Carpenter bee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Carpenter bee
Xylocopa violacea obtaining nectar
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Hymenoptera
Suborder:Apocrita
Superfamily:Apoidea
Family:Apidae
Subfamily:Xylocopinae
Tribe:Xylocopini
Genus:Xylocopa
Latreille, 1802
Type species
Xylocopa violacea
Linnaeus, 1758
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Carpenter bee
Xylocopa violacea obtaining nectar
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Hymenoptera
Suborder:Apocrita
Superfamily:Apoidea
Family:Apidae
Subfamily:Xylocopinae
Tribe:Xylocopini
Genus:Xylocopa
Latreille, 1802
Type species
Xylocopa violacea
Linnaeus, 1758

Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large bees distributed worldwide. There are some 500 species of carpenter bee in 31 subgenera.[1] Their name comes from the fact that nearly all species build their nests in burrows in dead wood, bamboo, or structural timbers (except those in the subgenus Proxylocopa, which nest in the ground). Members of the related tribe Ceratinini are sometimes referred to as "small carpenter bees".

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus was described by French entomologist Pierre André Latreille in 1802. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek xylokopos/ξῦλοκὀπος "wood-cutter".[2]

Characteristics[edit]

Carpenter bees have large compound eyes

In several species, the females live alongside their own daughters or sisters, creating a small social group. They use wood bits to form partitions between the cells in the nest. A few species bore holes in wood dwellings. Since the tunnels are near the surface, structural damage is generally minor or nonexistent.[3]

Carpenter bees can be important pollinators on open-faced flowers, even obligate pollinators on some, such as the Maypop (Passiflora incarnata), though many species are also known to "rob" nectar by slitting the sides of flowers with deep corollas.

In the United States, there are two eastern species, Xylocopa virginica, and Xylocopa micans, and three other species that are primarily western in distribution, Xylocopa varipuncta, Xylocopa tabaniformis orpifex and Xylocopa californica. X. virginica is by far the more widely distributed species.[4] Some are often mistaken for a bumblebee species, as they can be similar in size and coloration, though most carpenter bees have a shiny abdomen, while in bumblebees the abdomen is completely clothed with dense hair. Males of some species have a white or yellow face, where the females do not; males also often have much larger eyes than the females, which relates to their mating behavior. Male bees are often seen hovering near nests, and will approach nearby animals. However, males are harmless, since they do not have a stinger.[5] Female carpenter bees are capable of stinging, but they are docile and rarely sting unless caught in the hand or otherwise directly provoked.[4]

Many Old World carpenter bees have a special pouch-like structure on the inside of their first metasomal tergite called the acarinarium where certain species of mites (Dinogamasus spp.) reside as commensals. The exact nature of the relationship is not fully understood, though in other bees that carry mites, the mites are beneficial, feeding either on fungi in the nest, or on other, harmful mites.

Behavior[edit]

Carpenter bee nest in a tree trunk
A male Xylocopa caffra carpenter bee, feeding from flower, South Africa
Carpenter bee gallery in a split piece of 2×4 wood

Carpenter bees are traditionally considered solitary bees, though some species have simple social nests in which mothers and daughters may cohabit. However, even solitary species tend to be gregarious, and often several will nest near each other. It has been occasionally reported that when females cohabit, there may be a division of labor between them, where one female may spend most of her time as a guard within the nest, motionless and near the entrance, while another female spends most of her time foraging for provisions.

Carpenter bees make nests by tunneling into wood, vibrating their bodies as they rasp their mandibles against the wood, each nest having a single entrance which may have many adjacent tunnels. The entrance is often a perfectly circular hole measuring about 16 millimetres (0.63 in) on the underside of a beam, bench, or tree limb. Carpenter bees do not eat wood. They discard the bits of wood, or re-use particles to build partitions between cells. The tunnel functions as a nursery for brood and storage for the pollen/nectar upon which the brood subsists. The provision masses of some species are among the most complex in shape of any group of bees; whereas most bees fill their brood cells with a soupy mass, and others form simple spheroidal pollen masses, Xylocopa form elongate and carefully sculpted masses that have several projections which keep the bulk of the mass from coming into contact with the cell walls, sometimes resembling an irregular caltrop. The eggs are very large relative to the size of the female, and are some of the largest eggs among all insects.[6]

