Camden was originally incorporated as a city on February 13, 1828, from portions of the now-defunct Newton Township, while the area was still part of Gloucester County. On March 13, 1844, Camden became part of the newly formed Camden County.
Camden public schools spent $23,770 per student ($19,118 on a budgetary per-pupil basis) in the 2009–10 school year In 2012, the city's graduation rate fell to 49%, well below the state average of 86%. and the national average of 93%. In 2012, 3 out of 882 SAT test-takers were scored "college-ready", defined as a combined score of 1550 or higher on the three sections of the test, a standard met by 43% of students taking the exam nationwide. Among residents, 40% are below the national poverty line.
Camden had the highest crime rate in the United States in 2012, with 2,566 violent crimes for every 100,000 people, which is 560% higher than the national average of 387 violent crimes per 100K citizens.
Fort Nassau (located within the present boundaries of nearby Gloucester City, New Jersey), was built by the Dutch West India Company in 1626, and was the first European attempt to settle the area now occupied by Camden. Initial European activity in the vicinity of present-day Camden occurred along the banks of the Delaware River where the Dutch and the Swedish vied for control of the local fur trade. Europeans continued to settle in and improve the area throughout the 17th century. Much of the growth directly resulted from the success of another Quaker colony across the Delaware River known as Philadelphia, which was founded in 1682 and soon had enough population to attract a brisk trade from West Jersey and Camden. To accommodate the trade across the river, a string of ferries began operation.
For over 150 years, Camden served as a secondary economic and transportation hub for the Philadelphia area. But that status began to change in the early 19th century. One of the U.S.'s first railroads, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, was chartered in Camden in 1830. The Camden and Amboy Railroad allowed travelers to travel between New York City and Philadelphia via ferry terminals in South Amboy, New Jersey and Camden. The railroad terminated on the Camden waterfront, and passengers were ferried across the Delaware River to their final Philadelphia destination. The Camden and Amboy Railroad opened in 1834 and helped to spur an increase in population and commerce in Camden.
Walt Whitman House, Camden, New Jersey
Horse ferries, or team boats served Camden in the early 1800s. They stopped for an hour at lunch time to feed the horses. The Ridgeway was a double team boat, propelled by nine horses walking around a circle. She ran from the foot of Cooper Street. There was also a team boat named the Washington; she ran from Market Street, Camden, to Market Street, Philadelphia. Other team boats followed in succession, namely the Phoenix, Constitution, Moses Lancaster, and Independence.The Cooper's Ferry Daybook, 1819-1824, documenting Camden's Point Pleasant Teamboat, survives to this day.
Originally a suburban town with ferry service to Philadelphia, Camden evolved into its own city, as industry and neighborhoods grew. Camden prospered during strong periods of manufacturing demand and faced distress during periods of economic dislocation.
Like most American cities, Camden suffered from decline in the 20th century as the manufacturing base and many residents moved out to other locations. Currently, government, education, and health care are the three biggest employers in Camden; however, most employees commute to Philadelphia and live in nearby suburbs such as Cherry Hill. Revitalization has occurred along the Camden Waterfront and in the neighborhoods of Cooper Grant, Cramer Hill, and Fairview, with direct access to Philadelphia.
In 1992, the state of New Jersey under the Florio Administration made an agreement with GE to ensure that GE would not close the Camden site. The state of New Jersey would build a new high tech facility on the site of the old Campbell Soup Company factory and trade these new buildings to GE for the existing old RCA Victor Buildings. Later, the new high tech buildings would be sold to Martin Marietta. In 1994, Martin Marietta merged with Lockheed to become Lockheed Martin. In 1997, Lockheed Martin divested the Camden Plant as part of the birth of L-3 Communications.
The Nipper Building
The famous "Nipper Building" depicting RCA's famous "His Master's Voice" trademark in its tower windows has since been renovated into a luxury apartment building called "The Victor." Building 8 is set to be rehabilitated into luxury condominiums called "Radio Lofts." Both projects are the work of Dranoff Properties, a well known Philadelphia development corporation that has specialized in these types of constructions. Another older building, Victor Building No. 2, is used to this day to house the Camden City Board of Education. Most of the other old RCA Victor buildings have long since been demolished.
