Canavalia

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Canavalia
Canavalia sericea
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Phaseoleae
Subtribe:Diocleinae
Genus:Canavalia
Adans.[1]
Species

Some 70, see text

Synonyms[1]

Clementea Cav.
Cryptophaeseolus Kuntze
Wenderothia Schltdl.

 
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Canavalia
Canavalia sericea
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Phaseoleae
Subtribe:Diocleinae
Genus:Canavalia
Adans.[1]
Species

Some 70, see text

Synonyms[1]

Clementea Cav.
Cryptophaeseolus Kuntze
Wenderothia Schltdl.

Canavalia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family (Fabaceae) and comprises approximately 70-75 species of tropical vines. Members of the genus are commonly known as jack-beans. The species of Canavalia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands were named ʻāwikiwiki by the Native Hawaiians. That name means essentially "the very quick one"[2] and comes from the Hawaiian word for "fast" that has also been appropriated into the name "Wikipedia". The genus name is derived from the Malabar word for the species, kavavali, which means "forest climber."[3]

Contents

Uses[edit]

Several species are valued legume crops, including Common Jack-bean (C. ensiformis), Sword Bean (C. gladiata) and C. cathartica. At least the first makes a beneficial weed- and pathogen-suppressing living mulch.[4] The Common Jack-bean is also known as the plant from which the lectin concanavalin A, con A is produced. This lectin is of major commercial and scientific importance as a reagent in glycoprotein biochemistry and immunology. Also, the Jack-bean is a common source of purified urease enzyme for scientific research.

Bay Bean (Canavalia rosea) supposedly is mildly psychoactive when smoked; it is used in tobacco substitutes.

Ecology[edit]

Some animals have adaptation to the defensive chemicals of jack-beans. Caterpillars for example of the Two-barred Flasher (Astraptes fulgerator) are sometimes found on Canavalia. The plant pathogenic ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella canavaliae was described from a jack-bean. Introduced herbivores have wreaked havoc on Canavalia on the Hawaiian Islands and made some nearly extinct; it may be that these lost their chemical defenses as no herbivorous mammals existed in their range until introduced by humans. The usually bright pea-flowers are pollinated by insects such as solitary bees and carpenter bees (e.g. Xylocopa confusa).

History[edit]

The genus name Canavalia was, as recently as 1913, known as Canavali[5]

Species[6][edit]

Parts drawing of Canavalia cathartica. Francisco Manuel Blanco, Flora de Filipinas, etc. (1880-1883)
Canavalia lineata in Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, India.
  • Canavalia acuminata Rose
  • Canavalia africana Dunn
  • Canavalia altipendula (Piper) Standl.
  • Canavalia aurita J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia bicarinata Standl.
  • Canavalia boliviana Piper
  • Canavalia bonariensis Lindl.
  • Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth.[7]feijão-bravo do Ceará (Brazil)
  • Canavalia campylocarpa Piper
  • Canavalia cathartica Thouars (= C. virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.)
  • Canavalia centralis H.St.John
  • Canavalia concinna J.D.Sauer
  • Canavalia dictyota Piper – disputed
  • Canavalia dolichothyrsa G.P. Lewis
  • Canavalia dura J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. – Common Jack-bean, feijão-de-porco (Brazil)
  • Canavalia eurycarpa Piper
  • Canavalia forbesii H.St.John
  • Canavalia galeata (Gaudich.) Vogel[8] (Oʻahu)[9]
  • Canavalia glabra (M. Martens & Galeotti) J.D.Sauer
  • Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. – Sword Bean
  • Canavalia grandiflora Benth.
  • Canavalia haleakalaensis H.St.John
  • Canavalia hawaiiensis O.Deg., I.Deg. & J.D.Sauer[8]
  • Canavalia hirsutissima J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia iaoensis H.St.John
  • Canavalia kauaiensis J.D.Sauer[8]
  • Canavalia kauensis H.St.John
  • Canavalia lineata (Thunb.) DC.
  • Canavalia macrobotrys Merr.
  • Canavalia macropleura Piper
  • Canavalia madagascariensis J.D.Sauer
  • Canavalia makahaensis H.St.John
  • Canavalia mattogrossensis (Barb. Rodr.) Malme
  • Canavalia matudae J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia microsperma Urb.
  • Canavalia mollis Wight & Arn.
  • Canavalia molokaiensis O.Deg., I.Deg. & J.D.Sauer[8] – Molokaʻi Jack-bean
  • Canavalia munroi (O.Deg. & I.Deg.) H.St.John
  • Canavalia napaliensis H.St.John[8] – Mākaha Valley Jack-bean
  • Canavalia nitida (Cav.) Piper
  • Canavalia nualoloensis H.St.John
  • Canavalia obidensis Ducke
  • Canavalia oxyphylla Standl. & L.O. Williams
  • Canavalia palmeri (Piper) Standl.
  • Canavalia papuana Merr. & L.M. Perry
  • Canavalia parviflora Benth.
  • Canavalia peninsularis H.St.John
  • Canavalia picta Benth.
  • Canavalia piperi Killip & J.F.Macbr.
  • Canavalia plagiosperma Piper
  • Canavalia pubescens Hook. & Arn.[8] – Lavafield Jack-bean
  • Canavalia raiateensis J.W. Moore
  • Canavalia ramosii J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia regalis Piper & Dunn
  • Canavalia rockii H.St.John
  • Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. – Bay Bean
  • Canavalia rutilans DC. – disputed
  • Canavalia sanguinea H.St.John
  • Canavalia saueri Fantz
  • Canavalia septentrionalis J.D. Sauer
  • Canavalia sericea A. Gray
  • Canavalia sericophylla Ducke
  • Canavalia stenophylla H.St.John
  • Canavalia villosa Benth.

Formerly placed here[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Canavalia Adans.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  2. ^ Pukui et al. (1992)
  3. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4. 
  4. ^ Caamal-Maldonado et al. (2001)
  5. ^ Piper, C.V. 1913. "The Jack Bean and the Sword Bean." USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Circular. No. 110. p. 29-36
  6. ^ ILDIS (2005)
  7. ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Canavalia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "ʻawikiwiki, puakauhi". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  9. ^ "Canavalia galeata". Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]