There are two very different mating systems that appear to be common in carpenter bees, and often this can be determined simply by examining specimens of the males of any given species. Species in which the males have large eyes are characterized by a mating system where the males either search for females by patrolling, or by hovering and waiting for passing females, whom they then pursue. In the other type of mating system, the males often have very small heads, but there is a large, hypertrophied glandular reservoir in the mesosoma, which releases pheromones into the airstream behind the male while it flies or hovers. The pheromone advertises the presence of the male to females.[7]

Species[edit]

Xylocopa cubaecola in Guantanamo; endemic for Cuba
Xylocopa waterhousei female
  • Xylocopa abbotti (Cockerell, 1909)
  • Xylocopa abbreviata Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa acutipennis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa adumbrata Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa adusta Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa aeneipennis (DeGeer, 1773)
  • Xylocopa aeratus (Smith, 1851)
  • Xylocopa aestuans (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Xylocopa aethiopica Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa africana (Fabricius, 1781)
  • Xylocopa albiceps Fabricius, 1804
  • Xylocopa albifrons Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa albinotum Matsumura, 1926
  • Xylocopa alternata Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa alticola (Cockerell, 1919)
  • Xylocopa alticola Hedicke, 1938
  • Xylocopa amamensis Sonan, 1934
  • Xylocopa amauroptera Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa amazonica Enderlein, 1913
  • Xylocopa amedaei Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa amethystina (Fabricius, 1793)
  • Xylocopa andarabana Hedicke, 1938
  • Xylocopa andica Enderlein, 1913
  • Xylocopa angulosa Maa, 1954
  • Xylocopa anthophoroides Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa apicalis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa appendiculata Smith, 1852
  • Xylocopa artifex Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa aruana Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa assimilis Ritsema, 1880
  • Xylocopa augusti Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa auripennis Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa aurorea Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa aurulenta (Fabricius, 1804)
  • Xylocopa bakeriana (Cockerell, 1914)
  • Xylocopa balteata Maa, 1943
  • Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, 1902
  • Xylocopa bangkaensis Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa barbatella Cockerell, 1931
  • Xylocopa bariwal Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa basalis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa bentoni Cockerell, 1919
  • Xylocopa bequaerti (Cockerell, 1930)
  • Xylocopa bhowara Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa biangulata Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa bicarinata Alfken, 1932
  • Xylocopa bicristata Maa, 1954
  • Xylocopa bilineata Friese, 1914
  • Xylocopa bimaculata Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa binongkona van der Vecht, 1953
  • Xylocopa bluethgeni Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa bombiformis Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa bomboides Smith, 1879
  • Xylocopa bombylans (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Xylocopa boops Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa bouyssoui Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa brasilianorum (Linnaeus, 1767)
  • Xylocopa braunsi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa bruesi Cockerell, 1914
  • Xylocopa bryorum (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Xylocopa buginesica Vecht, 1953
  • Xylocopa buruana Lieftinck, 1956
  • Xylocopa caerulea (Fabricius, 1804)
  • Xylocopa caffra (Linnaeus, 1767)
  • Xylocopa calcarata (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa calens Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa californica Cresson, 1864
  • Xylocopa caloptera Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa canaria (Cockerell & LeVeque, 1925)
  • Xylocopa cantabrita Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa capensis Spinola, 1838
  • Xylocopa capitata Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa carbonaria Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa caribea Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa caspari van der Vecht, 1953
  • Xylocopa caviventris Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa cearensis Ducke, 1911
  • Xylocopa ceballosi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa celebensis (Gribodo, 1894)
  • Xylocopa chapini (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa chinensis Friese, 1911
  • Xylocopa chiyakensis (Cockerell, 1908)
  • Xylocopa chlorina (Cockerell, 1915)
  • Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, 1902
  • Xylocopa chrysoptera Latreille, 1809
  • Xylocopa ciliata Burmeister, 1876
  • Xylocopa citrina Friese, 1909
  • Xylocopa clarionensis Hurd, 1958
  • Xylocopa claripennis Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa cloti Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa cockerelli Maa, 1943