From 1899 to 1967, Camden was the home of New York Shipbuilding Corporation, which at its World War II peak was the largest and most productive shipyard in the world. Notable naval vessels built at New York Ship include the ill-fated cruiser USS Indianapolis and the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk. In 1962, the first commercial nuclear-powered ship, the NS Savannah, was launched in Camden. The Fairview Village section of Camden (initially Yorkship Village) was a planned European-style garden village built by the Federal government during World War I to house New York Shipbuilding Corporation workers.
At Camden's peak, 10,000 workers were employed at RCA, while another 40,000 worked at New York Shipbuilding. RCA had 23 out of 25 of its factories inside Camden. Campbell Soup was also a major employer. By 1969, Camden had been losing jobs and residents for a quarter century due in large part to urban decay, highway construction, and racial tensions.
In his book Capital Moves: RCA's Seventy-Year Quest for Cheap Labor, Jefferson Cowie mentions that Camden in the 1920s was known as "the Citadel of Republicanism".
After years of economic and industrial growth, the city of Camden faced years of rising crime and blight. On September 6, 1949, mass murdererHoward Unruh went on a killing spree in his Camden neighborhood in which he killed thirteen people. Unruh, who was convicted and subsequently confined to a state psychiatric facility, died on October 19, 2009.
Sections of downtown were looted and torched after racial riots occurred following the beating and death of a Puerto Rican motorist by city police in August 1971.
The Camden 28 were a group of anti-Vietnam War activists who, in 1971, planned and executed a raid on the Camden draft board, resulting in a high-profile trial against the activists that was seen by many as a referendum on the Vietnam War in which 17 of the defendants were acquitted by a jury even though they admitted having participated in the break in.
In response to the upcoming 2000 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, various strip clubs, hotels, and other businesses along Admiral Wilson Boulevard were torn down in 1999, and a park that once existed along the road was replenished.
In 2004, conversion of the RCA Nipper Building to The Victor, an upscale condo building was completed.
Situated on the Delaware River, with access to the Atlantic Ocean, the Port of Camden handles breakbulk and bulk cargo. The port consists of two terminals: the Beckett Street Terminal and the Broadway Terminal. The port receives hundreds of ships moving international and domestic cargo annually.
In 2005, the Port of Camden (South Jersey Port Corporation) was subject to an unresolved criminal investigation and a state audit. Some activities in the port are under the jurisdiction of the Delaware River Port Authority.
As of 2006, 52% of the city's residents lived in poverty, one of the highest rates in the nation. The city had a median household income of $18,007, the lowest of all U.S. communities with populations of more than 65,000 residents, making it America's poorest city. A group of poor Camden residents were the subject of a 20/20 special on poverty in America broadcast on January 26, 2007, in which Diane Sawyer profiled the lives of three young children growing up in Camden. A follow-up was shown on November 9, 2007.
In 2011, Camden's unemployment rate was 19.6%, compared with 10.6% in Camden County as a whole. As of 2009, the unemployment rate in Camden was 19.2%, compared to the 10% overall unemployment rate for Burlington, Camden and Gloucester counties and a rate of 8.4% in Philadelphia and the four surrounding counties in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
There were 24,475 households, of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.3% were married couples living together, 37.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.56.
In the city, 31.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.5 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $27,027 (with a margin of error of +/- $912) and the median family income was $29,118 (+/- $1,296). Males had a median income of $27,987 (+/- $1,840) versus $26,624 (+/- $1,155) for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,807 (+/- $429). About 33.5% of families and 36.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.3% of those under age 18 and 26.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 79,904 people, 24,177 households, and 17,431 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,057.0 people per square mile (3,497.9/km²). There were 29,769 housing units at an average density of 3,374.3 units per square mile (1,303.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 16.84% White, 53.35% African American, 0.54% Native American, 2.45% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 22.83% from other races, and 3.92% from two or more races. 38.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 24,177 households out of which 42.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.1% were married couples living together, 37.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.9% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.52 and the average family size was 4.00.
In the city, the population is quite young with 34.6% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $23,421, and the median income for a family was $24,612. Males had a median income of $25,624 versus $21,411 for females. The per capita income for the city is $9,815. 35.5% of the population and 32.8% of families were below the poverty line. 45.5% of those under the age of 18 and 23.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
In the 2000 Census, 30.85% of Camden residents identified themselves as being of Puerto Rican heritage. This was the third-highest proportion of Puerto Ricans in a municipality on the United States mainland, behind only Holyoke, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut, for all communities in which 1,000 or more people listed an ancestry group.
