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The Catholic Church describes as its hierarchy its bishops, priests and deacons. In the ecclesiastical sense of the term, "hierarchy" commonly means the body of persons who exercise authority within a Christian church. In the Catholic Church, authority rests chiefly with the bishops, while priests and deacons serve as their assistants, co-workers or helpers. Accordingly, "hierarchy of the Catholic Church" is also used to refer to bishops alone.
The Catholic Church comprised, as of 31 December 2011, 2,834 dioceses, each overseen by a bishop. Dioceses are divided into individual communities called parishes, each staffed by one or more priests. Priests may be assisted by deacons. All clergy, including deacons, priests, and bishops, may preach, teach, baptize, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies. Only priests and bishops can celebrate the sacraments of the Eucharist (though others may be ministers of Holy Communion), Reconciliation (Penance), Confirmation (priests may administer this sacrament with prior ecclesiastical approval), and Anointing of the Sick. Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which ordains someone into the clergy.
The bishops, who possess the fullness of the priesthood, are as a body (the College of Bishops) considered the successors of the Apostles and are "constituted Pastors in the Church, to be the teachers of doctrine, the priests of sacred worship and the ministers of governance" and "represent the Church." The Pope himself is a bishop (the bishop of Rome) and traditionally uses the title "Venerable Brother" when writing formally to another bishop.
The typical role of a bishop is to provide pastoral governance for a diocese. Bishops who fulfill this function are known as diocesan ordinaries, because they have what canon law calls ordinary (i.e. not delegated) authority for a diocese. These bishops may be known as hierarchs in the Eastern Catholic Churches. Other bishops may be appointed to assist ordinaries (auxiliary bishops and coadjutor bishops) or to carry out a function in a broader field of service to the Church, such as appointments as papal nuncios or as officials in the Roman Curia.
Bishops of a country or region may form an episcopal conference and meet periodically to discuss current problems. Decisions in certain fields, notably liturgy, fall within the exclusive competence of these conferences. The decisions of the conferences are binding on the individual bishops only if agreed to by at least two-thirds of the membership and confirmed by the Holy See.
Bishops are normally ordained to the episcopate by at least three other bishops, though for validity only one is needed and a mandatum from the Holy See is required. Ordination to the episcopate is considered the completion of the sacrament of Holy Orders; even when a bishop retires from his active service, he remains a bishop, since the ontological effect of Holy Orders is permanent. On the other hand, titles such as archbishop or patriarch imply no ontological alteration, and existing bishops who rise to those offices do not require further ordination.
Among bishops, various ranks are distinguished. The Pope, as the successor of Saint Peter, is the head of the universal Catholic Church and of the Latin Church. Some of the Eastern Catholic churches are headed by a patriarch, a major archbishop, or a metropolitan. Within the Latin Church too, dioceses are normally grouped together as ecclesiastical provinces, in which the bishop of a particular see has the title of metropolitan archbishop, with some very limited authority for the other dioceses, which are known as suffragan sees.
What most obviously distinguishes the Catholic Church from other Christian bodies is the link between its members and the Pope. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, quoting the Second Vatican Council’s document Lumen Gentium, states: "The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter’s successor, ‘is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful.’"
The Pope is referred to as the Vicar of Christ and the Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church. He may sometimes also use the less formal title of "Servant of the Servants of God". Applying to him the term "absolute" would, however, give a false impression: he is not free to issue decrees at whim. Instead, his charge forces on him awareness that he, even more than other bishops, is "tied", bound, by an obligation of strictest fidelity to the teaching transmitted down the centuries in increasingly developed form within the Church (though he himself is the final arbiter of what constitutes fidelity to those teachings).
In Catholic theology, the bishop who is the successor of Saint Peter in the episcopal see of Rome is viewed as the head of the College of Bishops, as Saint Peter was the chief of the Apostles; and communion with him is considered essential for the existence of the College of Bishops. He has direct authority, not an authority mediated through other bishops, over the whole Church.
The title of Pope (derived from a word, known in Greek as far back as Homer’s Odyssey 6:57, for "Father") is the most common title for the Bishop of Rome, and, in the traditional Latin abbreviation PP (sometimes lower-case), has been used in his official signature, e.g., "Benedictus PP XVI". The honorary title prefixed to his name is "His Holiness".
Papal primacy, which is referred to also as the Petrine authority or function, involves papal infallibility, but only "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church".