  • Xylocopa codinai Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa colona Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa columbiensis Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa combinata Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa combusta Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa concolorata Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa conradsiana Friese, 1911
  • Xylocopa coracina van der Vecht, 1953
  • Xylocopa cornigera Friese, 1909
  • Xylocopa coronata Smith, 1861
  • Xylocopa cribrata Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa cubaecola Lucas, 1857
  • Xylocopa cuernosensis (Cockerell, 1915)
  • Xylocopa cyanea Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa cyanescens Brullé, 1832
  • Xylocopa dalbertisi Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa dapitanensis (Cockerell, 1915)
  • Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, 1926
  • Xylocopa dejeanii Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa dibongoana Hedicke, 1923
  • Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, 1809
  • Xylocopa disconota Friese, 1914
  • Xylocopa distinguenda Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa ditypa Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa diversipes Smith, 1861
  • Xylocopa dolosa Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa dormeyeri (Enderlein, 1909)
  • Xylocopa duala Strand, 1921
  • Xylocopa electa Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa elegans Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa erlangeri Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa erythrina Gribodo, 1894
  • Xylocopa escalerai Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa esica Cameron, 1902
  • Xylocopa euchlora Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa euxantha Cockerell, 1933
  • Xylocopa eximia Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa fabriciana Moure, 1960
  • Xylocopa fallax Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa fenestrata (Fabricius, 1798)
  • Xylocopa fervens Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa fimbriata Fabricius, 1804
  • Xylocopa flavicollis (DeGeer, 1778)
  • Xylocopa flavifrons Matsumura, 1912
  • Xylocopa flavonigrescens Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa flavorufa (DeGeer, 1778)
  • Xylocopa forbesii W. F. Kirby, 1883
  • Xylocopa forsiusi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa fortissima Cockerell, 1930
  • Xylocopa fransseni van der Vecht, 1953
  • Xylocopa friesiana Maa, 1939
  • Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789)
  • Xylocopa fuliginata Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa fulva Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa funesta Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa fuscata Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa gabonica (Gribodo, 1894)
  • Xylocopa ganglbaueri Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa gaullei Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa ghilianii Gribodo, 1891
  • Xylocopa gracilis Dusmet y Alonso, 1923
  • Xylocopa graueri Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa gressitti Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa gribodoi Magretti, 1892
  • Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa grossa (Drury, 1770)
  • Xylocopa grubaueri Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa gualanensis Cockerell, 1912
  • Xylocopa guatemalensis Cockerell, 1912
  • Xylocopa guigliae Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa haefligeri Friese, 1909
  • Xylocopa haematospila Moure, 1951
  • Xylocopa hafizii Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa hellenica Spinola, 1843
  • Xylocopa hirsutissima Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa hottentotta Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa hyalinipennis Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa ignescens (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa imitator Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa incandescens (Cockerell, 1932)
  • Xylocopa incerta Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa incompleta Ritsema, 1880
  • Xylocopa inconspicua Maa, 1937
  • Xylocopa inconstans Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa inquirenda Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa insola Vachal, 1910
  • Xylocopa insularis Smith, 1857
  • Xylocopa io Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa iranica Maa, 1954
  • Xylocopa iridipennis Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa iris (Christ, 1791)
  • Xylocopa isabelleae Hurd, 1959
  • Xylocopa javana Friese, 1914
  • Xylocopa kamerunensis Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa karnyi Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa kerri (Cockerell, 1929)
  • Xylocopa kuehni Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa lachnea Moure, 1951
  • Xylocopa lanata Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa langi (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa lateralis Say, 1837
  • Xylocopa lateritia Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa latipes (Drury, 1773)
  • Xylocopa lautipennis (Cockerell, 1933)
  • Xylocopa lehmanni Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa lepeletieri Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa leucocephala Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa leucothoracoides Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa levequeae Maa, 1943
  • Xylocopa lieftincki Leys, 2000
