Castration (also referred to as gelding, neutering, fixing, orchiectomy, oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testicles or a female loses the functions of the ovaries.
The practice of castration has its roots before recorded human history. Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures mainly South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. After battles in some cases, winners castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men — eunuchs – were often admitted to special social classes and were used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the harem. Castration also figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice. The Leviticus Holiness code, for example, specifically excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from sacrifice.
Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of Chinese history, most notably in the Later Han, late Tang and late Ming Dynasty. There are similar recorded Middle Eastern events.
In ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the Byzantine Empire, was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles had much less risk.
Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer. Testosterone-depletion treatment (either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration) is used to slow down the cancer, greatly reduce sex drive or interest in those with sexual drives, obsessions, or behaviors, or any combination of those that may be considered deviant. Castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions.
Male-to-female transsexuals often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment surgery, either before or during other procedures. It may also be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery.
Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was practised to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women.
Edward Gibbon's famous work Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans during their invasions of Sicily and Italy. Castration has been used in modern conflicts, such as the Janjaweed militiamen currently (as of 2005 ) attacking citizens of the Darfur region in Sudan, often castrating villagers and leaving them to bleed to death.
In the medieval kingdom of Georgia, the pretender Demna was castrated by his uncle George III of Georgia to ensure the supremacy of George's branch of the family.
According to legend, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun and Yu in China, in 2281 BC castration was passed into law as a punishment, which remained so until the reign of Gaozu (589–600 AD). However, it was still practiced after his reign. According to historians, it was incorporated into Chinese law during the Zhou Dynasty. It was one of the five physical punishments that could be legally inflicted on criminals in China.
Records of castrations in China date to the Shang dynasty, when the Shang Kings castrated prisoners of war. During the reign of King Mu of Zhou the Minister of Crime, Marquis Lu, reformed the law in 950 BC to make it easier for people to be sentenced to castration instead of death. In China, castration included penis removal as well as removal of the testicles. Both organs were cut off with a knife at the same time.
In Han dynasty China castration continued to be used as a punishment for various offences. Sima Qian, the famous Chinese historian, was castrated by order of the Han Emperor of China for dissent. In another incident multiple people, including a chief scribe and his underlings, were subjected to castration.
Another famous victim of castration was the medieval French philosopher, scholar, teacher, and (later) monk Pierre Abélard. He was castrated by relatives of his lover, Héloïse.
Bishop Wimund, a 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was castrated.
In medieval England those found guilty of high treason were hanged, drawn and quartered, which often included emasculation or removal of the genitalia.
William Wallace, the Scottish resistance leader, was castrated as part of his execution, for resistance to English rule.
When the Chinese overthrew Mongol rule and established the Ming dynasty, many Mongols were castrated and turned into eunuchs.
During the Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty), Chinese commanders castrated thousands of Miao boys when their tribes revolted, and then distributed them as eunuch slaves as gifts to various officials.
In 1778, Thomas Jefferson wrote a bill in Virginia reducing the punishment for rape, polygamy or sodomy from death to castration.
Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, who established the Qajar Dynasty in Iran (in 18th century), was a victim of castration by officers of the previous kingdom. When he conquered Lotf Ali Khan, the last king of the Zand Dynasty, Qajar had Khan castrated in revenge.
The sons and grandsons of the rebel Yaqub Beg in China were all castrated. Surviving members of Yaqub Beg's family included his 4 sons, 4 grandchildren (2 grandsons and 2 granddaughters), and 4 wives. They either died in prison in Lanzhou, Gansu, or were killed by the Chinese. His sons Yima Kuli, K'ati Kuli, Maiti Kuli, and grandson Aisan Ahung were the only survivors in 1879. They were all underage children, and put on trial, sentenced to an agonizing death if they were complicit in their father's rebellious "sedition", or if they were innocent of their fathers crimes, were to be sentenced to castration and serving as a eunuch slave to Chinese troops, when they reached 11 years old, and handed over to the Imperial Household to be executed or castrated. In 1879, it was confirmed that the sentence of castration was carried out, Yaqub Beg's son and grandsons were castrated by the Chinese court in 1879 and turned into eunuchs to work in the Imperial Palace.
