Canine degenerative myelopathy

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A dog with degenerative myelopathy often stands with its legs close together and may not correct an unusual foot position due to a lack of conscious proprioception

Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.[1][2] Progressive weakness and incoordination of the rear limbs are often the first signs seen in affected dogs, with progression over time to complete paralysis. Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the immune system attacks this sheath, breaking it down. This results in a loss of communication between nerves in lower body of the animal and the brain.

Testing[edit]

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals has a DNA saliva test to screen for the mutated gene that has been seen in dogs with degenerative myelopathy. Now that a test is available the disease can be bred out of breeds with a high preponderance. The test is only recommended for predisposed breeds, but can be performed on DNA from any dog on samples collected through swabbing the inside of the animal's cheek with a sterile cotton swab or through venipuncture.

The test determines whether the mutated copy of SOD1 is present in the DNA sample submitted. It must be interpreted with caution by a veterinary clinician in combination with the animal's clinical signs and other lab test results.

The results reported are:


There is a considerable amount of controversy as to the validity of the OFA DM DNA Test in relation to the German Shepherd Dog. All breeds can develop a myelopathy which is both chronic and progressive, however, the diagnostic test results between the German Shepherd Dog and other breeds are 180 degrees apart. For example:

DM Corgis, Boxers, : motor unit disease

DM GSD: Auto-immune disease

DM Corgis, Boxers : Protein is normal in the AO CSF

DM GSD: Protein is normal in the AO CSF but Protein is elevated in the Lumbar CSF

DM Corgis, Boxers: Oligoclonal bands of IgG are uncommon

DM GSDS: Oligoclonal bands of IgG are common in MS

DM Corgis, Boxers: affects cell bodies of neurons

DM GSDS: Does not affect cell bodies of neurons

DM Corgis. Boxers: muscle spams

DM GSDS: no muscle spasms

DM Corgis, Boxers: EMG is affected early in the disease

DM GSDS: EMG is normal

The fact that the diagnostic test results are so dramatically different suggest that German Shepherd Dogs develop their own unique type of Degenerative Myelopathy.

Genetics[edit]

Breeding risks for degenerative myelopathy can be calculated using the Punnett Square:

Symptoms[edit]

Degenerative myelopathy initially affects the back legs and causes muscle weakness and loss, and lack of coordination. These cause a staggering affect that may appear to be arthritis. The dog may drag one or both rear paws when it walks. This dragging can cause the nails of one foot to be worn down. The condition may lead to extensive paralysis of the back legs. As the disease progresses, the animal may display symptoms such as incontinence and has considerable difficulties with both balance and walking.[1][3] If allowed to progress, the animal will show front limb involvement and extensive muscle atrophy and paralysis. Eventually cranial nerve or respiratory muscle involvement necessitates euthanasia or long term palliative care.[2]

Progression of the disease is generally slow but highly variable. The animal could be crippled within a few months, or may survive as long as three years or more.[1]

Causes[edit]

The etiology of this disease is unknown. Recent research has shown that a mutation in the SOD1 gene is a risk factor for developing degnerative myelopathy in several breeds.[2] Mutations in SOD1 are also associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) in people.[4] Known causes of spinal cord dysfunction should be excluded before accepting the diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy; disc disease (protrusions) or spinal cord tumors can cause compression of the spinal cord with similar signs to degenerative myelopathy.[5]

Treatment[edit]

Degenerative myelopathy is an irreversible, progressive disease that cannot be cured. There are no treatments that have been clearly shown to stop or slow progression of DM.[1]

Exercise[edit]

Exercise has been recommended to maintain the dog's ability to walk.[1] Physiotherapy may prolong the length of time that the dog remains mobile and increase survival time.[6] Canine hydrotherapy (swimming) may be more useful than walking.[7] Use of a belly sling or hand-held harness allows the handler the ability to support the dog's hind legs for exercising or going up and down stairs.[citation needed] A 2-wheel dog cart, or "dog wheelchair" can allow the dog to remain active and maintain its quality of life once signs of weakness or paralysis of the hind limbs is detected.

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Kahn, Cynthia M.; Line, Scott, eds. (2005-02-08). "Degenerative Diseases". The Merck Veterinary Manual (9 ed.). Merck. ISBN 0-911910-50-6. 
  2. ^ a b c "In This Issue". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (8): 2473–2471. 2009. doi:10.1073/iti0809106.  edit
  3. ^ Hovanessian, Natasha (2001-03-27). "Degenerative Myelopathy". Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals. University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 2008-08-02. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  4. ^ Awano, T.; Johnson, G. S.; Wade, C. M.; Katz, M. L.; Johnson, G. C.; Taylor, J. F.; Perloski, M.; Biagi, T.; Baranowska, I.; Long, S.; March, P. A.; Olby, N. J.; Shelton, G. D.; Khan, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Coates, J. R. (2009). "Genome-wide association analysis reveals a SOD1 mutation in canine degenerative myelopathy that resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (8): 2794–2799. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.2794A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812297106. PMC 2634802. PMID 19188595.  edit
  5. ^ M. D. Lorenz and J. N. Kornegay. Handbook of Veterinary Neurology, Philadelphia:W.B. Saunders Company, 2004, pp 147-9.
  6. ^ Kathmann I, I; Cizinauskas S; Doherr MG; Steffen F; Jaggy A. (July–August 2006). "Daily controlled physiotherapy increases survival time in dogs with suspected degenerative myelopathy". J Vet Intern Med 20 (4): 927–932. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2006)20[927:DCPIST]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16955818. 
  7. ^ Clemmons, R.M. (2002-08-27). "Degenerative Myelopathy German Shepherd Dogs". University of Florida. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 

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