Capital punishment in Oklahoma

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Capital punishment is legal in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.

Oklahoma is one of the leading states in number of performed post-Furman executions, behind only Texas and Virginia[1] and leading in number of executions per capita.[2]

Oklahoma was also the first state and the first jurisdiction in the world to adopt lethal injection as method of executions.[3] On December 16, 2010, Oklahoma became the first American state to use pentobarbital in the execution of John David Duty.[4]

Contents

Capital offenses

Process

Otherwise, life imprisonment without parole or life imprisonment are the only sentences allowed.

As in any other state, per federal case law, people who are under 18 at the time of commission of the capital crime [6] or mentally retarded[7] are constitutionally precluded from being executed.

A sentence of death has an automatic appeal to the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals.

The sentence review shall be in addition to direct appeal, if taken, and the review and appeal shall be consolidated for consideration. The court shall render its decision on legal errors enumerated, the factual substantiation of the verdict, and the validity of the sentence.

Clemency

Under current statute the Governor may grant a commutation of the death sentence, but must have the Recommendation of Clemency From a Board or Advisory Group. The only post-Furman pardon was granted by former Gov. Brad Henry on May 13, 2004 to Osvaldo Torres.[8]

Henry explainted that it was important to remember that the actual shooter in these horrific murders was also sentenced to death and faces execution and that he concluded that there is a possibility a significant miscarriage of justice occurred... specifically that the violation of his Vienna Convention Rights contributed to trial counsel's ineffectiveness, that the jury did not hear significant evidence, and that the result of the trial is unreliable.[8]

In earlier years Governor Lee Cruce commuted every death sentence imposed during his administration (1911–1915).[8]

Method

Since the resumption of executions in 1990 Lethal injection has been the primary method used for execution. However if lethal injection is to ever be outlawed the state has two secondary options outlined in its state constitution. The first being Electrocution by electric chair which was used before the national moratorium began in 1967, with shooting by firing squad as the second option should both lethal injection and electrocution be outlawed.[9]

List of individuals executed by the State of Oklahoma since 1976

A total of 100 individuals convicted of murder have been executed by the State of Oklahoma since 1976. All were executed by lethal injection.