The British officer John Masters recorded in his autobiography that Pathan women in the North-West Frontier Province of British India during the Anglo-Afghan Wars would castrate non Muslim soldiers who were captured, like British and Sikhs.
Wim Deetman has been criticised by the Dutch parliament for failing to include evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, when children were 'punished' by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests.
Early on in Korea, castration consisted of daubing a boy's genitals with human feces and having a dog bite them off. During the Yuan Dynasty, eunuchs became a desirable commodity for tributes, and dog bites were replaced by more sophisticated surgical techniques.
In the over 13 centuries of Arab slave trade in Africa at least 28 million Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Middle East. Whilst it is claimed by some that a vast majority of the male Black slaves, estimated around 80%, were castrated, this makes little sense as slaves were a commodity and used for breeding purposes in order to increase slave owner's stock as they would with cattle. In circumstances by which slaves were castrated, this was often "based on the assumption that the blacks had an ungovernable sexual appetite," but European slaves were also usually castrated, often by non-Muslims to bypass Islamic prohibitions. European "castration centers" existed in Central Europe and other areas beyond Islamic rule, from which eunuchs were then imported.
'The Calipha in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace."  The Arab slave trade typically dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys at the age of eight to twelve had their scrotum and penis completely amputated . Around 9 out of 10 bled to death during the procedure, but the high price brought by eunuchs on the market made the practice profitable.
"Voluntary" chemical or surgical castration has been in practice in many countries—reports are available from American and European countries in particular for over eighty years (chemical for circa thirty)—as an option for treatment for people who have broken laws of a sexual nature, allowing them to return to the community from otherwise lengthy detentions. The effectiveness and ethics of this treatment are heavily debated.
A temporary chemical castration has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes, such as rape or other sexually related violence.
In modern times, the Czech Republic practices surgically castrating convicted sex offenders. According to the reports compiled by Council of Europe, a human-rights forum, the central European country physically castrated at least 94 prisoners in the 10 years up to April 2008. The Czech Republic defends this procedure as voluntary and effective. According to Dr. Martin Hollý, director of the Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice in Prague, none of the nearly 100 sex offenders who had been physically castrated had committed further offenses. One serial offender stated that being castrated was the "best decision" he ever made: "On the one hand you have to protect the potential victims and on the other hand I wanted to be protected from myself, I wanted to live like a normal person." Don Grubin, a professor at Newcastle University's Institute of Neuroscience who also runs a chemical castration program backed by the U.K.'s Ministry of Justice, was initially opposed to physical castration. After visiting the Czech Republic, however, he agreed that some form of castration might be of benefit to some sex offenders.
Trafficking of boys for prostitution
An article in the Gulf Times revealed a major sex trade in mostly Nepalese boys who were lured to India and sold to brothels in Mumbai, Hyderabad, New Delhi, Lucknow and Gorakhpur. One victim was lured from Nepal at the age of 14, sold into slavery, locked up, beaten, starved, and forcibly circumcised. He reported that he was held in a brothel with 40 to 50 other boys, many of whom were castrated. He escaped and made his way back to Nepal. Two Non Government Organisations, one that works with homosexuals in Nepal, and one that works to rescue and rehabilitate trafficked women and children, were co-operating to help and rescue these boys.
In Europe, when women were not permitted to sing in church or cathedral choirs in the Roman Catholic Church, boys were castrated to prevent their voices breaking at puberty and to develop a special high voice. The first documents mentioning castrati are Italian church records from the 1550s. In the baroque and classical music eras these singers were highly appreciated by opera composers as well. Mozart's Exultate Jubilate, Allegri's Miserere and other famous pieces from this period now sung by sopranos and countertenors were written for castrati. Some of the alto parts of Handel's Messiah were first sung by a castrato. Famous castrati include Farinelli, Senesino, Carestini, and Caffarelli. The last castrato was Alessandro Moreschi (1858–1922) who served in the Sistine Chapel Choir. It was not until the late 19th century that the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the production of castrati.
