Cardiogenic shock

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Cardiogenic shock
Classification and external resources
ICD-10R57.0
ICD-9785.51
DiseasesDB29216
MedlinePlus000185
eMedicinemed/285
MeSHD012770
 
Jump to: navigation, search

Redirect circulatory shock

Cardiogenic shock
Classification and external resources
ICD-10R57.0
ICD-9785.51
DiseasesDB29216
MedlinePlus000185
eMedicinemed/285
MeSHD012770

Cardiogenic shock is based upon an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively.[1][2][3][4] [5]

As this is a type of circulatory shock there is insufficient perfusion of tissue (i.e. the heart) to meet the required demands for oxygen and nutrients. Cardiogenic shock is a largely irreversible condition and as such is more often fatal than not.[6] The condition involves increasingly more pervasive cell death from oxygen starvation (hypoxia) and nutrient starvation (e.g. hypoglycemia).[7][8] Because of this it may lead to cardiac arrest (or circulatory arrest) which is an acute cessation of cardiac pump function.[4]

Cardiogenic shock is defined by sustained hypotension with tissue hypoperfusion despite adequate left ventricular filling pressure. Signs of tissue hypoperfusion include oliguria (<30 mL/h), cool extremities, and altered level of consciousness.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Causes[edit]

Cardiogenic shock is caused by the failure of the heart to pump effectively. It can be due to damage to the heart muscle, most often from a large myocardial infarction. Other causes include arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, cardiac valve problems, ventricular outflow obstruction (i.e. aortic valve stenosis, aortic dissection, cardiac temponade, constrictive pericaditis systolic anterior motion (SAM) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or ventriculoseptal defects. It can also be caused by a sudden decompressurization (e.g. in an aircraft), where air bubbles are released into the bloodstream (Henry's Law), causing heartfailure.[1][2][3][4][5][9][10]

Diagnosis[edit]

Electrocardiogram[edit]

An electrocardiogram helps establishing the exact diagnosis and guides treatment, it may reveal:

Ultrasound[edit]

Echocardiography may show poor ventricular function, signs of PED, ventricular septal rupture (VSR), an obstructed outflow tract or cardiomyopathy.

Swan-ganz catheter[edit]

The Swan-ganz catheter or pulmonary artery catheter may assist in the diagnosis by providing information on the hemodynamics.

Biopsy[edit]

In case of suspected cardiomyopathy a biopsy of heart muscle may be needed to make a definite diagnosis. but biopsy should only be done when third space is suspected

Treatment[edit]

In cardiogenic shock, depending on the type of myocardial infarction, treatment involves infusion of fluids, or in shock refractory to fluids, inotropic medications. In case of cardiac arrhythmia several anti-arrhythmic agents may be administered, i.e. adenosine, verapamil (source is outdated - verapamil and β-blocker are contraindicated in cardiogenic shock), amiodarone, β-blocker or glucagon.[11] Positive inotropic agents, which enhance the heart's pumping capabilities, are used to improve the contractility and correct the hypotension. Should that not suffice an intra-aortic balloon pump (which reduces workload for the heart, and improves perfusion of the coronary arteries) can be considered or a left ventricular assist device (which augments the pump-function of the heart).[1][2][3] Finally, as a last resort, if the patient can be made stable enough and otherwise qualifies, cardiac transplantation can be performed. These invasive measures are important tools- more than 50% of patients who do not die immediately due to cardiac arrest from a lethal arrthythmia and live to reach the hospital (who have usually suffered a severe acute myocardial infarction, which in itself still has a relatively high mortality rate), die within the first 24 hours. The mortality rate for those still living at time of admission who suffer complications (among others, cardiac arrest or further arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiac tamponade, a ruptured or dissecting aneurysm, or another heart attack) from cardiogenic shock is even worse around 85%, especially without drastic measures such as ventricular assist devices or transplantation.

Cardiogenic shock may be treated with intravenous dobutamine, which acts on β1 receptors of the heart leading to increased contractility and heart rate. [12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rippe, James M.; Irwin, Richard S. (2003). Irwin and Rippe's intensive care medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-3548-3. OCLC 53868338. [page needed]
  2. ^ a b c Marino, Paul L. (1998). The ICU book. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-683-05565-8. OCLC 300112092. [page needed]
  3. ^ a b c Society of Critical Care Medicine. (2001). Fundamental Critical Care Support. Society of Critical Care Medicine. ISBN 978-0-936145-02-0. OCLC 48632566. [page needed]
  4. ^ a b c Textbooks of Internal Medicine
  5. ^ a b Shock: An Overview PDF by Michael L. Cheatham, MD, Ernest F.J. Block, MD, Howard G. Smith, MD, John T. Promes, MD, Surgical Critical Care Service, Department of Surgical Education, Orlando Regional Medical Center Orlando, Florida
  6. ^ Nitasha Sarswat, MD And Steven M. Hollenberg, MD (February 2010). "Cardiogenic Shock". Hospital Practice. 38 (1): 74–83. doi:10.3810/hp.2010.02.281. PMID 20469627. 
  7. ^ Chelliah YR (December 2000). "Ventricular arrhythmias associated with hypoglycaemia". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 28 (6): 698–700. PMID 11153301. 
  8. ^ Navarro-Gutiérrez S, González-Martínez F, Fernández-Pérez MT, García-Moreno MT, Ballester-Vidal MR, Pulido-Morillo FJ (December 2003). "Bradycardia related to hypoglycaemia". European Journal of Emergency Medicine 10 (4): 331–3. doi:10.1097/01.mej.0000103764.80742.76. PMID 14676515. 
  9. ^ Cardiogenic shock Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care of The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  10. ^ Introduction to management of shock for junior ICU trainees and medical students Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care of The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  11. ^ Hall-Boyer K, Zaloga GP, Chernow B (July 1984). "Glucagon: hormone or therapeutic agent?". Critical Care Medicine 12 (7): 584–9. doi:10.1097/00003246-198407000-00008. PMID 6375966. 
  12. ^ Rang and Dale's Pharmacology, H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M.Ritter, R.J. Flower, Churchhill Livingston, Elsevier, 6th Edition

External links[edit]