Cattleya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Cattleya
Cattleya labiata (Type species)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily:Epidendroideae
Tribe:Epidendreae
Subtribe:Laeliinae
Alliance:Cattleya
Genus:Cattleya
Lindl.
Species

See text.

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Cattleya
Cattleya labiata (Type species)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily:Epidendroideae
Tribe:Epidendreae
Subtribe:Laeliinae
Alliance:Cattleya
Genus:Cattleya
Lindl.
Species

See text.

Cattleya /ˈkætlə/[1] is a genus of 113 species of orchids from Costa Rica to tropical South America. The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after Sir William Cattley[2] who received and was the first to bloom a specimen of Cattleya labiata. William Swainson had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817 and shipped to the Glasgow Botanic Gardens for identification. Swainson requested that a few plants be later sent to Cattley, who was able to bloom one a full year before the plants in Glasgow. It would be another 70 years before they would be rediscovered in the wild because of a mixup in the assumed location of the plants. The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals.

They are widely known for their large, showy flowers, and were used extensively in hybridization for the cut-flower trade until the 1980s when pot plants became more popular. This genus and the numerous hybrids come close, through their beauty, to the idealized picture we[who?] have of the orchids[citation needed]. The flowers of the hybrids can vary in size from 5 cm to 15 cm or more. They occur in all colors except true blue and black.

The typical flower has three rather narrow sepals and three usually broader petals: two petals are similar to each other, and the third is the quite different conspicuous lip, featuring various markings and specks and an often frilly margin. At the base, the margins are folded into a tube. Each flower stalk originates from a pseudobulb. The number of flowers varies; it can be just one or two, or sometimes up to ten.

Species[edit]

Originally, the concept Cattleya included a requirement that the pollinarium contain only four pollinia. Starting some time after December, 2000, the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) began re-organizing the generic boundaries with respect to hybrid registration. This has led to multiple senses of the term Cattleya, not only with respect to species, but also with respect to hybrids.

Cattleya elongata

Sensu MCMXCIX[edit]

Sensu MMX[edit]

In 2009, the genus Sophronitis was merged into Cattleya,[5] adding the following species (some of which belong to the genus Sophronitis sensu MCMXCIX, and many of which belong to the genus Laelia sensu MCMXCIX:

Cattleya (Sophronitis) coccinea
Cattleya (Laelia) purpurata
Cattleya (Laelia) sincorana

Natural Hybrids[edit]

Hybrids[edit]

Cattleya cultivar

Cattleyas have been hybridized both within the genus and with related genera for more than a century, but the last several decades have seen a remarkable increase in both the quantity and quality of the hybrids within the Cattleya alliance. Among the most popular are the Brassolaeliocattleya (Blc.) and Sophrolaeliocattleya (Slc.) hybrids. The vast majority of the Blc. hybrids have recently been moved into the new nothogenus Rhyncholaeliocattleya (Rlc.); the Slc. mostly into Cattleya, with a few in Laleliocattleya (Lc.)

Laelia (L.): Breeding with this genus refines the lip of the orchid, producing a more elongated closed "cone" that gracefully opens into the full lip of the blossom. Some species of Laelia also contribute an intense violet shade. Laelia + Cattleya = Laeliocattleya, the basis for many more complex and highly popular hybrids. Most species of Laelia (the "Brasilian Laelias") were merged into Cattleya[5] in the first decade of the third millennium, after a brief sojourn in Sophronitis.

Brassavola (B.): Most crosses with Brassavola are actually done with the Ryncholaelia digbyana, which was moved out of the Brassavola genus but was still considered such in naming the hybrid for many years. This cross is made in order to effect the fabulous "fringed", "feathered" or "ruffled" lip of the bloom; it also expands the lip of the blossom and the most imposing cattleya hybrids almost always have this species in their ancestry. These are usually the largest of the major cattleya hybrids. Brassavola + Cattleya = Brassocattleya, Brassavola + Laelia + Cattleya = Brassolaeliocattleya. Most, but not all, of these hybrids are now placed in Rhyncholaeliocattleya.

Sophronitis (Soph.): A tiny, flame-colored orchid that introduces the most intense red color to its descendants. Many crimson and scarlet cattleya hybrids betray sophronitis in their ancestry. Sophronitis is also used to miniaturize cattleya hybrids. Sophronitis + Laelia + Cattleya = Sophrolaeliocattleya. Sophronitis was recently merged into Cattleya, after being expanded to include most of the Laelia species.[5]

Potinara (Pot.): The combination of all three of the above with a Cattleya. Potinaras are not as popular as Blc's or Slc's, but there are some incredible examples coming in all ranges of colors from light green to magenta. Although it is not a rule, they are generally smaller than Blc's but larger than Slc's. The recent merging of Sophronitis into Cattleya[5] extinguished the nothogenus Potinara; most former Potinaras are now in the nothogenus Rhyncholaeliocattleya (Rlc.)

Yamadara (Yam.): The cross of the Blc combination with an [Epidendrum]. The addition of Epidendrum appears to increase flower yield, and some Yamadaras are intensely colored. With the recent discovery that the first Yamadara was registered as Adamara, the nothogeneric epithet Yamadara has been extinguished and replaced with Adamara.

Hawkinsara (Hknsa.): The Slc combination crossed with Broughtonia. Smaller, often magenta/reddish flowers. Many of these are now classified in the nothogenus Cattleytonia (Ctna.)

Cattleyas can be crossed with a large number of other allied genera, including Cattleyopsis, Caularthron, Schomburgkia, Tetramicra, etc. Hybridization can go all the way up to eight parent genera, such as Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Cattleyopsis x Caularthron x Epidendrum x Laelia x Sophronitis in Gladysyeeara.

Marcel Proust[edit]

The phrase "to do a cattleya" is used as a playful euphemism for amorous fondling by the characters Odette and Swann in Marcel Proust's Remembrance of Things Past.[7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Schmidt-Ostrander, Ingrid. "William Cattley (1788–1835)". The Canadian Orchid Congress. Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  3. ^ page 250 of L. P. Felix and M. Guerra: "Variation in chromosome number and the basic number of subfamily Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae)" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163(2010)234—278. The Linnean Society of London. Downloaded October 2010 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01059.x/abstract
  4. ^ page 251 of L. P. Felix and M. Guerra: "Variation in chromosome number and the basic number of subfamily Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae)" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163(2010)234—278. The Linnean Society of London. Downloaded October 2010 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01059.x/abstract
  5. ^ a b c d Ron McHatten (2009). "Forthcoming Name Changes". American orchid Society. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  6. ^ Carl Leslie Withner, The Cattleyas and Their Relatives: Schomburgkia, Sophronitis, and Other South American Genera, Timber Press, 1990. p.67
  7. ^ Beautiful Plants – Proust's Cattleya Orchid
  8. ^ Chadwick, A.A. and Arthur E. (2006). The Classic Cattleyas. Portland OR: Timber Press. pp. 25–41. ISBN 978-0-88192-764-1. 

External links[edit]