The Catechism of the Catholic Church says: "The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful—who confirms his brethren in the faith—he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals... The infallibility promised to the Church is also present in the body of bishops when, together with Peter’s successor, they exercise the supreme Magisterium, above all in an Ecumenical Council." These are two ways in which the pastors of the Church exercise the charism of infallibility with which Catholics believe Christ has endowed them for the purpose of guarding from deviation and decay the authentic faith of the definitive covenant that God has established in Christ with his people.
The Pope resides in Vatican City, an independent state within the city of Rome, set up by the 1929 Lateran Pacts between the Holy See and Italy. Ambassadors are accredited not to Vatican City State but to the Holy See, which was a subject of international law even before the state was instituted. The body of officials that assist the Pope in governance of the Church as a whole is known as the Roman curia. The term "Holy See" (i.e. of Rome) is generally used only of Pope and curia, because the Code of Canon Law, which concerns governance of the Latin Church as a whole and not internal affairs of the see (diocese) of Rome itself, necessarily uses the term in this technical sense.
The present rules governing the election of a pope are found in the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis. This deals with the powers, from the death of a pope to the announcement of his successor’s election, of the cardinals and the departments of the Roman curia; with the funeral arrangements for the dead pope; and with the place, time and manner of voting of the meeting of the cardinal electors, a meeting known as a conclave. This word is derived from Latin com- (together) and clavis (key) and refers to the locking away of the participants from outside influences, a measure that was introduced first as a means instead of forcing them to reach a decision.
The heads of some autonomous (in Latin, sui iuris) particular Churches consisting of several local Churches (dioceses) have the title of Patriarch. The Pope himself was also called the Patriarch of the West, a title no longer in use, to indicate his relationship with the Latin Church. Eastern patriarchs are elected by the synod of bishops of their particular Church.
The Patriarchs who head autonomous particular Churches are:
These have authority not only over the bishops of their particular Church, including metropolitans, but also directly over all the faithful. Eastern Catholic patriarchs have precedence over all other bishops, with the exceptions laid down by the Pope. The honorary title prefixed to their names is "His Beatitude".
There are also additional patriarchs in the Latin Rite Church. They include the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Patriarch of Venice, the Patriarch of Lisbon, and the Patriarch of the East Indies. All of these offices are honorary, and the patriarchs are not the heads of autonomous particular Churches. The Patriarch of the East Indies is the archbishop of Goa, while the other patriarchs are the archbishops of the named cities. The title of Patriarch of the West Indies was in the past granted to some Spanish bishops (not always of the same see), but is long in abeyance.
|Patriarch of the West||Latin||Rome||abandoned in 2006|
|Other Latin Rite Patriarchs||Latin||Aquileia||suppressed in 1751|
|Latin||Grado||transferred to Venice in 1451|
|Latin||Jerusalem||Patriarch Fouad Twal|
|Latin||Lisbon||Cardinal Manuel Clemente|
|Latin||Venice||Patriarch Francesco Moraglia|
|Titular Latin Rite Patriarchs||Latin||Alexandria||suppressed in 1964|
|Latin||Antioch||suppressed in 1964|
|Latin||Constantinople||suppressed in 1964|
|Latin||East Indies||Patriarch Filipe Neri Ferrão|
|Latin||West Indies||vacant from 1963|
|Eastern Rite Patriarchs||Coptic||Alexandria||Patriarch Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak|
|Greek-Melkite||Antioch||Patriarch Gregory III Laham|
|Maronite||Antioch||Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi|
|Syrian||Antioch||Patriarch Ignatius Joseph III Younan|
|Armenian||Cilicia||Patriarch Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni|
|Chaldean||Babylon||Patriarch Louis Raphaël I Sako|
Other autonomous particular Churches are headed by a major archbishop. The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church uses the title Catholicos for their major archbishop. With few exceptions, the authority of a major archbishop in his sui iuris Church is equivalent to that of a patriarch in his Church. This less prestigious office was established in 1963 for those Eastern Catholic Churches which have developed in size and stability to allow full self-governance if historical, ecumenical, or political conditions do not allow their elevation to a patriarchate.
