Case Closed, known originally as Meitantei Conan(名探偵コナン?, lit. Great Detective Conan, officially translated as Detective Conan), is a Japanese detectivemanga series written and illustrated by Gosho Aoyama. The series is serialized in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday since January 19, 1994, and has been collected into 84 tankōbon volumes. Due to legal considerations with the name Detective Conan, the English language release was renamed to Case Closed. The story follows Jimmy Kudo, an amateur detective who transformed into a child while investigating the Black Organization.
Funimation licensed the anime series for North American broadcast in 2003 under the name Case Closed with the characters given Americanized names. The anime premiered on Cartoon Network as part of their Adult Swim programming block and was discontinued due to low ratings. On March 2013, Funimation began streaming their licensed episodes of Case Closed. The first six films were released on Region 1DVD in North America. Viz Media later licensed the manga series for English-language publication in North America and used Funimation's renamed title and cast.
The tankōbon volumes of the manga have sold over 140 million copies in Japan. In 2001, the manga was awarded 46th Shogakukan Manga Award in the shōnen category. The anime adaptation has been well received and ranked in the top twenty in Animage 's polls between 1996 and 2001. In the Japanese TV anime ranking, Detective Conan episodes ranked in the top six on a weekly basis. Both the manga and anime have had positive response from critics for its plot and cases.
Shinichi Kudo is a high school detective who sometimes works with the police to solve cases. During an investigation, he is attacked by Gin and Vodka who belong to a syndicate known as the Black Organization. They force him to ingest an experimental poison called APTX 4869 to kill him without leaving evidence. A rare side-effect of the poison, however, transforms him into a child instead of killing him. Adopting the pseudonym Conan Edogawa, Kudo hides his identity to investigate the Black Organization. Later, Shiho Miyano, a member of the Black Organization and creator of APTX 4869, tries to leave the syndicate after her sister's death but is captured. She attempts suicide by ingesting APTX 4869, and like Kudo, is transformed into a child. She escapes and enrolls in Conan's school under a pseudonym, Anita Hailey. During a rare encounter with the Black Organization, Conan helps the FBI plant a CIA agent, Kir, inside the Black Organization as an undercover spy.
In 2007, Aoyama hinted he had the ending planned out but does not intend to end the series yet.
Detective Conan was conceived in 1994, during the rise in mystery genre manga due to the publishing of the Kindaichi Case Files series; the first chapter appeared in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday on January 19. Aoyama cites the stories of Arsène Lupin, Sherlock Holmes and the samurai films by Akira Kurosawa as influences on his work. When scripting each chapter, he ensures the dialogue remains simple and spends an average of four hours for each new case and twelve for more complicated ones. Each case spans several chapters, and is resolved at the end where characters explain the details of their solutions in simple terms; a database consisting of all the cases from the manga was launched in 2007.
Detective Conan became the 22nd longest running manga series with over 800 chapters released in Japan. The individual chapters are collected into tankōbon volumes by Shogakukan. The first volume was released on June 18, 1994; Gosho Aoyama's assistants have also written and published 36 volumes of their own side stories of Detective Conan.
In 2003, the first 104 episodes of the regular animation series were licensed by Funimation for distribution in North America and was retitled Case Closed because of legal considerations. The Detective Conan anime has also been released in other languages such as French, German and Italian.Case Closed debuted on Cartoon Network as part of their Adult Swim programming block on May 24, 2004; no more than 50 episodes were licensed from Funimation due to low ratings. The Canadian channel YTV picked up the Case Closed series and broadcast 22 episodes between April 7, 2006, and September 2, 2006, before taking it off the air. Funimation made the series available with the launch of the Funimation Channel in November 2005 and was temporary available on Colours TV during its syndication with the Funimation Channel. A separate English adaptation of the series by Animax Asia premiered in the Philippines on January 18, 2006, under the name Detective Conan. Because Animax were unable to obtain further TV broadcast rights, their version comprised 52 episodes. The series continued with reruns until August 7, 2006, when it was removed from the station.
Funimation also released DVDs of their dubbed series beginning August 24, 2004. Initially, the releases were done in single DVDs and future episodes were released in seasonal boxes; 130 episodes have been released in total. The seasonal boxes were later re-released in redesigned boxes called Viridian edition. Funimation began streaming Case Closed episodes on March 2013. Hanabee Entertainment licensed the series for distribution in Australia.
Eighteen feature films based on the Case Closed series have been released. They are animated by TMS Entertainment and produced by Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, Nippon Television, ShoPro, and Toho. The first seven were directed by Kenji Kodama films eight to fifteen were directed by Yasuichiro Yamamoto, and films sixteen and onwards are directed by Kobun Shizuno. The films have been released in April of each year, starting in 1997 with the first film, Case Closed: The Time Bombed Skyscraper. The eighteenth film, Case Closed: Dimensional Sniper was released on April 19, 2014. The second film and onwards were the top twenty grossing anime films in Japan. The revenue earned from the films funded Toho's other film projects. Each film was adapted into two film comics which were released in the fourth quarter of the same year. Funimation released an English dubbed version of the first six films on Region 1 DVDs between October 3, 2006, and February 16, 2010.