A number of religions have included castration as a central theme of their practice. These include:
- The cult of Cybele, in which devotees castrated themselves in ecstatic emulation of Attis: see Gallus.
- In South Asia, many hijras live in well-defined, organized, all-hijra communities, led by a guru. The power of the hijras as a sexually ambiguous category can only be understood in the religious context of Hinduism. In Hindu mythology, ritual, and art, the power of the combined man/woman, or androgyne, is a frequent and significant theme. Bahuchara Mata, the main object of hijra veneration, is specifically associated with transvestism and transgenderism. All hijra households contain a shrine to the goddess that is used in daily prayer. Hijras also identify with Shiva, a central, sexually ambivalent figure in Hinduism, who combines in himself, as do the hijras, both eroticism and asceticism. One of the most popular forms of Shiva is Ardhanarisvara, or half-man/half-woman, which represents Shiva united with his shakti (female creative power).
- By the end of the third century, many male followers of Early Christianity considered castration as an acceptable way to counter sinful desires of the flesh. Origen is reported by Eusebius to have castrated himself based on his reading of the Gospel of Matthew 19:12 and other passages in Matthew and Mark that appear to endorse voluntary amputation to avoid sin, although there is some doubt concerning this story. Schaff considers the account genuine but cites Baur et al. in opposition. Origen argues against such literal interpretations of the passages from Matthew and Mark in his First Principles. Notwithstanding, the first canon of the First Council of Nicea in 325 AD suspended clergy members who practiced voluntary castration. No mention, however, is made in this canon law concerning laity. Ongoing failure to acknowledge this vital distinction still seems to fuel debate within Church circles.
- Bishop Melito of Sardis (d. ca 180) was a eunuch, according to the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea, though, significantly the word "virgin" was substituted in Rufino's Latin translation of Eusebius.
- Boston Corbett was inspired by this same verse 19:12 to castrate himself (Corbett was the 19th-century American soldier who is generally believed to have fired the shot that killed John Wilkes Booth).
- Heaven's Gate
While Deuteronomy 23:1 expels castrated men from the assembly of Israel, Isaiah 56:3 gives a much more accepting view of eunuchs, and in Acts 8:34–8:39, a eunuch is baptized.
Orthodox Judaism forbids the castration of either humans or animals.
In ancient Judaism, castrated animals were deemed unfit for sacrifice in the Temple (Lev 22:24). Castrated members of the priestly caste were forbidden to enter certain parts of the temple, to approach the altar, or to make sacrifices, although they could eat their share of the offerings (Lev. 21:16–24).
A subject of castration who is altered before the onset of puberty will retain a high voice, non-muscular build, and small genitals. He may well be taller than average, as the production of sex hormones in puberty—more specifically, estrogen via aromatization of testosterone—stops long bone growth. The person may not develop pubic hair and will have a small sex drive or none at all.
Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrated people are automatically sterile, because the testes (for males) and ovaries (for females) produce sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Once removed the subject is infertile. The voice does not change. Some castrates report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life, although this might not be to chemical changes but instead emotional changes due to the implications of the procedure. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair sometimes may decrease. Castration prevents male pattern baldness if it is done before hair is lost. However, castration will not restore hair growth after hair has already been lost due to male pattern baldness.
Historically, eunuchs who additionally underwent a penectomy reportedly suffered from urinary incontinence associated with the removal of the penis.
Without hormone replacement therapy (HRT), typical symptoms (similar to those experienced by menopausal women) include hot flashes, gradual bone-density loss resulting in osteopenia or osteoporosis, and potential weight gain or redistribution of body fat to the hips/chest. Replacement of testosterone in the form of gel, patches, or injections can largely reverse these effects, although breast enlargement has also been reported as a possible side effect of testosterone usage.
A study conducted at a mental institution in Kansas, where a large number of male inmates had been castrated, found that the eunuchs lived an average of 14 years longer than the uncastrated men. A similar study of historical eunuchs in Korea's royal court found a 14 to 19 year increase in lifespan compared to intact men of similar socioeconomic background; these eunuchs had a centenarian rate of over 3%.
Psychoanalysis and literary theory
The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis; see, for example, castration anxiety.
