Casualties of the September 11 attacks

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The terrorist September 11 attacks by Al-Qaeda resulted in almost 3,000 immediate (attack time) deaths, including the 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims.[1] A total of 372 foreign nationals (excluding the 19 perpetrators) perished in the attacks, representing just over 12% of the total. The immediate deaths include 246 victims on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,606 in New York City in the World Trade Center and on the ground, and 125 at the Pentagon.[2][3] About 292 people were killed at street level by burning debris and falling bodies of those who had jumped or fallen from the World Trade Center's windows. All the deaths in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon.[4] Some immediate victims were not added to the list until years later.

More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center.[5] The foreign countries with the highest losses are the United Kingdom (including the British overseas territory of Bermuda) with 67, the Dominican Republic with 47, and India with 41.

In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office began to add people to the official death toll who died of illnesses caused by exposure to dust from the site. The first such victim was a woman who had died in February 2002 from a lung condition.[6] In 2009, a man who died in 2008 was added,[7] and in 2011 a man who died in 2010.[8]

Contents

Evacuation

At the time of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on September 11, 2001 range between 14,000 and 19,000. NIST estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the September 11, 2001 attacks.[9][10][11][12]

In the moments after Flight 11 struck the North Tower, the estimated 8,000 people on the floors below the point of impact were faced with a harrowing scenario. The towers of the World Trade Center complex had not been designed to facilitate a mass evacuation of everybody in the buildings, and in each tower there were only three narrow stairwells descending to the ground level. Many people began to evacuate via the stairs on their own, while others chose to wait for instructions from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Another hindrance to the evacuation of the World Trade Center was that as the planes struck, the buildings shifted enough to jam doors in their frames, trapping dozens of people throughout the building, mostly on the floors closer to the impact zone. As evacuees descended down the staircases in the North Tower, they were directed out of the World Trade Center complex through 5 World Trade Center.

Meanwhile, in the South Tower, many people saw what had happened in the North Tower and chose to evacuate as a precaution. However, the major hindrance to this was that the Port Authority in the South Tower spread the word via the building's intercom system and security guards for workers in the South Tower to remain in their offices. This was done in order to avoid overcrowding on the ground level, which was feared would slow the evacuation and rescue operations in the North Tower. Regardless, thousands of people continued to evacuate the South Tower anyway. For example, in the section of the South Tower between the 78th Floor Sky Lobby and the Observation Deck on the 107th and 110th Floors, there were an estimated 2,000 employees on those floors, including 1,100 on the floors occupied by AON Insurance, those being the 92nd, and 98th-105th. One of AON's executives, Eric Eisenberg, initiated the evacuation of their floors within moments of the impact of Flight 11. [13] A similar evacuation was carried out on the floors occupied by Fiduciary Trust, on the 90th, 94th-97th floors, as well as in the offices of Fuji Bank and Euro Brokers, which occupied the floors directly above the 78th Floor Sky Lobby. Executives such as Eisenberg instructed their employees to take the stairs down to the 78th floor Sky Lobby, where they could take an express elevator to the ground level and exit the building. Within a window of roughly 17 minutes, between 8:46 AM and 9:03 AM, an estimated 1,400 people successfully evacuated the upper floors of the South Tower, while roughly 600 people did not. At the moment of the impact of Flight 175, an estimated 200 people had packed into the Sky Lobby on the 78th Floor and were waiting for the express elevators. A vast majority of these people died on impact, as the lobby was in the lower section of Flight 175's impact zone.