  • Xylocopa lombokensis Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa longespinosa Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa longula Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa loripes Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa lucbanensis (Cockerell, 1927)
  • Xylocopa lucida Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa lugubris Gerstäcker, 1857
  • Xylocopa lundqvisti Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa luteola Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa madida Friese, 1925
  • Xylocopa madurensis Friese, 1913
  • Xylocopa maesoi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa magnifica (Cockerell, 1929)
  • Xylocopa maidli Maa, 1940
  • Xylocopa maior Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa marginella Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa mastrucata Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa mazarredoi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa mcgregori Cockerell, 1920
  • Xylocopa mckeani (Cockerell, 1929)
  • Xylocopa meadewaldoi Hurd, 1959
  • Xylocopa mendozana Enderlein, 1913
  • Xylocopa merceti Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa metallica Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa mexicanorum Cockerell, 1912
  • Xylocopa meyeri Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa micans Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa micheneri Hurd, 1978
  • Xylocopa mimetica Cockerell, 1915
  • Xylocopa minor Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa mirabilis Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa mixta Radoszkowski, 1881
  • Xylocopa modesta Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa mohnikei Cockerell, 1907
  • Xylocopa mongolicus (Wu, 1983)
  • Xylocopa montana Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa mordax Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa morotaiana Lieftinck, 1956
  • Xylocopa muscaria (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Xylocopa myops Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa nasalis Westwood, 1842
  • Xylocopa nasica Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa nautlana Cockerell, 1904
  • Xylocopa negligenda Maa, 1939
  • Xylocopa nigrella Hurd, 1959
  • Xylocopa nigrescens Friese, 1901
  • Xylocopa nigricans Vachal, 1910
  • Xylocopa nigricaula (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa nigripes Friese, 1915
  • Xylocopa nigrita (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Xylocopa nigrocaerulea Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa nigrocaudata Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa nigrocincta Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa nigroclypeata Rayment, 1935
  • Xylocopa nigroplagiata Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa nigrotarsata Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa nitidiventris Smith, 1878
  • Xylocopa nix (Maa, 1954)
  • Xylocopa nobilis Smith, 1859
  • Xylocopa nogueirai Hurd & Moure, 1960
  • Xylocopa nyassica Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa oblonga Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa obscurata Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa obscuritarsis Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa occipitalis Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa ocellaris Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa ocularis Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa ogasawarensis Matsumura, 1932
  • Xylocopa olivacea (Fabricius, 1778)
  • Xylocopa olivieri Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa ordinaria Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa ornata Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa orthogonaspis Moure, 2003
  • Xylocopa orthosiphonis (Cockerell, 1908)
  • Xylocopa pallidiscopa Hurd, 1961
  • Xylocopa parviceps Morawitz, 1895
  • Xylocopa parvula Rayment, 1935
  • Xylocopa perforator Smith, 1861
  • Xylocopa perkinsi Cameron, 1901
  • Xylocopa perpunctata (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa peruana Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa perversa Wiedemann, 1824
  • Xylocopa pervirescens Cockerell, 1931
  • Xylocopa phalothorax Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa philippinensis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa pilosa Friese, 1922
  • Xylocopa plagioxantha Lieftinck, 1964
  • Xylocopa praeusta Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa prashadi Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa preussi Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa provida Smith, 1863
  • Xylocopa proximata Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa przewalskyi Morawitz, 1886
  • Xylocopa pseudoleucothorax Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa pseudoviolacea Popov, 1947
  • Xylocopa pubescens Spinola, 1838
  • Xylocopa pulchra Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa punctifrons Cockerell, 1917
  • Xylocopa punctigena Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa punctilabris Morawitz, 1894
  • Xylocopa pusulata Vachal, 1910
  • Xylocopa ramakrishnai Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa rejecta Vachal, 1910
  • Xylocopa remota Maa, 1938
  • Xylocopa rogenhoferi Friese, 1900
  • Xylocopa rotundiceps Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa rufa Friese, 1901
  • Xylocopa ruficeps Friese, 1910
  • Xylocopa ruficollis Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa ruficornis Fabricius, 1804
