Caucasian race

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Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) divides Caucasian or "Caucasoid" types into: the Nordic, Dinaric, Mediterranean, Alpine, East Baltic, Turanid, Arabid, and Irano-Afghan.

Caucasian race (also Caucasoid)[1] is the general physical type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western, Central and South Asia.[2] The term was used in biological anthropology for many people from these regions, without regard necessarily to skin tone.[3]

Origin of the concept[edit]

The Georgian skull Blumenbach discovered in 1795, which he used to hypothesize origination of Europeans from the Caucasus.

The term "Caucasian race" was coined by the German philosopher Christoph Meiners in his The Outline of History of Mankind (1785).[4] In Meiners's unique racial classification, there were only two racial divisions (Rassen): Caucasians and Mongolians. These terms were used as a collective representation of individuals he personally regarded as either good looking or less attractive, based solely on facial appearance. For example, he considered Germans and Tatars more attractive, and thus Caucasian, while he found Jews and Native Americans less attractive, and thus Mongolian.[5]

The concept of a Caucasian race or Varietas Caucasia linked to "white race" was further developed around in the 1790s by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German professor of medicine.[6] Blumenbach named it after the Caucasian peoples (from the Southern Caucasus region), whom he considered the archetype for the grouping.[7] He based his classification of the Caucasian race primarily on craniology.[8] Blumenbach wrote:

Caucasian variety—I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, and especially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian; and because all physiological reasons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones (birth place) of mankind.[9][10]

Blumenbach used Meiners's Caucasian classification for similar reasons of personal (and cultural) aesthetic preference. He thought the Caucasian peoples (from the Southern Caucasus region) were, "...the most beautiful race of men."[11][12] Unlike Meiners, Blumenbach later justified his classification of the Caucasian race primarily on craniology, although his categorization of five human races was still delineated by colors (white, yellow, brown, black, red) in his writings, a change from Meiners's geographically based four human races.[8][13]

Relation to whiteness[edit]

In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin".[14] Europeans with darker skin he considered "dirty whites," admixed with Mongolian. Such views were typical of early scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races. This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey, who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans.[15]

In various editions of On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach expanded on Meiners's popular idea and defined five human races based on color, using popular racial terms of his day, justified with scientific terminology, cranial measurements, and facial features. He established caucasian as the "white race," as well as Mongoloid as the "yellow race," Malayan/"brown race," Ethiopian/"black race," American/"red race."[16] In the 3rd edition of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach moved skin tone to second tier importance after noticing that poorer European people (such as peasants) whom he observed generally worked outside, often became darker skinned ("browner") through sun exposure.[17] He also noticed that darker skin of an "olive-tinge" was a natural feature of some European populations closer to the Mediterranean Sea.[18] Alongside the anthropologist Georges Cuvier, Blumenbach classified the Caucasian race by cranial measurements and bone morphology in addition to skin pigmentation, and thus considered more than just the palest Europeans ("white, cheeks rosy") as archetypes for the Caucasian race.[19]

There was never any scholarly consensus on the delineation between the Caucasian race, including the populations of Europe, and the Mongoloid one, including the populations of East Asia. Thus, Carleton S. Coon (1939) and Franco Bragagna (2013) included the populations native to all of Central and Northern Asia under the Caucasian label. However, the many scientists maintained racial categorizations of color established by Meiners's and Blumenbach's works, along with many other early steps of anthropology, well into the late 19th and mid-to-late 20th centuries, increasingly used to justify political policies, such as segregation and immigration restrictions, and other opinions based in prejudice. Such as Thomas Henry Huxley (1870) who classified all populations of Asian nations as Mongoloid, and Lothrop Stoddard (1920) who classified the populations of the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa, as well as those of Central Asia and South Asia, as "brown", and counted as "white" only the European peoples.