Castration (as a metaphor) also plays an important role in psychoanalytically-influenced literary theory, for example Harold Bloom's The Anxiety of Influence.
In Mexican thriller La Casa del Pelícano, castration is shown as being connected to the Oedipus complex.
In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of anti-androgens are required. Chemical castration does not actually remove the testicles or ovaries of the subject, nor is it a form of sterilization.
Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration. Since the development of teriparatide, this severe bone loss has been able to be reversed in nearly every case. At this time there is a limitation on the use of this medication to 24 months until the long-term use is better evaluated.
With the advent of chemical castration, physical castration is not generally recommended by the medical community unless medically necessary or desired, though some have undergone the procedure voluntarily.
Castration is commonly performed on domestic animals not intended for breeding. Domestic animals are usually castrated to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled reproduction; to reduce or prevent other manifestations of sexual behaviour such as territorial behaviour or aggression (e.g. fighting between groups of entire (uncastrated) males of a species); or to reduce other consequences of sexual behaviour that may make animal husbandry more difficult, such as boundary/fence/enclosure destruction when attempting to get to nearby females of the species.
Male horses are usually castrated (gelded) using emasculators, because stallions are rather aggressive and troublesome. The same applies to male mules, although they are sterile. Male cattle are castrated to improve fattening and docility in feedlots or for use as oxen. Breeding individuals are kept entire and used for breeding: they may fetch higher prices when sold.
Livestock may be castrated when used for food to increase growth or weight or both of individual male animals and because of the undesirable taste and odor of the meat from sexually mature males. In domestic pigs the taint, called boar taint, is caused by androstenone and skatole concentrations stored in the fat tissues of the animal after sexual maturity. Boar taint is only found in a small minority of pigs and can be controlled through breeding selection, diet and management. It is released when the fat is heated and has a distinct odor and flavor that is widely considered unpalatable to consumers. Consequently, in commercial meat production, male pigs are either castrated shortly after birth or slaughtered before they reach sexual maturity. Recent research in Brazil has shown that castration of pigs is unnecessary because most pigs do not have the 'boar taint'. This is due to many breeds of pigs simply not having the heredity for the boar taint and the fact that pigs are normally slaughtered at a young market weight.
In the case of pets, castration is usually called neutering, and is encouraged to prevent overpopulation of the community by unwanted animals, and to reduce certain diseases such as prostate disease and testicular cancer in male dogs (oophorectomy in female pets is often called spaying). Testicular cancer is rare in dogs, but prostate problems are somewhat common in unaltered male dogs when they get older. Neutered individuals have a much lower risk of developing prostate problems in comparison. Unaltered male cats are more likely to develop an obstruction in their urethra, preventing them from urinating to some degree; however, neutering does not seem to make much difference statistically because many neutered toms also have the problem. A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species:
- Barrow (pig)
- Bullock (cattle)
- Capon (chicken)
- Gelding (horse)
- Gib (cat, ferret)
- Ox (cattle) (Castration performed on mature adult)
- Stag (cattle, sheep)
- Steer (cattle) (Castration performed on young calf)
- Wether (sheep, goat)
An incompletely castrated male in livestock species (horse and cattle) is known as a rig.
The term stag is used for a male animal castrated after the secondary sex characteristics have developed to such a point as to give it the appearance of sexual maturity.
Methods of veterinary castration include instant surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool or emasculators to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against its own sexual hormones.
Certain animals, like horses and swine, are usually surgically treated with a scrotal castration (which can be done with the animal standing while sedated and after local anaesthetic has been applied), while others, like dogs and cats, are anaesthetised and recumbent when surgically castrated with a pre-scrotal incision in the case of dogs, or a pre-scrotal or scrotal incision used for cats.
In veterinary practice an "open" castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when the procedure is performed so that the inguinal tunic is sutured together after incision.
Some parasitic nematodes chemically castrate their hosts. For example, Microphallus pseudopygmaeus chemically castrates its host, the snail Onoba aculeus, and causes it to grow larger than normal.
