Career

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This article is about a person's occupational history. For the board game, see Careers (board game). For the films, see Career (film).

A career is an individual's journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Definitions and etymology[edit]

Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". In this definition career is understood to relate to a range of aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Career is also frequently understood to relate to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in career woman. A third way in which the term career is used to describe an occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education,[1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework.[2] In this case "a career" is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector e.g. "a career in law" or "a career in the building trade".

The etymology of the term comes from the French word carriere (16 c.) ("road, racecourse") which, in turn, comes from the Latin word "(via) cararia" (track for wheeled vehicles) which originated from the Latin word carrus" which means "wagon".[citation needed]

Historic changes in careers[edit]

For a pre-modernist notion of "career", compare cursus honorum.

By the late 20th century, a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions) and more widespread education had allowed it to become possible to plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the "creative class".

Career management[edit]

Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Ideas of what comprise "career management skills" are describe by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland, and England[3])[4] and the Seven C's of Digital Career Literacy (specifically relating to the Internet skills).[5]

Key skills include the ability to reflect on one's current career, research the labour market, determine whether education is necessary, find openings, and make career changes.

Career choice[edit]

According to Behling and others, an individual's decision to join a firm may depend on any of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact.[6]

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs severely skews the decision making process. In many markets employees work particular careers simply because they were forced to accept whatever work was available to them. Additionally, Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career choice, depending on the type of culture.[7]

When choosing a career that's best for you, according to US News, there are multiple things to consider. Some of those include: natural talents, work style, social interaction, work-life balance, whether or not you are looking to give back, whether you are comfortable in the public eye, dealing with stress or not, and finally, how much money you want to make. If choosing a career feels like too much pressure, here's another option: pick a path that feels right today by making the best decision you can, and know that you can change your mind in the future. In today's workplace, choosing a career doesn't necessarily mean you have to stick with that line of work for your entire life. Make a smart decision, and plan to re-evaulate down the line based on your long-term objectives. [8]

Career (occupation) changing[edit]

Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and career management. Over a lifetime, both the individual and the labour market will change; it is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their lives. Data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics through the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979 showed that individuals between the ages of 18 and 38 will hold more than 10 jobs.[9]

A survey conducted by Right Management[10] suggests the following reasons for career changing.

According to an article on Time.com, one out of three people currently employed (as of 2008) spends about an hour per day searching for another position.[10]

Career support[edit]

There are a range of different educational, counselling and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support is commonly offered while people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labour market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment, and during transition to retirement. Support may be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career support is sometimes known as "career guidance" as in the OECD definition of career guidance:

The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including helplines and web-based services). They include career information provision (in print, ICT-based and other forms), assessment and self-assessment tools, counselling interviews, career education programmes (to help individuals develop their self-awareness, opportunity awareness, and career management skills), taster programmes (to sample options before choosing them), work search programmes, and transition services."[11]

However this use of the term "career guidance" can be confusing as the term is also commonly used to describe the activities of career counselors.

Provision of career support[edit]

Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is informal and provided through personal networks or existing relationships such as management. There is a market for private career support however the bulk of career support that exists as a professionalised activity is provided by the public sector.[citation needed]

Types of career support[edit]

Key types of career support include:

Some research shows adding one year of schooling beyond high school creates an increase of wages 17.8% per worker. However, additional years of schooling, beyond 9 or 10 years, have little effect on worker's wages. In summary, better educated, bigger benefits. In 2010, 90% of the U.S. Workforce had a high school diploma, 64% had some college, and 34% had at least a bachelor's degree.[17]

The common problem that people may encounter when trying to achieve an education for a career is the cost. The career that comes with the education must pay well enough to be able to pay off the schooling. The benefits of schooling can differ greatly depending on the degree (or certification) obtained, the programs the school may offer, and the ranking of the school. Sometimes, colleges provide students more with just education to prepare for careers. It is not uncommon for colleges to provide pathways and support straight into the workforce the students may desire.[18]

Much career support is delivered face-to-face, but an increasing amount of career support is delivered online.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ career. dictionary.reference.com. 2012. Retrieved 20120-02-10.
  2. ^ career. The Free Dictionary. 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  3. ^ Careers Blueprint. Excellence Gateway. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.
  4. ^ Hooley, T., Watts, A. G., Sultana, R. G., & Neary, S. (2013). "The 'blueprint' framework for career management skills: a critical exploration". British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 41 (2): 117. doi:10.1080/03069885.2012.713908. 
  5. ^ a b Hooley, T. (2012). "How the internet changed career: framing the relationship between career development and online technologies". Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling (NICEC) 29: 3. 
  6. ^ Schreuder, A. M. G. (2006). Careers: An Organisational Perspective. p. 187. ISBN 9780702171758. 
  7. ^ Ott-Holland, C. J.; Huang, J. L.; Ryan, A. M.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L. (October 2013). "Culture and Vocational Interests: The Moderating Role of Collectivism and Gender Egalitarianism". Journal of Counseling Psychology (American Psychological Association) 60 (4): 569–581. doi:10.1037/a0033587. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  8. ^ http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/outside-voices-careers/2010/12/06/how-to-choose-a-career-thats-best-for-you
  9. ^ "National Longitudinal Surveys". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  10. ^ a b Cullen, L. T. (28 May 2008) “Top reasons why we change jobs”. Time.
  11. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Commission (OECD & EC) (2004). Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers. Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264015191.
  12. ^ UCDavis Human Resources. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  13. ^ “Why is a Career Assessment Important?” Success Factors. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  14. ^ Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, A.G. and Coiffait, L. (2012). Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers Work in English Schools. London: Pearson.
  15. ^ Law, B. & Watts, A.G. (1977). Schools, Careers and Community: a Study of Some Approaches to Careers Education in Schools. London: Church Information Office. ISBN 0715190296.
  16. ^ Grubb, W.N., Lazerson, M. (2005). "Vocationalism in Higher Education: The Triumph of the Education Gospel". The Journal of Higher Education 76: 1. doi:10.1353/jhe.2005.0007. 
  17. ^ DeVol, R., Shen, I., Bedroussian, A., Zhang, N. (2013). A Matter of Degrees: The Effect of Educational Attainment on Regional Economic Prosperity. Milken Institute
  18. ^ Brennan, Susan. (2013-02-13) How Colleges Should Prepare Students For The Current Economy – Yahoo Finance. Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.

External links[edit]