the sink is turned over and installed.

Caulk can refer either to the caulking substance or to the process of applying it. Caulking as a term has spread to the building trade, meaning the activity of closing up joints and gaps in buildings. The function of caulking is to provide thermal insulation, control water penetration and noise mitigation.

This is mostly done with ready-mixed construction chemicals sold as caulk such as silicone, polyurethane, polysulfide, sylil-terminated-polyether or polyurethane and acrylic sealant. Unlike construction caulk, which is applied where no building movement is expected, a sealant is made of elastomeric materials that typically allow movement of 25% to 50% of the width of the joint. Silicone sealants form a durable, water-tight seal, but are not typically paintable. Some silicone sealants are made to be paintable with certain types of paint such as water or oil-based paints. Other sealants are paintable.

One-component sealants are commonly sold in cartridges which are loaded into a pistol-like caulking gun (opening at the side) or barrel gun (opening at the end) for application. During the tool-working time, which varies by chemistry, the bead can be pressed into the joint so that it can bond with the materials on both sides, and also be smoothed. The time it takes for a chemical sealant to become a rubber is known as the curing time and varies by temperature and humidity. Issues of technique that may not be obvious to first-time users:

A backer rod can also be used to fill joints in sidewalks and masonry, before caulking. It is composed of a foam roll that is generally about ¼ inch to 1½ inch (6 to 37 mm) thick. The material is rolled into the joints to be sealed and then caulked over.

Energy efficiency

According to the Consumer Federation of America, sealing unwanted leaks around homes is an excellent way to cut home energy costs and decrease the household carbon footprint.

Also, sealing cracks and crevices around homes puts less strain on home appliances and can save time, money and hassle by preventing major repairs. Additionally, increasing the lifetime of homes and appliances also puts less waste and pollution into landfills.

References

  1. ^ U.S. Coast Guard: Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular Number 7-01: Procedures for hull inspection and repair on vessels built of riveted construction. Issued 2001-10-09.
  2. ^ Colvin, Fred H. (1906). The railroad pocket-book: a quick reference cyclopedia of railroad information. New York, Derry-Collard; London, Locomotive Publishing Company (US-UK co-edition). p. C‑9. http://books.google.com/?id=HhUx85xep4cC&pg=SL3-PA9#v=onepage&q=. 

External links