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- ^ The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4. D. Appleton and Company. 1888. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=DqYoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=whether+they+have+attained+full+age+or+not,+be+delivered+imperial+household+made+eunuchs+slaves+to+soldiery+turkestan&hl=en&ei=6m_LTdeEC8u3tgfeofTnBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^ Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 19. Appleton. 1886. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=3xYbAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=whether+they+have+attained+full+age+or+not,+be+delivered+imperial+household+made+eunuchs+slaves+to+soldiery+turkestan&hl=en&ei=6m_LTdeEC8u3tgfeofTnBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- ^ Peter Tompkins (1963). The eunuch and the virgin: a study of curious customs. C. N. Potter. p. 32. http://books.google.com/books?id=fmAbAAAAYAAJ&q=As+late+as+1879+the+Times+correspondent+from+Shanghai+reported+that+the+son+and+the+grandsons+of+the+executed+Central+Asian+rebel+chief+Yakoob+Beg+had+been+castrated+and+delivered+into+the+hands+of+the+Imperial+household+as+eunuchs&dq=As+late+as+1879+the+Times+correspondent+from+Shanghai+reported+that+the+son+and+the+grandsons+of+the+executed+Central+Asian+rebel+chief+Yakoob+Beg+had+been+castrated+and+delivered+into+the+hands+of+the+Imperial+household+as+eunuchs&hl=en&ei=pTkITZ-ONsSblgfi9cSxAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- ^ John Masters (1956). Bugles and a tiger: a volume of autobiography. Viking Press. p. 190. http://books.google.com/books?ei=RJKbTayqBJKC0QHOmajjAg&ct=result&id=NhdbAAAAMAAJ&dq=Tribesmen+who+captured+any+soldiers+except+Moslems%2C+and+especially+Sikhs+or+British%2C+would+usually+castrate+and+behead+them%2C+and+both+these+operations+were+frequently+done+by+the+women&q=castrate+done+by+women. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Michael Barthorp, Douglas N. Anderson (1996). The Frontier ablaze: the North-west frontier rising, 1897–98. Windrow & Greene. p. 12. ISBN 1-85915-023-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=ln_jAAAAMAAJ&q=Any+non-Moslem+taken+alive+was,+according+to+John+Masters,+liable+to+be+castrated+and+beheaded,+usually+by+the+women.&dq=Any+non-Moslem+taken+alive+was,+according+to+John+Masters,+liable+to+be+castrated+and+beheaded,+usually+by+the+women.&hl=en&ei=d4mbTf3hDISQ0QG_2-XeAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Time for the truth about Catholic sex abuse in the Netherlands
- ^ Peter McAllister (2010). Manthropology: The Science of Why the Modern Male Is Not the Man He Used to Be. Macmillan. p. 280. ISBN 0-312-55543-1. http://books.google.com/?id=U-fc5X0cUjwC&pg=PA280&dq=Korean+eunuchs,+however,+had+it+worst+of+all.+In+ancient+times+they+were+castrated+by+having+their+genitals+smeared+with+human+feces+and+then+being+exposed+to+packs+of+hungry+dogs#v=onepage&q=Korean%20eunuchs%2C%20however%2C%20had%20it%20worst%20of%20all.%20In%20ancient%20times%20they%20were%20castrated%20by%20having%20their%20genitals%20smeared%20with%20human%20feces%20and%20then%20being%20exposed%20to%20packs%20of%20hungry%20dogs&f=false. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ^ Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, Joseph Calder Miller (2009). Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8214-1877-7. http://books.google.com/?id=S3Y2PTI_vYYC&pg=PA137&dq=korean+castrated+dog+bite#v=onepage&q=korean%20castrated%20dog%20bite&f=false. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ^ a b . http://www.amazon.com/Islams-Black-Slaves-Other-Diaspora/dp/0374527970/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1333217684&sr=1-1-fkmr0.