Survivors

Only 20 people escaped from the impact zone of the South Tower after it was hit and only four people from the floors above it. Individuals escaped from as high up on the South Tower as the 91st floor after initial impact. They escaped via Stairwell A, the only stairwell which had been left intact after the impact. It is speculated that Stairwell A in the South Tower was not only intact after the impact of United Airlines Flight 175, but that it was also passable until the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am. Because of communication between 911 operators (FDNY and NYPD responders were disorganized), most individuals who were trapped were unaware of the passable status of Stairwell A and were instead told to wait for assistance by rescue personnel.[14]

After the collapse of the towers, only 23 survivors who were in or below the towers escaped from the debris, including 15 rescue workers. The last survivor to be removed alive from the WTC collapse debris was removed from the ruins of the North Tower 27 hours after its collapse.[15] The search for survivors did find others who had survived for days under the rubble pile. These people were found with "Life Detector" listening equipment. With this special equipment, their voices could be heard. Rescuers at the surface told them, "If you can hear me, tap on a pipe" and metallic taps were heard in response. But a path through the debris could not be cleared quickly enough to get to them before they succumbed to their injuries.[citation needed] A total of 6,294 people were reported to have been treated in area hospitals for injuries related to the 9/11 attacks in New York City.[citation needed]

Fatalities

World Trade Center

Before the Twin Towers collapsed, an estimated 200 people fell to their deaths from the burning towers, landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below.[16] To witnesses watching, a few of the people falling from the towers seemed to have jumped,[16] including the person whose photograph became known as The Falling Man. The NIST report describes the deaths of 104 jumpers, but states that it likely understates the total number. The sight and sound of "one, two, three, four [jumpers], smashing like eggs on the ground" horrified and traumatized firefighter and police witnesses. The jumpers' death certificates, like most other victims', states the cause of death as homicide from "blunt trauma".[17]

Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, only to find the roof access doors locked. Port Authority officers attempted to unlock the doors but control systems would not let them; but in any case, thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented rescue helicopters from landing.[18]

Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer.[19] Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees and 63 consultants.[20][21] Risk Waters was holding a conference in Windows on the World at the time, with 81 people in attendance.[22][23]

John P. O'Neill was a former assistant director of the FBI who assisted in the capture of Ramzi Yousef and was the head of security at the World Trade Center when he was killed trying to rescue people from the South Tower.[24] An additional 24 people remain listed as missing.[25]

The average age of the dead in New York City was 40.[26] The dead included eight children: five on American Airlines Flight 77 ranging in age from 3 to 11, three on United Airlines Flight 175 ages 2, 3, and 4.[27] The youngest victim was a 2 1/2 year-old child on Flight 175, the oldest an 85 year-old passenger on Flight 11.[28] In the buildings, the youngest victim was 18 and the oldest was 79.[29]

Pentagon

Of the 125 victims in the Pentagon, 70 were civilians and 55 were military personnel.[30] Lieutenant General Timothy Maude was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.[31]

By the numbers

2,977 fatalities included the following:

The following list details the number of casualties reported by companies that occurred at the World Trade Center. The list includes WTC tenants (all buildings), vendors, visitors, independent emergency responders, and some hijacked passenger-related firms.[43]