At present, there are four major archbishops:
|Ernakulam-Angamaly||India||Syro-Malabar||Cardinal George Alencherry|
|Făgăraş and Alba Iulia||Romania||Romanian||Cardinal Lucian Mureșan|
|Kiev–Galicia||Ukraine||Ukrainian||Major Archbishop Sviatoslav Shevchuk|
|Trivandrum||India||Syro-Malankara||Cardinal Baselios Cleemis|
Cardinals are princes of the Church appointed by the Pope. He generally chooses bishops who head departments of the Roman Curia or important episcopal sees throughout the world. As a whole, the cardinals comprise the College of Cardinals which advises the Pope, and those cardinals under the age of 80 at the death or resignation of a Pope elect his successor. Their heraldic logo is symbolized by the red galero and tassels as a form of martyred position in the Church.
Not all cardinals are bishops. Domenico Bartolucci, Karl Josef Becker, Roberto Tucci and Albert Vanhoye are examples of 21st-century non-bishop cardinals. The 1917 Code of Canon Law introduced the requirement that a cardinal must be at least a priest. Previously, they need only be in minor orders and not even deacons. Teodolfo Mertel, who died in 1899, was the last non-priest cardinal. In 1962, Pope John XXIII made it a rule that a man who has been nominated a cardinal is required to be consecrated a bishop, if not one already, but some ask for and obtain dispensation from this requirement.
The 1917 Code of Canon Law, continuing the tradition observed, for instance, at the First Vatican Council, laid down that cardinals have precedence over all other prelates, even patriarchs. The 1983 Code of Canon Law did not deal with questions of precedence.
The cardinalate is not an integral part of the theological structure of the Catholic Church, but largely an honorific distinction that has its origins in the 1059 assignation of the right of electing the Pope exclusively to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian dioceses. Because of their resulting importance, the term cardinal (from Latin cardo, meaning "hinge") was applied to them. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began. Each cardinal is still assigned a church in Rome as his "titular church" or is linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses. Of these sees, the Dean of the College of Cardinals holds that of Ostia, while keeping his preceding link with one of the other six sees. Traditionally, only six cardinals held the rank of Cardinal Bishop, but when Eastern patriarchs are made cardinals, they too hold the rank of Cardinal Bishop, without being assigned a suburbicarian see. The other cardinals have the rank either of Cardinal Priest or Cardinal Deacon, the former rank being normally assigned to bishops in charge of dioceses, and the latter to officials of the Curia and to priests raised to the cardinalate.
The Latin-Rite title of primate has in some countries been granted to the bishop of a particular (usually metropolitan) see. It once involved authority over all the other sees in the country or region, but now only gives a "prerogative of honor" with no power of governance unless an exception is made in certain matters by a privilege granted by the Holy See or by an approved custom. The title is usually assigned to the ordinary of the first diocese or the oldest archdiocese in the country. Thus in Poland, the primate is the archbishop of the oldest archdiocese (Gniezno, founded in 1000), and not the oldest diocese (Poznań, founded in 968).
The closest equivalent position in Eastern Orthodoxy is an exarch holding authority over other bishops without being a patriarch. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, exarchs, whether apostolic or patriarchal, do not hold authority over other bishops (see below, #Equivalents of diocesan bishops in law).
A Latin-Rite Metropolitan is the bishop of the principal (the "metropolitan") see of an ecclesiastical province composed of several dioceses. The metropolitan receives a pallium from the pope as a symbol of his office. The metropolitan bishop has limited oversight authority over the suffragan dioceses in their province, including ensuring that the faith and ecclesiastical discipline are properly observed. He also has the power to name a diocesan administrator for a vacant suffragan see if the diocesan council of consultors fails to properly elect one. His diocesan tribunal additionally serves by default as the ecclesiastical court of appeal for suffragans (court of second instance), and the metropolitan has the option of judging those appeals personally.
Eastern-rite metropolitans in patriarchal or major archiepiscopal churches have a level of authority similar to that of Latin-rite metropolitans, subject to the specific laws and customs of their sui iuris church. Eastern-rite metropolitans who head a metropolitan sui iuris church have much greater authority within their church, although it is less than that of a major archbishop or patriarch.
The title of archbishop is held not only by bishops who head metropolitan sees, but also by those who head archdioceses that are not metropolitan sees (most of these are in Europe and the Levant). In addition, it is held by certain other bishops, referred to as "Titular Archbishops" (see "Other Bishops" below) who have been given no longer extant archdioceses as their titular sees—many of these serve in administrative or diplomatic posts, for instance as papal nuncios or secretaries of curial congregations. The bishop of a non-archiepiscopal see may be given the personal title of archbishop without also elevating his see (such a bishop is known as an archbishop ad personam), though this practice has seen significantly reduced usage since the Second Vatican Council.