#Executed personDate of executionVictim(s)Governor
1Charles Troy Coleman10 September 1990John SewardHenry Bellmon
2Robyn Leroy Parks10 March 1992Abdullah IbrahimDavid Walters
3Olan Randle Robinson13 March 1992Shiela Lovejoy, Robert Swinford
4Thomas J. Grasso20 March 1995Hilda JohnsonFrank Keating
5Roger Dale Stafford1 July 1995Melvin Lorenz, Linda Lorenz, Richard Lorenz, Isaac Freeman, Louis Zacarias, Terri Horst, David Salsman, Anthony Tew, David Lindsey
6Robert Allen Brecheen [10]11 August 1995Marie Stubbs
7Benjamin Brewer26 April 1996Karen Joyce Stapleton
8Steven Keith Hatch9 August 1996Richard Douglas, Marilyn Douglas
9Scott Dawn Carpenter7 May 1997A.J. Kelley
10Michael Edward Long20 February 1998Sheryl Graber, Andrew Graber
11Stephen Edward Wood5 August 1998Robert B. Brigden
12Tuan Anh Nguyen10 December 1998Amanda White, Joseph White
13John Wayne Duvall17 December 1998Karla Duvall
14John Walter Castro7 January 1999Beulah Grace, Sissons Cox, Rhonda Pappan
15Sean Richard Sellers4 February 1999Paul Bellofatto, Vonda Bellofatto, Robert Bower
16Scotty Lee Moore3 June 1999Alex Fernandez
17Norman Lee Newsted8 July 1999Larry Buckley
18Cornel Cooks2 December 1999Jennie Elva Ridling
19Bobby Lynn Ross9 December 1999Steven Mahan
20Malcolm Rent Johnson6 January 2000Ura Alma Thompson
21Gary Alan Walker13 January 2000Eddie O. Cash, Valerie Shaw-Hartzell, Jane Hilburn, Janet Jewell, Margaret Bell Lydick, DeRonda Gay Roy
22Michael Donald Roberts10 February 2000Lula Mae Brooks
23Kelly Lamont Rogers23 March 2000Karen Marie Lauffenburger
24Ronald Keith Boyd27 April 2000Richard Oldham Riggs
25Charles Adrian Foster25 May 2000Claude Wiley
26James Glenn Rodebeaux1 June 2000Nancy Rose Lee McKinney
27Roger James Berget8 June 2000Rick Lee Patterson
28William Clifford Bryson15 June 2000James Earl Plantz
29Gregg Francis Braun10 August 2000Gwendolyn Sue Miller, Barbara Kchendorfer, Mary Rains, Pete Spurrier, Geraldine Valdez
30George Kent Wallace10 August 2000William Von Eric Domer, Mark Anthony McLaughlin
31Eddie Leroy Trice9 January 2001Ernestine Jones
32Wanda Jean Allen11 January 2001Gloria Jean Leathers
33Floyd Allen Medlock16 January 2001Katherine Ann Busch
34Dion Athansius Smallwood18 January 2001Lois Frederick
35Mark Andrew Fowler23 January 2001John Barrier, Rick Cast, Chumpon Chaowasin
36Billy Ray Fox25 January 2001
37Loyd Winford Lafevers30 January 2001Addie Mae Hawley
38Dorsie Leslie Jones, Jr.1 February 2001Stanley Eugene Buck, Sr.
39Robert William Clayton1 March 2001Rhonda Kay Timmons
40Ronald Dunaway Fluke27 March 2001Ginger Lou Fluke, Kathryn Lee Fluke, Suzanna Michelle Fluke
41Marilyn Kay Plantz1 May 2001James Earl Plantz
42Terrance Anthony James22 May 2001Mark Allen Berry
43Vincent Allen Johnson29 May 2001Shirley Mooneyham
44Jerald Wayne Harjo17 July 2001Ruther Porter
45Jack Dale Walker28 August 2001Shely Deann Ellison, Donald Gary Epperson
46Alvie James Hale, Jr.18 October 2001William Jeffery Perry
47Lois Nadean Smith4 December 2001Cindy Baillee
48Sahib Lateef Al-Mosawi6 December 2001Inaam Al-Nashi, Mohamed Al-Nashi
49David Wayne Woodruff21 January 2002Roger Joel Sarfaty, Lloyd Thompson
50John Joseph Romano29 January 2002
51Randall Eugene Cannon23 July 2002Addie Mae Hawley
52Earl Alexander Frederick, Sr.30 July 2002Bradford Lee Beck
53Jerry Lynn McCracken[11]10 December 2002Tyrrell Lee Boyd, Steve Allen Smith, Timothy Edward Sheets, Carol Ann McDaniels
54Jay Wesley Neill12 December 2002Kay Bruno, Jerri Bowles, Joyce Mullenix, Ralph Zeller
55Ernest Marvin Carter, Jr.17 December 2002Eugene Mankowski
56Daniel Juan Revilla16 January 2003Mark GomezBrad Henry
57Bobby Joe Fields13 February 2003Louise J. Schem
58Walanzo Deon Robinson18 March 2003Dennis Eugene Hill
59John Michael Hooker25 March 2003Sylvia Stokes, Durcilla Morgan
60Scott Allen Hain3 April 2003Michael William Houghton, Laura Lee Sanders
61Don Wilson Hawkins, Jr.8 April 2003Linda Ann Thompson
62Larry Kenneth Jackson17 April 2003Wendy Cade
63Robert Wesley Knighton27 May 2003Richard Denney, Virginia Denney
64Kenneth Chad Charm5 June 2003Brandy Crystian Hill
65Lewis Eugene Gilbert II1 July 2003Roxanne Lynn Ruddell
66Robert Don Duckett8 July 2003John E. Howard
67Bryan Anthony Toles22 July 2003Juan Franceschi, Lonnie Franceschi
68Jackie Lee Willingham24 July 2003Jayne Ellen Van Wey
69Harold Loyd McElmurry III29 July 2003Rosa Vivien Pendley, Robert Pendley
70Tyrone Peter Darks13 January 2004Sherry Goodlow
71Norman Richard Cleary17 February 2004Wanda Neafus
72David Jay Brown9 March 2004Eldon Lee McGuire
73Hung Thanh Le23 March 2004Hai Hong Nguyen
74Robert Leroy Bryan8 June 2004Mildred Inabell Bryan
75Windel Ray Workman26 August 2004Amanda Hollman
76Jimmie Ray Slaughter15 March 2005Melody Sue Wuertz, Jessica Rae Wuertz
77George James Miller, Jr.12 May 2005Gary Kent Dodd
78Michael Lannier Pennington19 July 2005Bradley Thomas Grooms
79Kenneth Eugene Turrentine11 August 2005Avon Stevenson, Anita Richardson, Tina Pennington, Martise Richardson
80Richard Alford Thornburg, Jr.18 April 2006Jim Poteet, Terry Shepard, Kevin Smith
81John Albert Boltz1 June 2006Doug Kirby
82Eric Allen Patton29 August 2006Charlene Kauer
83James Patrick Malicoat31 August 2006Tessa Leadford
84Corey Duane Hamilton9 January 2007Joseph Gooch, Theodore Kindley, Senaida Lara, Steven Williams
85Jimmy Dale Bland26 June 2007Doyle Windle Rains
86Frank Duane Welch21 August 2007Jo Talley Cooper, Debra Anne Stevens
87Terry Lyn Short[12]17 June 2008Ken Yamamoto
88Jessie Cummings25 September 2008Melissa Moody
89Darwin Brown22 January 2009Richard Yost
90Donald Gilson14 May 2009Shane Coffman
91Michael DeLozier9 July 2009Orville Lewis Bullard, Paul Steven Morgan
92Julius Ricardo Young14 January 2010Joyland Morgan, Kewan Morgan
93Donald Ray Wackerly II14 October 2010Pan Sayakhoummane
94John David Duty16 December 2010Curtis Wise
95Billy Don Alverson6 January 2011Richard Kevin Yost
96Jeffrey David Matthews11 January 2011Otis Earl ShortMary Fallin
97Gary Welch5 January 2012Robert Dean Hardcastle
98Timothy Shaun Stemple15 March 2012Trisha Stemple
99Michael Selsor1 May 2012Clayton Chandler
100Michael Hooper14 August 2012Cynthia Jarman, Tonya Jarman, and Timmy Jarman

Historical background

From 1841 to 1966, 132 people were executed in Oklahoma: 42 prior to statehood and 90 since.[13] One of them Arthur Gooch, was executed by the federal government for kidnapping. Hanging was used by the state until 1911. From 1915 to 1966 the electric chair became the sole method of execution.[14] The federal death row inmate Gooch, however, was hanged in 1936. Only one woman was executed in Oklahoma in pre-Furman period (Dora Wright, a black domestic servant, was hanged on July 17, 1903, before statehood). Oklahoma performed its last pre-Furman electrocution with James French (1966).

See also

References

External links