- ^ Katherine Amlin. "Chemical Castration: The Benefits and Disadvantages Intrinsic to Injecting Male Pedophiliacs with Depo-Provera". http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f02/web1/kamlin.html. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- ^ "'Chemical castration' OK'd for Montana inmates". N.Y. Times News Service. 1997. http://archive.southcoasttoday.com/daily/04-97/04-27-97/a09wn032.htm. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- ^ "Council of Europe report on the Czech Republic". Cpt.coe.int. 5 February 2009. http://www.cpt.coe.int/documents/cze/2009-02-05-eng.htm. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- ^ Dan Bilefsky (10 March 2009). "Europeans Debate Castration of Sex Offenders". The New York Times (Europe;Czech Republic). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/11/world/europe/11castrate.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&hp. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- ^ a b Whitehead, Tom (20 May 2009). "Sex offences advisor backs castration". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/lawandorder/5351019/Sex-offences-advisor-backs-castration.html. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- ^ "Cutting the numbers re-offending?". Channel 4. 20 May 2009. http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/world/europe/cutting%20the%20numbers%20reoffending%20%20/3158772. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- ^ "Former sex worker’s tale spurs rescue mission". Gulf Times. Gulf-Times.com. 10 April 2005. http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=32822&version=1&template_id=44&parent_id=24. Retrieved 5 October 2010. "“I spent seven years in hell,” says Raju, now 21, trying hard not to cry. Thapa Magar took him to Rani Haveli, a brothel in Mumbai that specialised in male sex workers and sold him for Nepali Rs 85,000. A Muslim man ran the flesh trade there in young boys and girls, most of them lured from Nepal. For two years, Raju was kept locked up, taught to dress as a girl and circumcised. Many of the other boys there were castrated. Beatings and starvation became a part of his life. “There were 40 to 50 boys in the place,” a gaunt, brooding Raju recalls. “Most of them were Nepalese.”"
- ^ John Rosselli, "Castrato" article in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001.
- ^ "All Mouth and No Trousers" from The Guardian, 5 August 2002.
- ^ "Religion and expressive culture - Hijra". Everyculture.com. http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Hijra-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine". Ccel.org. 13 July 2005. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.xi.viii.html. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- ^ Eusebius' Church History Book 6, Chapter 8 Origen's Daring Deed note 1809: "This act of Origen’s has been greatly discussed, and some have even gone so far as to believe that he never committed the act ... There is no reason, however, to doubt the report, for which we have unimpeachable testimony, and which is in itself not at all surprising ..."
- ^ Leviticus 22:24, Talmud Shabbos 110b
- ^ Hamilton JB. Effect of castration in adolescent and young adult males upon further changes in the proportion of bare and hairy scalp. J Clin Endocrinol metab 1960; 20:1309–1315.
- ^ http://www.medspe.fr/site/templates/template.php?identifiant_article=2166&surlignage=2&PHPSESSID=bd0a2427de5e5665b9c541ca8a6ecc71
- ^ ""HRT for Men Is Risky, Too" by Robert W. Griffith, MD". Healthandage.com. http://www.healthandage.com/public/health-center/28/article/3047/gm=20!gid2=2824. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- ^ "Why Women Live Longer". http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-women-live-longer&page=2.
- ^ "Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds". http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/09/24/14070451-upside-to-castration-eunuchs-lived-longer-study-finds.
- ^ "Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders? Man Who Mutilated Himself in Jail Thinks So, but Debate on Its Effectiveness Continues in Va., Elsewhere" by Candace Rondeaux for the Washington Post, 5 July 2006
- ^ "Chemical castration - breaking the cycle of paraphiliac recidivism" Social Justice, Spring, 1999 by Christopher Meisenkothen.
- ^ "Castrated California Child Molester Wants Freedom". Fox News. 3 July 2006. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,201918,00.html.
- ^ Genetics of Boar Taint: Implications for the Future Use of Intact Males
- ^ "Evaluation of High Tech vs Low Tech Boar Taint Controls". Sugarmtnfarm.com. 12 August 2007. http://sugarmtnfarm.com/blog/2007/08/hi-tech-vs-boar-taint.html. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- ^ a b Genetic Inhibition of Boar Odor in Meat
- ^ "Sugar Mountain Farm: To Cut or Not?". Sugarmtnfarm.com. 11 November 2005. http://sugarmtnfarm.com/blog/2005/11/to-cut-or-not.html. Retrieved 5 February 2012.