The bishop or eparch of a see, even if he does not also hold a title such as Archbishop, Metropolitan, Major Archbishop, Patriarch or Pope, is the centre of unity for his diocese or eparchy, and, as a member of the College of Bishops, shares in responsibility for governance of the whole Church (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 886). As each local particular Church is an embodiment of the whole Catholic Church, not just an administrative subdivision of something larger, the bishop who is its head is not a delegate of the Pope. Instead, he has of himself primary teaching, governance and sanctifying responsibility for the see for which he has been ordained bishop.
Within each diocese, even if the Eucharist is celebrated by another bishop, the necessary communion with the Bishop of the diocese is signified by the mention of his name. In Eastern-rite eparchies the name of the patriarch, major archbishop or metropolitan is also mentioned, because these also have direct responsibility within all the eparchies of the particular Church in question. For the same reason, every Catholic celebration of the Eucharist has a mention of the Pope by name.
Within the Catholic Church the following posts have similarities to that of a diocesan bishop, but are not necessarily held by a bishop.
Canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law lists five Latin-Rite jurisdictional areas that are considered equivalent to a diocese. These are headed by:
To these may be added:
Of somewhat similar standing is the Diocesan Administrator (formerly called a Vicar Capitular) elected to govern a diocese during a vacancy. Apart from certain limitations of nature and law, he has, on a caretaker basis, the same obligations and powers as a Diocesan Bishop (canons 427–429 of the Code of Canon Law). Occasionally an Apostolic Administrator is appointed by the Holy See to run a vacant diocese, or even a diocese whose bishop is incapacitated or otherwise impeded.
A Diocesan Bishop may have bishops who assist in his ministry. The Coadjutor Bishop of a see has the right of succession on the death or resignation of the Diocesan Bishop, and, if the see is an archdiocese, holds the title of Archbishop. Similarly, a retired Diocesan Bishop keeps his connection with the see to which he was appointed, and is known as Bishop (or Archbishop) Emeritus of that see. On the other hand, an Auxiliary Bishop, who may also hold posts such as vicar general or episcopal vicar, is appointed bishop of a titular see, a see that in the course of history has ceased to exist as an actual jurisdictional unit.
The titular sees—which may be archiepiscopal or simply episcopal—assigned to such bishops were once known as sees in partibus infidelium, because they were situated in areas lost to Christianity as a result of Muslim conquests. Now former sees even in Christian countries are assigned as titular sees. These sees are also assigned to bishops who serve in the Roman Curia, as Papal Nuncios, or as equivalents of Diocesan Bishops in law (see above), such as Vicars Apostolic and Apostolic Exarchs.
The term "Titular Bishop" is frequently used for such bishops, but is, strictly speaking, inaccurate, since they are indeed bishops, even if they do not serve the see to which they are appointed, and are not merely holders of an honorary title of bishop. They are members of the College of Bishops as much as the Diocesan Bishops.
In most English-speaking countries, the honorary title prefixed to the name of a bishop is "The Most Reverend". However, in the United Kingdom and in those countries most strongly influenced by English (not Irish) practice, "The Most Reverend" is reserved for archbishops, and other bishops are called "The Right Reverend".
Important titles or functions usually, but not necessarily, held by (arch)bishops who are not in charge of a diocese or an equivalent community include those of Apostolic Delegate, Apostolic Nuncio, Papal Legate, Patriarchal Vicar, Pontifical Delegate.
Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons. All priests and deacons are incardinated in a diocese or religious order. Parishes, whether territorial or person-based, within a diocese are normally in the charge of a priest, known as the parish priest or the pastor.
In the Latin Rite or particular Church, only celibate men, as a rule, are ordained as priests, while the Eastern Rites, again as a rule, ordain both celibate and married men. Among the Eastern particular Churches, the Ethiopic Catholic Church ordains only celibate clergy, while also having married priests who were ordained in the Orthodox Church, while other Eastern Catholic Churches, which do ordain married men, do not have married priests in certain countries. The Western or Latin Rite does sometimes, though rarely, ordain married men, usually Protestant clergy who have become Catholics. All Rites of the Catholic Church maintain the ancient tradition that, following ordination, marriage is not allowed. Even a married priest whose wife dies may not then marry again.
The Catholic Church and the ancient Christian Churches see priestly ordination as a sacrament dedicating the person ordained to a permanent relationship of service, and, like Baptism and Confirmation, having an ontological effect on the person. It is for this reason that a person may be ordained to each of the three orders only once. They also consider that ordination can be conferred only on males.