Since July 1, 1961, the city has operated under a Mayor-Council form of government. Under this form of government, the City Council consisted of seven Council members originally all elected at-large. In 1994, the City divided the city into four council districts, instead of electing the entire Council at-large, with a single council member elected from each of the four districts. In 1995, the elections were changed from a partisan election to a non-partisan system.
Mayor Milton Milan was jailed for his connections to organized crime. On June 15, 2001, he was sentenced to serve seven years in prison on 14 counts of corruption, including accepting mob payoffs and concealing a $65,000 loan from a drug kingpin.
As of 2014[update], the Mayor of Camden is Dana Redd, whose term of office ends December 31, 2013. She is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Members of the City Council are Council President Francisco Moran (2015; Ward 3), Vice President Curtis Jenkins (2017; at large), Arthur Barclay (2017; at large), Dana M. Burley (2015; Ward 1), Brian K. Coleman (2015; Ward 2), Luis A. Lopez (2015; Ward 4) and Marilyn Torres (2017; at large).
Federal, state and county representation
Camden is located in the 1st Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 5th state legislative district.
In 1981, Errichetti was convicted with three other individuals for accepting a $50,000 bribe from FBI undercover agents in exchange for helping a non-existent Arab sheikh enter the United States. The FBI scheme was part of the Abscam operation. The 2013 film American Hustle is a somewhat fictionalized portrayal of this scheme.
In 1999, Webster, who was previously the superintendent of Camden City Public Schools, pleaded guilty to illegally paying himself $20,000 in school district funds after he became mayor.
In 2000, Milan was sentenced to more than six years in federal prison for accepting payoffs from associates of Philadelphia organized crime boss Ralph Natale, soliciting bribes and free home renovations from city vendors, skimming money from a political action committee, and laundering drug money.
The Courier-Post dubbed former State Senator Wayne R. Bryant, who represented the 5th state legislative district from 1995 to 2008, the "king of double dipping" for accepting no-show jobs in return for political benefits. In 2009, Bryant was sentenced to four years in federal prison for funneling $10.5 million to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in exchange for a no-show job and accepting fraudulent jobs to inflate his state pension. In 2010, Bryant was also charged with 22 criminal counts of bribery and fraud, for taking $192,000 in false legal fees in exchange for backing redevelopment projects in Camden, Pennsauken Township and the New Jersey Meadowlands between 2004 and 2006.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 43,893 registered voters in Camden, of which 17,403 (39.6%) were registered as Democrats, 885 (2.0%) were registered as Republicans and 25,601 (58.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 91.1% of the vote here (22,197 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain, who received around 5.0% (1,213 votes), with 24,374 ballots cast among the city's 46,654 registered voters, for a turnout of 52.2%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 84.4% of the vote here (15,914 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received around 12.6% (2,368 votes), with 18,858 ballots cast among the city's 37,765 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 49.9.
The PATCO Speedline offers frequent train service to Philadelphia and the suburbs to the east in Camden County, with stations at City Hall, Broadway (Walter Rand Transportation Center) and Ferry Avenue. The line operates 24 hours a day.
Officially organized in 1869, the Camden Fire Department (CFD) is the oldest paid fire department in New Jersey and is among the oldest in the United States. In 1916, the CFD was the first in the United States that had an all-motorized fire apparatus fleet. Layoffs have forced the city to rely on assistance from volunteer fire companies in surrounding communities when firefighters from all 10 fire companies are unavailable due to calls. The Camden Fire Department currently operates out of six fire stations, located throughout the city in two Battalions, each commanded by a Battalion Chief per shift, in addition to an on-duty Deputy Chief. The CFD also operates a fire apparatus fleet of four Engines (five when manpower permits), three Ladders, one Squad, one Rescue, one special operations / collapse rescue unit (cross-staffed), 1 Haz-Mat. Unit (cross-staffed), a fire boat (cross-staffed), a maintenance unit, and several other special, support, and reserve units. Since 2010, the Camden Fire Department has suffered severe economic cutbacks, including company closures and staffing cuts.
Below is a list of all fire stations and company locations in the city of Camden according to Battalion.
Car 1(Chief of Department), Car 2(Assistant Chief), Car 3(Deputy Chief), Car 4(Deputy Chief), Car 5(Fire Marshal)
The Adventure Aquarium was originally opened in 1992 as the New Jersey State Aquarium at Camden. In 2005, after extensive renovation, the aquarium was reopened under the name Adventure Aquarium. The aquarium was one of the original centerpieces in Camden's plans for revitalizing their city.