CompanyTowerFloorsCasualties
Cantor FitzgeraldNorth101-105658
Marsh & McLennanNorth93-100358
Aon CorporationSouth92, 98-105175
Fiduciary Trust InternationalSouth90, 94-9787
Windows on the WorldNorth106-10772
Carr FuturesNorth9269
Keefe, Bruyette & WoodsSouth85, 88-8967
Sandler O'Neill & PartnersSouth10466
Euro Brokers Inc.South8461
New York State Department of Taxation and FinanceSouth86-8739
Port Authority of New York and New JerseyNorth3,14,19,24,28,31,3437
Fred Alger ManagementNorth9335
Fuji BankSouth79-8223
Forte Food ServiceNorthCantor Fitzgerald21
ABM IndustriesBothN/A17
Risk Waters GroupNorthWindows on the World16
General TelecomNorth8313
Washington Group InternationalSouth9112
American ExpressNorth9411
Summit Security ServicesBothN/A11
Morgan StanleyBothNorth:59-74 - South:43-46, 56, 59-7410
Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield AssociationNorth27-28, 30-318
Alliance ConsultingNorth1027
AccentureNorthWindows on the World6
Harvey Young Yurman Inc.NorthWindows on the World6
Bronx BuildersNorthWindows on the World5
Forest Electric Corp.BothAbove Impact Zones5
Harris Beach LLPSouth855
OCS SecurityThroughout ComplexN/A5
RegusSouth935
Baseline Financial ServicesSouth77-784
CompaqNorthWindows on the World4
Data SynapseNorthWindows on the World4
International Office CentersNorth794
Merrill LynchNorthWindows on the World4
Mizuho CapitalSouth804
Oracle CorporationNorth994
Pitney BowesSouth1024
Wachovia Corp.North474
Zurich American InsuranceSouth1054
Bank of AmericaNorth813
Bank of New YorkN/AKilled by Falling Debris3
Bloomberg L.P.NorthWindows on the World3
CallixaNorthWindows on the World3
The Chuo Mitsui Trust and Banking Co.South833
CitibankNorth:1 Subway:1 N/A:11053
EncompysNorthWindows on the World3
IPC Kleinknecht Electric Co.North1053
IQ Financial SystemsNorth833
New York State Department of TransportationNorth823
Reinsurance Solutions Inc.North943
Structure ToneSouth97, 1053
SunGardSouth102,1043
Thomson Financial ServicesNorthWindows on the World3
Advantage SecurityBothN/A2
BP Air ConditioningNorth1012
Certified Installation ServicesSouth1052
Denino ElectricNorth952
Deutsche BankWTC 4N/A2
Devonshire GroupNorth942
Fine Painting and DecoratingSouthObservation Deck2
First Commercial BankN/AN/A2
FM GlobalSouth1022
Franklin Templeton InvestmentsSouth952
GenuityNorth1052
Guy CarpenterSouth47-552
Imagine Software (US)NorthWindows on the World2
Instinet (Reuters)North13-142
Studley, Inc.North86, 882
KeaneSouth782
Kidder Peabody-Paine WebberNorth1012
Marriott World Trade Center HotelN/AN/A2
Metropolitan Life InsuranceNorth892
New York Presbyterian HospitalN/AN/A2
Nishi-Nippon BankNorth1022
Nomura Research Institute Ltd.NorthWindows on the World2
Ohrenstein & BrownNorth852
One Source Networks (Hudson Shatz)N/AN/A2
P.E. Stone Inc.BothNorth:92 South:1052
Petrocelli ElectricN/AMorgan Stanley Offices2
RadianzNorthWindows on the World2
Random Walk ComputingNorth802
ReutersNorthWindows on the world2
Rohde & LiesenfeldNorth20, 32-332
Silverstein PropertiesSouth882
Slam Dunk NetworksNorth1012
SybaseNorthAbove Impact Zone2
UBS PaineWebberN/AOutside Towers2
UME VoiceNorthWindows on the World2
VerizonSouth9-122
VestekSouthN/A2
XeroxSouthBasement Level2
Zurich Scudder InvestmentsNorthWindows on the World2
A.L. SarroffN/AN/A1
Advent CorporationNorthRoof1
AGISouth1031
Algorithmics Inc.NorthWindows on the World1
Allendale InsuranceSouth1021
American Stock ExchangeNorthWindows on the World1