Although priests are incardinated into a diocese or order, they may obtain the permission of their diocesan ordinary or religious superior to serve outside the normal jurisdiction of the diocese or order. These assignments may be temporary or more permanent in nature.
Temporary assignments may include studying for an advanced degree at a Pontifical University in Rome. They may also include short-term assignments to the faculty of a seminary located outside the diocese's territory.
Long-term assignments include serving the universal church on the staff of a dicastery or tribunal of the Roman Curia or in the diplomatic corps of the Holy See. They may also be appointed the rector or to long-term teaching assignments to the faculty of a seminary or Catholic university. Priests may also serve on the staff of their episcopal conference, as military chaplains in the military ordinariates, or as missionaries.
The diocesan bishop appoints a vicar general to assist him in the governance of the diocese. Usually, only one vicar general is appointed; particularly large dioceses may have more than one vicar general. The vicar general or one of them is usually appointed moderator of the curia who coordinates the diocesan administrative offices and ministries A Diocesan Bishop can also appoint one or more episcopal vicars for the diocese. They have the same ordinary power as a vicar general, however, it is limited to a specified division of the diocese, to a specific type of activity, to the faithful of a particular rite, or to certain groups of people. Vicars General and Episcopal Vicars must be priests or bishops. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, they are called Protosyncelli and Syncelli (canon 191 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches).
Diocesan bishops are required to appoint a judicial vicar to whom is delegated the bishop's ordinary power to judge cases (canon 1420 of the Code of Canon Law, canon 191 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches). In the Latin church, the judicial vicar is also called officialis. The person holding this post must be a priest, have earned a doctorate in canon law (or at least a license), be at least thirty years old, and, unless the smallness of the diocese or the limited number of cases suggests otherwise, must not be the vicar general. As one of the jobs of the judicial vicar is to preside over collegiate tribunals, many dioceses have adjutant judicial vicars who can preside over collegiate tribunals in place of the judicial vicar and must have the same qualifications.
The diocesan bishop appoints a chancellor, possibly a vice-chancellor, and notaries to the diocesan chancery. These officials maintain the records and archives of the diocese. They also serve as the secretaries of the diocesan curia. The bishop also appoints a finance officer and a finance council to oversee the budget, temporal goods, income, and expenses of the diocese.
The diocesan bishop may appoint priests to be members of the chapter of his cathedral or of a collegiate church (so called after their chapter). These priests are given the title of canon. He also appoints six to twelve priests from the presbyteral council to serve as a college of consultors. They have the responsibility to elect the diocesan administrator in the event of the vacancy of the see.
The bishop appoints priests and other members of the faithful to various advisory bodies. These include the presbyteral council, the diocesan synod, and the pastoral council.
"The Vicar Forane known also as the Dean or the Archpriest or by some other title, is the priest who is placed in charge of a vicariate forane" (canon 553 of the Code of Canon Law), namely of a group of parishes within a diocese. Unlike a regional Episcopal Vicar, a Vicar Forane acts as a help for the Parish Priests and other priests in the vicariate forane, rather than as an intermediate authority between them and the Diocesan Bishop.
"The parish priest or pastor is the proper pastor of the parish entrusted to him. He exercises the pastoral care of the community entrusted to him under the authority of the Diocesan Bishop, whose ministry of Christ he is called to share, so that for this community he may carry out the offices of teaching, sanctifying and ruling with the cooperation of other priests or deacons and with the assistance of lay members of the Christian faithful, in accordance with the law" (canon 519 of the Code of Canon Law).
For lack of available priests, on rare occasions, administration of a parish may be entrusted for a period of time, to a priest who is not its Parish Priest or Pastor, or a permanent deacon, a religious, or even to a lay person. This is primarily for administrative purposes, though priests or deacons may administer those sacraments for which they have been granted faculties.
"Whenever it is necessary or opportune for the due pastoral care of the parish, one or more Assistant Priests can be joined with the Parish Priest. As cooperators with the Parish Priest and sharers in his concern, they are, by common counsel and effort with the Parish Priest and under his authority, to labour in the pastoral ministry" (canon 545 of the Code of Canon Law). In some English-speaking countries, Parochial Vicars are called Associate Pastors or Assistant Priests.