The Susquehanna Bank Center (formerly known as the Tweeter Center) is a 25,000-seat open-air concert amphitheater that was opened in 1995 and renamed after a 2008 deal in which the bank would pay $10 million over 15 years for naming rights.
Other attractions at the Waterfront are the Wiggins Park Riverstage and Marina, One Port Center, The Victor Lofts, the Walt Whitman House, the Walt Whitman Cultural Arts Center, the Rutgers–Camden Center For The Arts and the Camden Children's Garden.
In June 2014 the it was announced that the Philadelphia 76ers would move their practice facility and home offices to the Waterfront.
Riverfront State Prison, was a state penitentiary located near downtown Camden north of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, which opened in August 1985 having been constructed at a cost of $31 million. The prison had a design capacity of 631 inmates, but housed 1,020 in 2007 and 1,017 in 2008. The last prisoners were transferred in June 2009 to other locations and the prison was closed and subsequently demolished, with the site expected to be redeveloped by the State of New Jersey, the City of Camden, and private investors. In December 2012 the New Jersey Legislature approved the sale of the 16-acre site considered surplus property for $1 to a "pre-qualified" buyer.
UrbanPromise Ministry (largest private employer of teenagers)
Urban enterprise zone
Portions of Camden are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
Campbell Soup Company has decided to go forward with a scaled down redevelopment of the area around its corporate headquarters in Camden, including an expanded corporate headquarters. In June 2012, Campbell Soup Company acquired the vacant Sears building located near its corporate offices. Campbell plans to construct the Gateway Office Park, and razed the Sears building after receiving approval from the city government and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
Cherokee Investment Partners had a plan to redevelop north Camden with 5,000 new homes and a shopping center on 450 acres (1.8 km2). Cherokee dropped their plans in the face of local opposition and the slumping real estate market.
Holy Name School, Sacred Heart Grade School, St. Anthony of Padua School, and St. Joseph Pro-Cathedral School are elementary schools that operate under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden. They operate as four of the five schools in the Catholic Partnership Schools, a post-parochial model of Urban Catholic Education. The Catholic Partnership Schools are committed to sustaining safe and nurturing schools that inspire and prepare students for rigorous, college preparatory secondary schools or vocations.
View of Rutgers University–Camden with Philadelphia skyline in background in autumn.
The University District, adjacent to the downtown, is home to the following institutions:
Camden County College - one of three main campuses, the college first came to the city in 1969, and constructed a campus building in Camden in 1991.
Rutgers–Camden - the Camden campus, one of three main sites in the university system, began as South Jersey Law School and the College of South Jersey in the 1920s and was merged into Rutgers in 1950.
Morgan Quitno has ranked Camden in the top ten most dangerous cities in the U.S. since 1998, when they first included cities with populations below 100,000. Camden was ranked the third-most dangerous U.S. city in 2002. Camden was ranked the most dangerous overall in 2004 and 2005. It dropped down to the fifth spot for the 2006 and 2007 rankings but rose to number two in 2008 and to the top spot in 2009. Morgan Quitno bases its rankings on crime statistics reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in six categories: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, and auto theft. In The Nation, journalist Chris Hedges describes Camden as "the physical refuse of postindustrial America", afflicted by homelessness, drug trafficking, prostitution, robbery, looting, constant violence, and an overwhelmed police force (which in 2011 lost nearly half of its officers to budget-related layoffs).
In 2005, reported homicides in Camden dropped to 34, 15 fewer murders than in 2004. Though Camden's murder rate was still much higher than the national average, the reduction in 2005 was a drop of over 30%. In 2006, the number of murders climbed to 40. While murders fell by 10% across New Jersey in 2009, Camden's murder rate declined from 55 in 2008 down to 33, a drop of 40% that was credited to anti-gang efforts and more firearms seizures. Despite significant cuts in the police department due to the city's fiscal difficulties, murders in 2009 and 2010 were both under 40, staying below the peak that had occurred in 2008, and had continued to decline into early 2011. However, in 2012, the city's murder rate spiked and reached 62.
