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Career describes an individuals' journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways.
Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". In this definition career is understood to relate to a range of aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Career is also frequently understood to relate only to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in Career woman . A third way in which the term career is used is to describe an occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education, and is considered to be a person’s lifework. In this case "a career" is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector e.g. "a career in law" or "a career in the building trade".
The etymology of the term comes from the m. French word carriere (16 c.) ("road, racecourse") which, in turn, comes from the Latin word "(via) cararia" (track for wheeled vehicles) which originated from the Latin word carrus" which means "wagon".
For a pre-modernist notion of "career", compare cursus honorum.
By the late 20th century, a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions) and more widespread education had allowed it to become possible to plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the "creative class".
Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Career management is often seen as being underpinned by a series of attributes, abilities and skills which are usually described as career management skills (CMS). The Blueprint model of career management skills (in US, Canada, Australia, Scotland and England) is an attempt to describe what career management skills comprise of. Another career management framework is the Seven C's of Digital Career Literacy that sets out career management skills specifically relating to the online context.
A key aspect of career management is the ability to research opportunities and then to make career choices. Another is the ability to reflect on their current career and on labour market opportunities and then to make career changes.
According to Behling and others, an individuals decision to join a firm may depend on any of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact.
These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs severely skews the decision making process. In many markets employees work particular careers simply because they were forced to accept whatever work was available to them.
Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and career management. As over the lifecourse both the individual and the labour market will change it is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their life. Data collected by the U.S. Bureaur of Labor Statistics through the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979 showed that individuals between the ages of 18 and 38 will hold more than 10 jobs.
A survey conducted by Right Management. suggests the following reasons for career changing.
Therefore being able to find and capitalise on new opportunities is an important career managment skill. According to an article on Time.com, one out of three people currently employed spends about an hour per day searching for another position.
There are a range of different educational, counselling and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support can be offered at any pointa across the lifecourse. Career support is commonly offered while people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labour market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment and during transition to retirement. Support may be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career support is sometimes known as "career guidance" as in the OECD defintion of career guidance.
The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance(including helplines and web-based services). They include career information provision (in print, ICT-based and other forms), assessment and self-assessment tools, counselling interviews, career education programmes (to help individuals develop their self-awareness, opportunity awareness, and career management skills), taster programmes (to sample options before choosing them), work search programmes, and transition services."
However this use of the term "career guidance" can be confusing as the term is also commonly used to describe the activities of Career counselors.
Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is informal and provided through personal networks or existing relationships such as management. However where career support exists as a professionalised activity it needs to be organised and resourced. There is a maket for private career support however the bulk of career support that exists as a professionalised activity is provided by the public sector.
Key types of career support include:
Much career support is delivered face-to-face, but an increasing amount of career support is delivered online.
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