The honorary title of Monsignor may be conferred by the Pope upon a diocesan priest (not a member of a religious institute) at the request of the priest's bishop. The priest so honored is considered to be a member of the papal household. The title goes with any of the following three awards:
Under legislation of Pope Pius X, vicars general and vicars capitular (the latter are now called diocesan administrators) are titular (not actual) Protonotaries durante munere, i.e., as long as they hold those offices, and so are entitled to be addressed as Monsignor, as indicated also by the placing of the abbreviated title "Mons." before the name of every member of the secular (diocesan) clergy listed as a vicar general in the Annuario Pontificio. (Honorary titles such as that of "Monsignor" are not considered appropriate for religious.)
Some of the Eastern Catholic Churches of Syriac tradition use the title Chorbishop, roughly equivalent to the Western title of Monsignor. Other Eastern Catholic Churches bestow the honorific title of Archimandrite upon unmarried priests as a mark of respect or gratitude for their services. Married presbyters may be honored with the position of Archpriest, which permits the priest to wear a mitre.
Deacons are ordained ministers of the Church who are co-workers with the bishop alongside presbyters, but are intended to focus on the ministries of direct service and outreach to the poor and needy, rather than pastoral leadership. They are usually related to a parish, where they have a liturgical function as the ordinary minister of the Gospel and the Prayers of the Faithful, They may preach homilies, and in the Roman rite, may preside at non-Eucharistic liturgies such as baptisms, weddings, funerals, and adoration/benediction. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, in the absence of a priest, deacons do not vest and may only lead services as a reader, never presiding at weddings or funerals.
The scriptural basis and description of the role and qualifications of the deacon can be found in Acts 6:1-9, and in 1 Timothy 3:1-13.
They may be seminarians preparing for ordination to the priesthood, "transitional deacons"; or they may be "permanent deacons", not intending to be ordained as priests. To be ordained deacons, the latter must be at least 25 years old, if unmarried; if married, a prospective deacon must be at least 35 years old and have the consent of his wife. In the Latin rites, married deacons are permanent deacons. In most diocese there is a cut-off age for being accepted into formation for the deaconate.
The passage from membership of the laity to that of the clergy occurs with ordination to the diaconate. Previously, the Latin Church rule was that one became a cleric on receiving clerical tonsure, which was followed by minor orders and by the subdiaconate, which was reckoned as one of the major orders. By his motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, Pope Paul VI decreed: "The orders hitherto called minor are henceforth to be spoken of as 'ministries'." The same motu proprio also decreed that the Latin Church would no longer have the major order of subdiaconate, but it permitted any episcopal conference that so desired to apply the term "subdeacon" to those who hold the ministry (formerly called the minor order) of "acolyte". Even in those societies within the Latin Church that, with the approval of the Holy See, continue to administer the rites of tonsure, minor orders and subdiaconate, those who receive those rites remain lay people, becoming clerics only on being ordained as deacons.
Most of the people of God are the laity, those Christians whose primary vocation is to bring the gospel message to "all people in every age and every land". The origin of the term "laity" comes from the Greek laos Theou, meaning "people of God". While the role of the laity is primarily focused extrinsic to the structure of the church, they do have a responsibility to cooperate in the governance of the church through various means.
Lay ministry refers to all the work of the laity whose primary vocation is not in the ecclesial structure of the church but who may serve in a single ministry to build up the life of the church. This can include catechists, acolytes, lectors, initiation sponsors, pastoral care ministers, and members of parish and diocesean consultative bodies.
Some lay Catholics are called to ecclesial ministry, to carry out full-time professional and vocational service in the name of the Church, rather than in a secular calling. Though the phenomenon is widespread in North America and much of Europe, the organization and definition of the ministry is left to national bishops conferences. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has adopted the term lay ecclesial ministry for these individuals, as intentionally distinct from the general apostolate or ministry of the laity defined above.
The consultative leadership of the church, in both the diocese and the parish, usually comprises a Pastoral Council and a Finance Council, as well as several Commissions usually focusing on major aspects of the church's life and mission, such as Faith Formation or Christian Education, Liturgy, Social Justice, Ecumenism, or Stewardship.
Religious—who can be either lay people or clergy—are members of religious institutes, societies in which the members take public vows and live a fraternal life in common. This is a form of consecrated life distinct from other forms, such as that of secular institutes. It is distinct also from forms that do not involve membership of an institute, such as that of consecrated hermits, that of consecrated virgins, and other forms whose approval is reserved to the Holy See.