On October 29, 2012, the FBI announced Camden was ranked first in violent crime per capita of cities with over 50,000 residents, surpassing Flint, Michigan. In December 2012, Camden residents surrendered approximately 1,137 firearms to two local churches over a two-day period.
On May 1, 2013, the police department was disbanded and the newly created Camden County Police Department Metro Division took over full responsibility for policing the city of Camden.
^ abStaff. "Milan Begins Sentence", The New York Times, July 16, 2001. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Former Mayor Milton Milan, 38, convicted of corruption charges in December, is now serving his seven-year sentence at a low-security federal prison in Loretto, Pa., where he was transferred Friday. ... On June 15, Mr. Milan was sentenced on 14 counts of corruption, including taking payoffs from the mob, as well as concealing the source of a $65,000 loan from a drug kingpin."
^Terruso, Julia. "A look at what SAT report on Camden means", The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 22, 2013. Accessed July 29, 2014. "A statistic released by the Camden School District - that three out of about 882 high school seniors scored "college ready" on the SAT in 2012 - sparked criticism and questions from education advocates last week. The number, based on state performance reports from the 2011-12 school year, uses the College Board's college-readiness parameter score of 1550 out of 2400 on math, reading and writing."
^Staff. "General Electric gets go-ahead to acquire RCA", Houston Chronicle, June 5, 1986. Accessed July 3, 2011. "The Federal Communications Commission cleared the way today for General Electric Co. to acquire RCA Corp. and its subsidiaries, including the NBC network. In allowing the transfer of RCA, the commission rejected four petitions to block the $6.28 billion deal.'
^Staff. "Unnecessary excellence: what public-housing design can learn from its past.", Harper's Magazine, March 1, 2005. Accessed July 3, 2011. "'If it indicates the kind of Government housing that is to follow, we may all rejoice.' So wrote a critic for The Journal of the American Institute of Architects in 1918 about Yorkship Village, one of America's first federally funded public-housing projects. Located in Camden, New Jersey, Yorkship Village was designed to be a genuine neighborhood, as can be seen from these original architectural plans."
^Colimore, Edward. "A new battle for the USS New Jersey", The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 12, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2014. "'The Home Port Alliance "has had the ship in the best of times and worst of times and couldn't make it work,' said von Zwehl, a member of the USS New Jersey Battleship Commission that helped bring the vessel to the state in 1999."
^Admiral Wilson Boulevard, DVRBS.com. Accessed July 29, 2014. "In anticipation of the 2000 Republican Convention held in Philadelphia, then New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman spent a great amount of taxpayer dollars in acquiring all the commercial properties on the south side of the boulevard east of the Cooper River to the Airport Circle. Every building was razed, grass and trees were planted, and a park, which no one can park at or really use, was created."
^Staff. "Fairview begins new experiment", Courier-Post, December 6, 2001. Accessed February 17, 2011. "This village-like neighborhood at the southern edge of Camden was America's first planned community for the working class."
^Staff. "S. Jersey faring worse on jobs than Phila. area", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 29, 2009. Accessed July 26, 2011. "The unemployment rate in Burlington, Camden, and Gloucester Counties was 10 percent in September, compared with 7.1 percent in Bucks, Montgomery, Chester, and Delaware Counties.... The jobless rate of 19.2 percent in the troubled city of Camden weighs on the figure for South Jersey, but even without it the aggregate rate for the three counties which are home to nearly a quarter of the region's population was 9.6 percent. Add Philadelphia's 11 percent unemployment rate to the mix in Southeastern Pennsylvania and the overall rate there jumps to 8.4, still significantly below the rate in South Jersey."
^Barna, John. "NJ Transit advances rapid transit bus plan for Gloucester, Camden counties", Gloucester County Times, June 12, 2012. Accessed October 4, 2012. "The “Bus Rapid Transit System” envisioned by NJ Transit would have a 23-mile line run from the existing Avandale Park and Ride station in Winslow along the Atlantic City Expressway, Route 42 and Interstates 76 and 676 with stops at Camden County College in Gloucester Township, the Walter Rand Transportation Center in Camden and Center City Philadelphia."
^Simon, Darran. "Camden mayor voices concern to N.J. over fires", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 13, 2011. Accessed July 13, 2011. "Redd said she wanted to 'dispel any misinformation' about the need for manpower from other towns to help Camden firefighters on Thursday and Saturday. Camden's Fire Department is down by 29 positions after layoffs by the cash-strapped city in January. Camden relies on assistance from suburban companies, most of them staffed by volunteers, when the city's eight companies are all deployed."