Physical anthropology[edit]

Drawing from Petrus Camper's theory of facial angle, Blumenbach and Cuvier classified races, through their skull collections based on their cranial features and anthropometric measurements. Caucasian traits were recognised as: thin nasal aperture ("nose narrow"), a small mouth, facial angle of 100°–90°, and orthognathism, exemplified by what Blumenbach saw in most ancient Greek crania and statues.[20][21] Later anthropologists of the 19th and early 20th century such as Pritchard, Pickering, Broca, Topinard, Morton, Peschel, Seligman, Bean, Ripley, Haddon and Dixon came to recognise other Caucasian morphological features, such as prominent supraorbital ridges and a sharp nasal sill.[22] Some anthropologists in the latter half of the 20th century, used the term "Caucasoid" in their literature, such as Boyd, Gates, Coon, Cole, Brues and Krantz replacing the earlier term "Caucasian" as it had fallen out of usage.[23]

The physical traits of Caucasoid crania are still recognised as distinct (in contrast to Mongoloid and Negroid races) within modern forensic anthropology. A Caucasoid skull is identified, with an accuracy of up to 95%, by the following features:[24][25][26][27][28]

Other physical characteristics of Caucasoids include hair texture that varies from straight to curly,[3] with wavy (cymotrichous) hair most typical on average according to Coon (1962), in contrast to the Negroid and Mongoloid races. Individual hairs are also rarely as sparsely distributed and coarse as found in Mongoloids.[3]

Skin color amongst Caucasoids ranges greatly from pale, reddish-white, olive, through to dark brown tones.[3]

Classification[edit]

Conceived as one of the great races, alongside Mongoloid and Negroid, it was taken to consist of a number of "subraces". The Caucasoid peoples were usually divided in three groups on linguistic grounds, termed Aryan (Indo-European), Semitic (Semitic languages), and Hamitic (Berber-Cushitic-Egyptian).

The postulated subraces vary depending on the author, including but not limited to Basic Mediterranean, Atlanto-Mediterranean, Irano-Afghan Mediterranean, Nordic, Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid and Hamitic.[29]

19th century classifications of the peoples of India considered the Dravidians of non-Caucasoid stock as Australoid or a separate Dravida race, and assumed a gradient of miscegenation of high-caste Caucasoid Aryans and indigenous Dravidians. In his 1939 The Races of Europe, Carleton S. Coon thus described the Veddoid race as "possess[ing] an obvious relationship with the aborigines of Australia, and possibly a less patent one with the Negritos" and as "the most important element in the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India".[30] In his later The Living Races of Man (1965), Coon considerably amended his views, acknowledging that "India is the easternmost outpost of the Caucasoid racial region". However, he still recognized an Australoid substrate throughout the subcontinent, writing that "the earliest peoples who have left recognizable survivors were both Caucasoid and Australoid food gatherers. Some of the survivors are largely Caucasoid; others are largely Australoid."[31]

There was no universal consensus of the validity of the "Caucasian" grouping within those who attempted to categorize human variation. Thomas Henry Huxley in 1870 wrote that the "absurd denomination of 'Caucasian'" was in fact a conflation of his Xanthochroi and Melanochroi types.[32]

In 1920, H. G. Wells referred to the Mediterranean race as the Iberian race. He regarded it as a fourth sub-race of the Caucasian race, along with the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic sub-races. He stated that the main ethnic group that most purely represented the racial stock of the Iberian race was the Basques, and that the Basques were the descendants of the Cro-Magnons.[33]

Over the European and Mediterranean area and western Asia there are, and have been for many thousand years, white peoples usually called the Caucasians, subdivided into two or three subdivisions, the northern blonds or Nordic race, an alleged intermediate race about which many authorities are doubtful, the so-called Alpine race and the southern dark whites, the Mediterranean or Iberian race.[34]

Origin[edit]

Anthropologists generally consider the Cro-Magnons the earliest or "proto" representatives of the Caucasoid race, who emerged during the Upper Paleolithic. In a study of Cro-Magnon crania, Jantz and Owsley (2003) have noted that: "Upper Paleolithic crania are, for the most part, larger and more generalized versions of recent Europeans."[35]

William Howells (1997) has pointed out that Cro-Magnons were Caucasoid based on their cranial traits:

"... the Cro-Magnons were already racially European, i.e., Caucasoid. This has always been accepted because of the general appearance of the skulls: straight faces, narrow noses, and so forth. It is also possible to test this arithmetically. ... Except for Predmosti 4, which is distant from every present and past population, all of these skulls show themselves to be closer to "Europeans" than to other peoples — Mladec and Abri Pataud comfortably so, the other two much more remotely."[36]

Proponents of the multiregional origin of modern humans argue that Caucasoid traits emerged prior to the Cro-Magnon, and are present in the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids or Neanderthals. Carleton Coon (1962), for example, considered the Skhul IV specimen as a proto-Caucasoid.[37] He further argued that the Caucasoid race is of dual origin, consisting of Upper Paleolithic types (mixture of Homo sapiens and neanderthalensis) and Mediterranean types (purely Homo sapiens).