Aramark CorpSouthN/A1
ARC PartnersNorthWindows on the World1
ASAP NetSourceN/AN/A1
Association of Independent RecruitersNorth791
Avalon PartnersNorth831
BEA SystemsNorthWindows on the World1
Bear StearnsN/AN/A1
BMO Nesbitt BurnsNorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Boston Investor ServicesNorthWindows on the World1
BrinksN/ABasement1
Cabrini HospiceN/AN/A1
Cadwalader, Wickersham & TaftNorthWindows on the World1
Cambridge Technology PartnersNorthWindows on the World1
Caplin SystemsNorthWindows on the World1
CBSNorth1101
Chase Manhattan BankN/AN/A1
Civilian Complaint Review Board (Heart Attack)N/AN/A1
Colonial Art DecoratorsNorthWindows on the World1
Consolidated EdisonN/AN/A1
Credit Suisse First BostonNorthWindows on the World1
Cultural Institution of Retirement SystemsNorth391
Deloitte ConsultingNorthMarsh & McLennan1
Empire DistributionN/AN/A1
EnPointe TechnologiesN/AN/A1
F.M. GlobalSouth1051
Federal Bureau of InvestigationN/AN/A1
Federal Home Loan Mortgage CorporationNorthWindows on the World1
Fine & Schapiro restaurantN/AN/A1
First Liberty Investment GroupNorth791
Forest Hills Ambulance CorpsN/AN/A1
Frank W.Lin & Co.North891
G.M.P. Inc.NorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Garban IntercapitalNorth25-261
GoldTier TechnologiesNorthWindows on the World1
Health CanadaSouth1051
Hill InternationalNorth641
Holland & KnightN/AN/A1
Howard Hughes Medical InstituteN/AN/A1
IBM GlobalNorth951
Industrial Bank of JapanNorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Insurance Overload SystemsNorth791
Internal Revenue ServiceN/AN/A1
Janus Capital GroupNorthWindows on the World1
Jennison AssociatesNorthWindows on the World1
Krestrel TechnologiesNorth1051
LaBranche & Co.N/AN/A1
Lanagan Engineering and Environmental ServicesN/AN/A1
Lee Hecht HarrisonSouth931
Lehman BrothersNorth38-401
LG Insurance Co.N/AN/A1
Liberty Electrical Supply Inc.N/ABasement1
LION bioscience AGSouth941
LJ GonzerN/AN/A1
MAS SecurityN/AN/A1
May Davis GroupNorth891
McKeon-GranoSouth661
MetrocareN/AN/A1
Mitsui BankSouth831
MoneyLineNorthWindows on the World1
NanoTekN/ABasement1
National Acoustics Inc.North1031
NTX InteriorsNorth1021
Office Centers Corp.North791
OptusNorthWindows on the World1
Pfizer Inc.NorthWindows on the World1
PM ContractingNorth1031
Proven Electrical Contracting Inc.N/AN/A1
QRS Corp.Marriott World Trade Center171
ReliableN/AN/A1
Rent-a-PCNorthWindows on the World1
Risk Solutions InternationalNorthMarsh & McLennan1
Royal & SunAllianceSouthAON1
Royston and ZamaniSouthFuji Bank1
ScientNorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Seabury & Smith Co.South491
Sidley Austin Brown & WoodNorth54, 56-591
SiemensN/AKilled by Falling Debris1
Signature Painting and DecoratingNorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Singer Frumento LLPSouth1041
Skidmore, Owings & MerrillSouthAON1
SodexoNorth961
Soundtone Floors Inc.N/AN/A1
Sweeney and Heeking CarpentryN/AN/A1
SyncorpNorthMarsh & McLennan1
TCG SoftwareNorthWindows on the World1
Telekurs USANorthWindows on the World1
The Westfield GroupSouth171
ThyssenKruppN/AN/A1
Top of the World CafeSouth107, 1101
UBS WarburgNorthWindows on the World1
United StaffingNorthCantor Fitzgerald1
Vanderbilt Group Inc.SouthN/A1
Vital Computer ServicesNorthMarsh & McLennan1
WABC-TVNorth1101
WCBS-TVNorth1101
Wipro TechnologiesNorth971
WNBC-TVNorth1101
WNET-TVNorth1101
World Trade CenterN/AN/A1
World Trade Center Project RenewalN/AN/A1
WPIX-TVNorth1101