  • Xylocopa rufidorsum Enderlein, 1913
  • Xylocopa rufipes Smith, 1852
  • Xylocopa rufitarsis Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa rutilans Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa samarensis (Cockerell & LeVeque, 1925)
  • Xylocopa schoana Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa scioensis Gribodo, 1884
  • Xylocopa senex Friese, 1909
  • Xylocopa senior Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa shelfordi Cameron, 1902
  • Xylocopa sicheli Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa signata Morawitz, 1875
  • Xylocopa similis Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa simillima Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa sinensis (Wu, 1983)
  • Xylocopa sinensis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa smithii Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa sogdiana Popov & Ponomareva, 1961
  • Xylocopa somalica Magretti, 1895
  • Xylocopa sonorina Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa sphinx Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa stadelmanni Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa stanleyi (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa steindachneri Maidl, 1912
  • Xylocopa strandi Dusmet y Alonso, 1924
  • Xylocopa subcombusta (LeVeque, 1928)
  • Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa subjuncta Vachal, 1898
  • Xylocopa subvirescens Cresson, 1879
  • Xylocopa subvolatilis (Cockerell, 1918)
  • Xylocopa subzonata Moure, 1949
  • Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa, 1970
  • Xylocopa sulcifrons Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa suspecta Moure & Camargo, 1988
  • Xylocopa suspiciosa Vachal, 1899
  • Xylocopa sycophanta Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa tabaniformis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa tacanensis Moure, 1949
  • Xylocopa tambelanensis (Cockerell, 1926)
  • Xylocopa tanganyikae Strand, 1911
  • Xylocopa tayabanica Cockerell, 1930
  • Xylocopa tegulata Friese, 1911
  • Xylocopa tenkeana Cockerell, 1933
  • Xylocopa tenuata Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa tenuiscapa Westwood, 1840
  • Xylocopa teredo Guilding, 1825
  • Xylocopa tesselata Maa, 1970
  • Xylocopa thoracica Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa togoensis Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa torrida (Westwood, 1838)
  • Xylocopa tranquebarica (Fabricius, 1804)
  • Xylocopa tranquebarorum (Swederus, 1787)
  • Xylocopa transitoria Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa tricolor Ritsema, 1876
  • Xylocopa trifasciata Gribodo, 1891
  • Xylocopa trochanterica Vachal, 1910
  • Xylocopa truxali Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa tumida Friese, 1903
  • Xylocopa tumorifera Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa turanica Morawitz, 1875
  • Xylocopa uclesiensis Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa unicolor Smith, 1861
  • Xylocopa ustulata Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa vachali Pérez, 1901
  • Xylocopa valga Gerstäcker, 1872
  • Xylocopa varentzowi Morawitz, 1895
  • Xylocopa varians Smith, 1874
  • Xylocopa varipes Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa varipuncta Patton, 1879
  • Xylocopa velutina Lieftinck, 1957
  • Xylocopa versicolor Alfken, 1930
  • Xylocopa vestita Hurd & Moure, 1963
  • Xylocopa villosa Friese, 1909
  • Xylocopa violacea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)
  • Xylocopa viridigastra Lepeletier, 1841
  • Xylocopa viridis Smith, 1854
  • Xylocopa vittata Enderlein, 1903
  • Xylocopa vogtiana Enderlein, 1913
  • Xylocopa volatilis Smith, 1861
  • Xylocopa vulpina Alfken, 1930
  • Xylocopa waterhousei Leys, 2000
  • Xylocopa watmoughi Eardley, 1983
  • Xylocopa wellmani Cockerell, 1906
  • Xylocopa wilmattae Cockerell, 1912
  • Xylocopa xanti Mocsáry, 1883
  • Xylocopa yunnanensis Wu, 1982
  • Xylocopa zonata Alfken, 1930

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minckley, R. L. (1998). "A cladistic analysis and classification of the subgenera and genera of the large carpenter bees, tribe Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae)". Scientific Papers (Natural History Museum, University of Kansas) 9: 1–47. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.16168. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  2. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 472. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  3. ^ Jones, Susan. "Fact Sheet Carpenter Bees". Ohio State University Extension. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Yanega, D. "Carpenter Bees, Order Hymenoptera Family Apidae, Genus Xylocopa". U.C. Riverside Entomology Research Museum. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  5. ^ Potter, M. "Carpenter Bees". University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Department of Entomology. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  6. ^ Salvatore Vicidomini (February 9, 2005). "Chapter 40 — Largest Eggs". Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. 
  7. ^ Minckley, R. L.; Buchmann, S. L.; Wcislo, W. T. (1991). "Bioassay evidence for a sex attractant pheromone in the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa varipuncta (Anthophoridae: Hymenoptera)". Journal of Zoology 224 (2): 285–291. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb04805.x. 

External links[edit]