Medical sciences[edit]

In the medical sciences, where response to pharmaceuticals and other treatment can vary dramatically based on ethnicity,[38][39] there is great debate as to whether racial categorizations as broad as Caucasian are medically valid.[40][41] Several journals (e.g., Nature Genetics, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, and the British Medical Journal) have issued guidelines stating that researchers should carefully define their populations, and avoid broad-based social constructions—because these categories would more likely measure differences in socioeconomic class and access to medical treatment that disproportionately affect minority groups, rather than racial differences.[42] Nevertheless, there are journals (e.g. the Journal of Gastroentorology and Hepatology and Kidney International) that continue to use racial categories such as Caucasian.[38][43]

Usage in the United States[edit]

In the United States, the term Caucasoid is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, and modern usage is generally associated with racial notions and therefore discouraged, as it is potentially offensive. The term "Caucasoid" is still used in certain disciplines such as anthropology, craniometry, epidemiology, forensic medicine and forensic archaeology.

In the United States, the term Caucasian has been mainly used to describe a group commonly called Whites, as defined by the government and Census Bureau.[44] Between 1917 and 1965, immigration to the United States was restricted by a national origins quota. The Supreme Court in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923) decided that Asian Indians were ineligible for citizenship because, though deemed "Caucasian" anthropologically, they were not white like European descendants since most laypeople did not consider them white people. This represented a change from the court's earlier decision Ozawa v. United States, wherein it had declared skin colour irrelevant in determining whether or not a person could be classified as "white" and instead emphasized ancestry. In 1946, the U.S. Congress passed a new law establishing a small immigration quota for Indians, which also permitted them to become citizens. Major changes to immigration law, however, only later came in 1965, when many earlier racial restrictions on immigration were lifted.[45] This is where the confusion on whether American Hispanics be included as "white" comes from, as some American Hispanics have a visibly white appearance while others do not. In other countries, the term hispanic is not nearly as associated with race, but with the Spanish language, and cultural affiliation.