^Katz, Matt; and Simin, Darran. "Camden's worst-case budget scenario calls for 350-plus layoffs", The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 8, 2010. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Camden will lay off more than 150 police officers, 77 firefighters, and about 150 other employees unless the mayor can wrest concessions in union contracts in the coming days, according to union officials and employees. The cuts, described as the worst-case scenario, would amount to more than a third of the city's unionized workforce."
^Attractions, CamdenWaterfront.com. Accessed December 1, 2011.
^Strauss, Robert. "Camden Still Finds Itself Treading Water", The New York Times, April 30, 2006. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Three years ago, with great fanfare, Gov. Jim McGreevey announced the transfer of development rights for those 33 acres (13 ha) to Steiner and Associates, a Cincinnati firm, along with a $3 million grant and a $15 million loan to get started on a proposed $53 million renovation of the state aquarium, the linchpin, according to Steiner's plans, of a retail/entertainment/commercial/residential development that would transform Camden. Three years later, Adventure Aquarium, as it is now called, is there, but the rest of the site is still made up of those parking lots."
^Staff. "Hated Camden prison goes down", Philadelphia Daily News, December 17, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011. "In speech after speech, those officials called the demolition of Riverfront State Prison a new beginning for the people of North Camden whose views of the Philadelphia skyline and the Delaware River have been marred by razor wire and watchtowers for 24 years."
^What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 14, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts.... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state's new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
^About Us, Camden County College. Accessed October 22, 2013. "The College’s presence in the City of Camden began in 1969, when a diploma-completion program was begun in borrowed space to help students prepare to pass their GED test so they could begin college-level courses on the Blackwood Campus that fall. In 1991, a five-story Camden City Campus building – now called College Hall – provided the College’s first permanent home in the City. The eight-story academic, retail and parking facility known as the Camden Technology Center was added in 2004 as one of the first projects completed under the Camden Municipal Rehabilitation and Economic Recovery Act."
^Campus History, Rowan University at Camden. Accessed October 22, 2013. "In the fall of 1969, Glassboro State College opened the Camden Urban Center at 534 Cooper Street."
^Goldstein, Joseph. "Police Force Nearly Halved, Camden Feels Impact", The New York Times, March 6, 2011. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Since the city laid off nearly half its police force in January, the mayor and police chief have tried to stay positive, with the police chief even suggesting that his leaner force will be a model for others facing similar circumstances.... It is too early to tell if the police layoffs have allowed more crime to occur; in the first two months of 2011, there were fewer homicides than during the same period last year. But the number of assaults involving a firearm has more than tripled to 79 from 22 over that period.... In each of the last two years, Camden recorded fewer than 40 murders, significantly less than the 54 murders of 2008, when the city was ranked the most dangerous in America, according to a widely quoted survey."
^"Camden boxer Alexander earns draw in debut", Courier-Post, July 23, 2008. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Max Alexander didn't get the victory he so badly sought, but things could have turned out worse for the Camden boxer who was making his debut last weekend as a cruiserweight with a 200-pound weight limit."
^Staff. "Eagles sign Camden's Baker", The Times (Trenton), March 12, 2009. Accessed October 22, 2013. "The Eagles yesterday made another move in free agency to bolster their depth in the secondary, signing Camden native Rashad Baker to a one-year contract."
^LaGorce, Tammy. "For Cooks Who Compete, the Challenges of Fame", The New York Times, January 28, 2011. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Aaron McCargo Jr., the bold-flavor-favoring winner of season 4 of Food Network's Next Food Network Star, did. Mr. McCargo has had his own show, Big Daddy's House, since 2008; the network guaranteed him six episodes as a result of his win. 'It's rocking along,' said Mr. McCargo, 38, a native of Camden who still lives in the area but will not disclose where."
^Halperin, Frank. "A world of sports under one roof", Courier-Post, March 9, 2008. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Among the local legends are Camden's Ray Narleski, an American League All- Star who played for the Cleveland Indians during the 1950s."
^Clothier, Gary. "Ask Mr. Know It All", Youngstown Vindicator, February 12, 2012. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Jim Perry was born in 1933 in Camden, N.J. He was a talented athlete in high school. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania, Perry became a singer, taking over for Eddie Fisher at Grossingers in the Catskill Mountains."