Two original video animations (OVA) series were produced by TMS Entertainment, Nippon Television, and Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation. The OVA series Shōnen Sunday Original Animation are yearly mail order episodes available to subscribers of Weekly Shōnen Sunday. The first Shōnen Sunday Original Animation was available in Weekly Shōnen Sunday 's 26th issue in 2000 with eleven OVAs released as of 2011. The first nine episodes of the OVA series were later encapsulated into four DVD volumes titled Secret Files and were released between March 24, 2006, and April 9, 2010. The second OVA series entitled Magic File are yearly direct-to-DVD releases. The first Magic File was released on April 11, 2007, and contained four episodes from the anime series. The Magic File OVAs henceforth contained an original plot with background ties related to their respective Case Closed theatrical films beginning with twelfth film Detective Conan: Full Score of Fear.
Four live action drama TV specials and a TV series were created by Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation and TMS entertainment based off the series. The first two specials aired on 2006 and 2007 featuring Shun Oguri portrayed the teenage Jimmy Kudo and Tomoka Kurokawa as Rachel Moore. The third and fourth TV specials aired in 2011 and 2012 featuring Junpei Mizobata as Jimmy and Shioli Kutsuna as Rachel. The cast used for those TV specials were used for the television series which aired between July 7, 2011 and September 29, 2011.
Shogakukan have also produced many books spun off from the series. Fifty volumes of a film comic series were published in Japan between June 1996 and August 2000, covering the first 143 episodes of the anime, though some episodes were skipped. Five additional film comics entitled 5 Juuyou Shorui(5重要書類?, lit. 5 Important Documents) were published between July 2001 and January 2002 and covered selected episodes between 162–219. Thirteen official guide books were published between June 1997 and April 2009. Shogakukan has also published novels, digest books, educational books, and puzzle books.
In North America, Score Entertainment published the Case Closed Trading Card Game on June 29, 2005. The game entails the use of three customized decks of cards, which players buy and collect. Representing characters, events, and objects in Case Closed, these cards are used by players to fulfill certain conditions to solve a case and win the game. Certain cards are used to foil the progress of the player's opponents. An English unofficial guidebook to the series titled The Case Closed Casebook: An Essential Guide was published by DH Publishing Inc. on March 25, 2008.
The Case Closed manga has sold over 140 million volumes in the world making it the fifth best-selling manga series. In Japan, individual volumes frequently appear on the lists of best-selling manga.Case Closed was the 19th best selling manga in 2011, with 2,120,091 copies sold.Nikkei Entertainment magazine published a list of top 50 manga creators by sales since January 2010, in its September 2011 issue; Gosho Aoyama, the author of Case Closed was ranked 16th, with 3,320,000 copies sold. It was the 17th best selling manga in 2012, with 2,430,572 copies sold. In 2013 Case Closed became the 24th best selling manga, with 1,966,206 copies sold. It won the 46th Shogakukan Manga Award for the shōnen category in 2001, and respondents in an online poll for Japanese citizens in their mid-twenties voted Detective Conan as one of the top three manga they wanted to continue running in publication. The first volume of Case Closed appeared thrice in the top ten selling lists, right after its premiere, the same volume has also appeared in the Diamond Comic Distributors's ranking list. Later-published volumes have appeared on the New York Times Manga Best Sellers lists. In France, the series was nominated for the Angoulême Festival Graphic Novel award among the Japanese selection. In the United States, Case Closed received praises from Mania. com's Eduardo M. Chavez and IGN's A. E. Sparrow for its stories—telling the mysteries and how they were unfolded by the investigations of Conan and gang. Sparrow called the style of the series a mix of Scooby-Doo and Sherlock Holmes, while Chavez believed the manga had appeal to readers of all ages. The series ranked on About.com's top continuing manga series of 2010, under the title "Best Underappreciated Gem: Shonen" category.
The animated adaptation of the series was also popular in Japan, appearing in the top six of Japanese TV Rankings at various times. The television series ranked among the top twenty in polls conducted by anime magazine Animage from 1996 to 2001. It also placed better than twenty-third in polls for the top-one-hundred anime conducted by Japanese television network TV Asahi in 2005–06. The series received considerable airtime in China; it was the second most broadcast animation there in 2004. Several of the franchise's films were nominated for awards in their home country. The ninth film was nominated for the feature film category at the 5th Annual Tokyo Anime Awards, and the next five films were nominees for the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year in their respective years of release.
Melissa Sternenberg from THEM Anime Reviews reviewed and praised for its animation and plot. ActiveAnime's reviewers commented on complex character design and the "spirit" that the series has, indicating that fans of serialized mystery shows would rather enjoy it. The series is also said to better suit the more matured audience. In the United States, the dubbed series faced several negative reactions toward its changes to localize the content for North American audiences. Jeffrey Harris of IGN found it pointless to change the names of the characters, and Anime News Network's Carl Kimlinger said that the changes of certain Japanese cultural references rendered several parts of the mysteries and their investigation illogical. The voice-overs proved to be a mixed bag for Carlo Santos, who reviewed the first DVD release of Case Closed for Anime News Network; he said that while the main characters sounded like "real people", the secondary ones "[came] off as caricatures". Lori Lancaster of Mania.com described Case Closed as "a clever series that had mysteries at every corner", noting the "bizarre" and "interesting" nature of each case. IGN's Chris Wyatt was positive to the manner the cases were set up, relating them to Agatha Christie's "closed room" mysteries. He described the series as "Inspector Gadget meets Law & Order but in an anime style." His colleague, Harris, however, expressed annoyance with repetitive elements in the show and the contrived methods the series uses to keep Conan's identity a secret from certain characters.