The United States National Library of Medicine often used the term "Caucasian" as a race in the past. However, it later discontinued such usage in favor of the more narrow geographical term "European", which traditionally only applied to a subset of Caucasoids.[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a contrast with the "Mongolic" or Mongoloid race, see footnote #4 of page 58–59 in Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
  2. ^ Coon, Carleton Stevens (1939). The Races of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 400–401. "This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India[...] The Mediterranean racial zone stretches unbroken from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence eastward to India[...] A branch of it extends far southward on both sides of the Red Sea into southern Arabia, the Ethiopian highlands, and the Horn of Africa." 
  3. ^ a b c d Grolier Incorporated, Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 6, (Grolier Incorporated, 2001), p.85
  4. ^ "The invention of racism in classical antiquity", Benjamin H. Isaac, Princeton University Press, 2004, p. 105.
  5. ^ Painter, Nell Irvin. Yale University. "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" September 27, 2007. [1]
  6. ^ University of Pennsylvania Blumenbach
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "a name given by Blumenbach (a1800) to the 'white' race of mankind, which he derived from the region of the Caucasus."
  8. ^ a b Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, translated by Thomas Bendyshe. 1865. November 2, 2006.
  9. ^ Blumenbach, De generis humani varietate nativa (3rd ed. 1795), trans. Bendyshe (1865). Quoted e.g. in Arthur Keith, Blumenbach's Centenary, Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1940).
  10. ^ 18th and 19th Century Views of Human Variation
  11. ^ 'Caucasian variety—I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, and especially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian, because all physiological reasons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones (birth place) of mankind' – Blumenbach , De generis humani varietate nativa (3rd ed. 1795), trans. Bendyshe (1865). Quoted e.g. in Arthur Keith, Blumenbach's Centenary, Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1940).
  12. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "a name given by Blumenbach (a1800) to the 'white' race of mankind, which he derived from the region of the Caucasus."
  13. ^ The Anatomy of Difference: Race and Sex in Eighteenth-Century Science, Londa Schiebinger, Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4, Special Issue: The Politics of Difference, Summer, 1990, pp. 387–405.
  14. ^ "Gender and Germanness: cultural productions of nation", Magda Mueller, Patricia Herminghouse, 1998, p. 28.
  15. ^ Baum, Bruce David. "The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity". New York University: 2006.
  16. ^ http://www.understandingrace.org/history/science/early_class.html
  17. ^ On the Natural Variety of Mankind, 3rd ed. (1795) in Bendyshe: 227, 214.
  18. ^ On the Natural Variety of Mankind, 3rd ed. (1795) in Bendyshe: 209, 210.
  19. ^ On the Natural Variety of Mankind, 3rd ed. (1795) in Bendyshe: 264–265; "racial face," 229.
  20. ^ "Miriam Claude Meijer, Race and Aesthetics in the Anthropology of Petrus Camper", 1722–1789, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999, pp. 169–174.
  21. ^ Bertoletti, Stefano Fabbri. 1994. The anthropological theory of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. In Romanticism in science, science in Europe, 1790–1840.
  22. ^ See individual literature for such Caucasoid identifications, while the following article gives a brief overview: How "Caucasoids" Got Such Big Crania and Why They Shrank: From Morton to Rushton, Leonard Lieberman, Current Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 1, February 2001, pp. 69–95.
  23. ^ "People and races", Alice Mossie Brues, Waveland Press, 1990, notes how the term Caucasoid replaced Caucasian.
  24. ^ Bass, William M. 1995. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society, Inc.
  25. ^ Eckert, William G. 1997. Introduction to Forensic Science. United States of America: CRC Press, Inc.
  26. ^ Gill, George W. 1998. "Craniofacial Criteria in the Skeletal Attribution of Race. " In Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains. (2nd edition) Reichs, Kathleen l(ed.), pp. 293–315.
  27. ^ Krogman, Wilton Marion and Mehmet Yascar Iscan 1986. The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Springfield: Charles C.Thomas.
  28. ^ Racial Identification in the Skull and Teeth, Totem: The University of Western, Ontario Journal of Anthropology, Volume 8, Issue 1 2000 Article 4.
  29. ^ Grolier Incorporated (2001). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 6. Grolier Incorporated. p. 85. ISBN 0-7172-0134-1. 
  30. ^ The Veddoid periphery, Hadhramaut to Baluchistan
  31. ^ Cartelon Coon, The Living Races of Man, Knopf, 1969, p.207
  32. ^ T. H. Huxley, On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1870).
  33. ^ Wells, H. G. The Outline of History New York:1920 Doubleday & Co. Volume I Chapter XI "The Races of Mankind" Pages 131–144 See Pages 98, 137, and 139
  34. ^ The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind by H. G. Wells, Eighth Revision, printed in November 1934, Chapter 11, § 2, p.134.
  35. ^ Reply to Jantz, R. L.; Owsley, D. W. (2003). "Reply to Van Vark et al.: Is European Upper Paleolithic cranial morphology a useful analogy for early Americans?". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (2): 185. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10188.  edit
  36. ^ "Getting Here: The Story of Human Evolution", 1997, Compass Press, p. 188.
  37. ^ The Origin of Races. Random House Inc, 1962, p. 570.
  38. ^ a b York P C Pei, Celia M T Greenwood, Anne L Chery and George G Wu, "Racial differences in survival of patients on dialysis", Nature
  39. ^ "Study Shows Drug Resistance Varies by Race", Kate Wong, Scientific American
  40. ^ Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease, Neil Risch, Esteban Burchard, Elad Ziv, and Hua Tang
  41. ^ Genetic variation, classification and 'race', Lynn B Jorde & Stephen P Wooding
  42. ^ The Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group of the National Human Genome Research Institute (2005). "The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research". American Journal of Human Genetics 77 (4): 519–532. doi:10.1086/491747. PMC 1275602. PMID 16175499. 
  43. ^ "Ethnic and cultural determinants influence risk assessment for hepatitis C acquisition", Anouk Dev, Vijaya Sundararajan, William Sievert
  44. ^ Painter, p.[page needed]
  45. ^ "Not All Caucasians Are White: The Supreme Court Rejects Citizenship for Asian Indians", History Matters
  46. ^ "Other Notable MeSH Changes and Related Impact on Searching: Ethnic Groups and Geographic Origins". NLM Technical Bulletin 335 (Nov–Dec). 2003. "The MeSH term Racial Stocks and its four children (Australoid Race, Caucasoid Race, Mongoloid Race, and Negroid Race) have been deleted from MeSH in 2004. A new heading, Continental Population Groups, has been created with new identification that emphasize geography." 

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