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Cat behavior refers to the behaviors and habits of domestic cats, including body language, elimination habits, aggression, play and communication. Cat behavior varies among breeds and individuals, and between colonies. Many common behaviors include hunting, grooming, urine marking, face rubbing and reactions to certain events, as well as interactions with humans and other animals, such as other cats, prey species and other household pets such as dogs. Communication can vary greatly depending on a cat's temperament. In a family with multiple cats, social position can also affect behavior patterns with others. A cat's eating patterns can also vary depending on many factors including the availability of food or eating times/quantities. In the case of a household having multiple cats, one or more individuals may become more aggressive.
Cats rely strongly on body language to communicate. A cat may rub against an object, lick a person, and purr. Cheek rubbing is thought to dispense a "contentment" pheremone which has been studied and made available as a commercial spray that may calm stressful cat situations. Purring can be seen in many situations, and may occur even when hurt. Kittens are able to purr shortly after they are born, and often purr while nursing. A cat's main use of body language is through its tail and ears. Cats will flick their tails in a slinky-like manner or abruptly from side to side, often just before pouncing on an object or animal in what looks like "play" hunting behavior. If spoken to, a cat may flutter its tail to acknowledge the interaction, though movement of its ears or heading toward the source of the sound may be a better indication of such acknowledgement.
These behaviors are thought to be a way of marking territory. Facial marking behavior is used to mark their territory as safe and secure and can be seen as a cat rubs on prominent objects in the preferred territory. Synthetic versions of the feline facial pheromone are available commercially.
Cats also have anal sacs or scent glands . Unlike intact male cats, female and neutered male cats usually do not spray. Spraying is accomplished by backing up against a vertical surface and spraying a jet of urine on that surface. The penis points away from the tail instead of forward like dogs. Males neutered in adulthood may still spray after neutering. Urinating on horizontal surfaces in the home, outside the litterbox may indicate dissatisfaction with the box, due to a variety of factors such as substrate texture, cleanliness and privacy. It can also be a sign of urinary tract problems. Male cats on poor diets are susceptible to crystal formation in the urine which can block the urethra and create a medical emergency.
A cat's posture communicates its emotions. It is best to observe cats' natural behavior when they are by themselves, with humans, and with other animals. Their postures can be friendly or aggressive, depending upon the situation. Some of the most basic and familiar cat postures include the following:
Kittens "knead" the breast while suckling, using the forelimbs one at a time in an alternating pattern to push against the mammary glands to stimulate lactation in the mother and may carry these infantile behaviors into adulthood. They alternately push out and pull in their front paws, often alternating between right and left limbs. Some cats actually appear to "nurse" or suck on clothing or bedding during kneading.
Since most of the preferred "domestic traits" are neotenous or juvenile traits that persist in the adult, kneading may be a relic juvenile behavior that's retained in adult domestic cats. It may also "stimulate" the cat and make it feel good, in the same manner as a human stretching. Kneading is often a precursor to sleeping. Many cats purr while kneading. They also purr mostly when newborn, when feeding, or when trying to feed on their mother's teat. The common association between the two behaviors may corroborate the evidence in favor of the origin of kneading as a remnant instinct.
The cat exerts firm downwards pressure with its paw, opening its toes to expose its claws, then closes its claws as it lifts its paw. The process takes place with alternate paws at intervals of one to two seconds. They may do this while sitting on their owner's lap, which may prove painful if the cat is large or strong or has sharp claws (as the claws tend to dig into one's lap). Though cats sit happily on a hard surface, they only knead a soft or pliant surface, although some cats reflexively "march" on hard surfaces instead of kneading them.
Unlike dogs, panting is a rare occurrence in cats. However, some cats can pant when stressed, such as during a car ride. Most commonly, cats pant in response to environmental changes, such as anxiety, fear, excitement, or heat. However, if panting is excessive or the cat appears in distress, it becomes important to identify the underlying cause, as panting may be a symptom of a more serious condition, such as a nasal blockage, heartworm disease, head trauma, or drug poisoning. If panting continues, the owner should consult a veterinarian. In many cases, feline panting, especially if accompanied by other symptoms, such as coughing or shallow breathing (dyspnea), is considered to be abnormal, and treated as a medical emergency.
The righting reflex is the ability of cats to land on their feet with little or no injury. They can do this more easily than other animals due to their flexible spine, floating collar bone, and loose skin. Cats also use vision and/or their vestibular apparatus to help tell which way to turn. They then can stretch themselves out and relax their muscles. Cats do not always land unharmed. They can break bones or die from excessive falls.
Cats are obligate carnivores, and do not do well on vegetarian diets. Felines in the wild usually hunt smaller mammals to keep themselves nourished. Many cats find and chew small quantities of long grass but this is not for its nutritional value per se. The eating of grass seems to trigger a regurgitation reflex, perhaps to help expel indigestible matter, such as hairballs and the bones of prey.
Some kittens are naturally afraid of people at first, but if handled and well cared for in the first 16 weeks, they become friendly with the humans who care for them. To decrease the odds of a cat being unsocial or hostile towards humans, kittens should be socialized at an early age.
Feral kittens around four to eight weeks old can be socialized usually within a month of capture. The process is made easier if there is another socialized cat present but not necessarily in the same space as the feral. If the handler can get a cat to urinate in the litter tray, then the others in a litter will usually follow. Initial contact with thick gloves is highly recommended until trust is established, usually within the first week. It is a challenge to socialize an adult. Socialized adult feral cats tend to trust only those people they have learned over time can be trusted, and can be very fearful around strangers.
Cats can be extremely friendly companions. Cats become social between the second and seventh week of life. During this time, social skills are developed. Kittens are curious creatures and mistake anything, and anyone, for being a toy. Supplying toys and climbing poles helps to keep them occupied while they are being slowly socialized.
The strength of the cat–human bond is mainly correlated with how much consideration is given to the cat's feelings by its human companion. Kittens should be gently handled for 15–40 minutes a day. Holding the kitten as much as possible provides the kitten feelings of warmth, love, and safety. It is especially soothing for the kitten to hear the heart beat of its owner. This is a crucial bonding period, which will help develop larger brains, make the kittens more exploratory, and playful, and better learners The formula for a successful relationship thus has much in common with human-to-human relationships. If these skills are not acquired, in the first eight weeks, they may be lost forever.
Some people regard cats as sneaky, shy, or aloof animals. Feline shyness and aggression around people is often a result of lack of socialization. Cats relate to humans differently than dogs, spending some time on their own each day as well as time with humans. Where dogs seem to care about certain individuals that they bond with, cats seem to care more about territory.
Cats have a strong "escape" instinct. Attempts to corner, capture or herd a cat can thus provoke powerful fear-based escape behavior. Socialization is a process of learning that many humans can be trusted. When a human extends a hand slowly towards the cat, to enable the cat to sniff the hand, this seems to start the process.
There is a widespread belief that relationships between dogs and cats are problematic. However, both species can develop amicable relationships. The order of adoption may also cause significant differences in their relationship. Sometimes, the dog may be simply looking to play with the cat while the cat may feel threatened by this approach and lash out with its claws, causing painful injury. Such an incident may cause an irreversible animosity between the cat and dog.
Cats like to organize their environment based on their needs. Like their ancestors, domestic cats still have an inherent desire to maintain an independent territory and are generally happy to live without other cats for company.
Cats use scent/pheromones to help organize their territory by marking prominent objects. If these objects/scents are removed it upsets the cat's perception of its environment.
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