Foreign casualties

373 foreign nationals[44] (excluding the nineteen perpetrators), representing just over 12% of the total number of deaths, also perished in the attacks. The following is a list of their nationalities (not accounting for some cases of dual citizenship).

CountryTotal fatalities
 Argentina4[45]
 Australia11
 Bangladesh6
 Belarus1[46]
 Belgium1[47]
 Brazil3[48]
 Canada24[49][50]
 Chile1[51]
 China2
 Ivory Coast1
 Colombia18[51]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo2
 Dominican Republic47[51][52]
 El Salvador2
 Ecuador13[51]
 Ethiopia3
 France3
 Germany11
 Ghana2
 Guyana3
 Haiti2
 Hong Kong2
 Paraguay2
 Honduras1
 India41[53]
 Indonesia1
 Ireland6[54]
 Israel5[55]
 Italy10[56]
 Jamaica16
 Japan24[57]
CountryTotal fatalities
 Jordan2[58][59][60]
 Lebanon4
 Lithuania1
 Malaysia3[61]
 Mexico15[51]
 Moldova1
 Netherlands1
 New Zealand2
 Nigeria1
 Pakistan8[62]
 Peru5
 Philippines16
 Portugal5[63]
 Poland6
 Romania4[64]
 Russia1
Template:FR Yugoslavia1
 South Africa2
 South Korea28
 Spain1
 Sweden2
 Switzerland2
 Republic of China (Taiwan)1
 Trinidad and Tobago14
 Ukraine1
 Uzbekistan1
 United Kingdom68[65][66]
 Bermuda2[67]
 Venezuela1

Forensic identification

Ultimately, 2,752 death certificates were filed relating to the 9/11 attacks,[clarification needed][68] as of February 2005. Of these, 1,588 (58%) were forensically identified from recovered physical remains.[69][70] The Associated Press reported that the medical examiner's office possesses "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead."[71] Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building for demolition.

See also

References

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  61. ^ S.S. YOGA (September 11, 2011). "Never forgotten". thestar.com.my. http://thestar.com.my/lifestyle/story.asp?file=/2011/9/11/lifefocus/9310547&sec=lifefocus. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  62. ^ (Portuguese) "Pakistan's 9/11 Dead". Newsweek magazine. September 16, 2011. http://www.newsweekpakistan.com/features/415.
  63. ^ (Portuguese) Obituaries in Visão magazine, issue 446, September 20, 2001
  64. ^ (Romanian) "Patru români, victime ale atentatelor de la 11 septembrie 2001", A1.ro
  65. ^ Mark Beaumont, BayBytes. "British Memorial Garden, New York". Britishmemorialgarden.org. http://www.britishmemorialgarden.org/. Retrieved June 2, 2011. The tally 68 in the source includes two fatality from Bermuda
  66. ^ British and Irish nationals, The Guardian
  67. ^ "U.S. Consul Lays Wreath at 9/11 Memorial". bernews.com. Sep 11, 2011. http://bernews.com/2011/09/u-s-consul-lays-wreath-at-911-memorial/. Retrieved Sep 12, 2011.
  68. ^ However, the total of the 87 victims of Flight 11 ("American Airlines Flight 11". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/memorial/lists/by-location/page93.html.), the 60 victims of Flight 175,("United Airlines Flight 175". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/memorial/lists/by-location/page100.html.) and the 2,606 victims of the towers ("Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". CNN. November 13, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/11/13/khalid.sheikh.mohammed/index.html.) is 2,753.
  69. ^ "CNN". Identification of 9/11 remains comes to an end. February 23, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/02/22/wtc.identifications/. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
  70. ^ Moore, Martha T. (February 24, 2005). "USA Today". NYC's work to ID 9/11 victims ends - for now. http://www.usatoday.com/news/sept11/2005-02-23-sept11-ids_x.htm. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
  71. ^ "Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends". CBS News. February 23, 2005. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/23/national/main675839.shtml. Retrieved September 8, 2006.

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