Chevrolet Camaro (first generation)

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Chevrolet Camaro (first generation)
Chevrolet Camaro RS 327 1968.jpg
1968 Camaro RS 327
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Production1966–1969
Model years1967–1969
Assembly
Body and chassis
Class
Body style
LayoutFR layout
PlatformF-body
Powertrain
Engine
  • 230 cu in (3.8 L) L26 I6
  • 250 cu in (4.1 L) L22 I6
  • 283 cu in (4.6 L) small-block V8
  • 302 cu in (4.9 L) Z28 V8 (Z/28)
  • 307 cu in (5.0 L) L14 V8
  • 327 cu in (5.4 L) LF7/L30 V8
  • 350 cu in (5.7 L) LM1/L65 V8
  • 350 cu in (5.7 L) L48 V8 (SS350)
  • 396 cu in (6.5 L) L34/L78/L89 V8 (SS396)
  • 427 cu in (7.0 L) L72/ZL1 V8 (COPO)
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase108 in (2,743 mm)
Length184.7 in (4,691 mm) (MY1967) [2]
184.7 in (4,691 mm) (MY1968) [3]
186.0 in (4,724 mm) (MY1969) [4]
Width
  • 72.5 in (1,842 mm) (MY1967)
  • 72.5 in (1,842 mm) (MY1968)
  • 74.0 in (1,880 mm) (MY1969)
Height
  • 51.4 in (1,306 mm) (MY1967)
  • 51.4 in (1,306 mm) (MY1968)
  • 50.9 in (1,293 mm) (MY1969 conv.)
  • 51.1 in (1,298 mm) (MY1969 coupe)
Chronology
SuccessorChevrolet Camaro (second generation)
 
  (Redirected from Camaro ZL-1)
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This article is about the first-generation Chevrolet Camaro. For general Camaro information, see Chevrolet Camaro.
Chevrolet Camaro (first generation)
Chevrolet Camaro RS 327 1968.jpg
1968 Camaro RS 327
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Production1966–1969
Model years1967–1969
Assembly
Body and chassis
Class
Body style
LayoutFR layout
PlatformF-body
Powertrain
Engine
  • 230 cu in (3.8 L) L26 I6
  • 250 cu in (4.1 L) L22 I6
  • 283 cu in (4.6 L) small-block V8
  • 302 cu in (4.9 L) Z28 V8 (Z/28)
  • 307 cu in (5.0 L) L14 V8
  • 327 cu in (5.4 L) LF7/L30 V8
  • 350 cu in (5.7 L) LM1/L65 V8
  • 350 cu in (5.7 L) L48 V8 (SS350)
  • 396 cu in (6.5 L) L34/L78/L89 V8 (SS396)
  • 427 cu in (7.0 L) L72/ZL1 V8 (COPO)
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase108 in (2,743 mm)
Length184.7 in (4,691 mm) (MY1967) [2]
184.7 in (4,691 mm) (MY1968) [3]
186.0 in (4,724 mm) (MY1969) [4]
Width
  • 72.5 in (1,842 mm) (MY1967)
  • 72.5 in (1,842 mm) (MY1968)
  • 74.0 in (1,880 mm) (MY1969)
Height
  • 51.4 in (1,306 mm) (MY1967)
  • 51.4 in (1,306 mm) (MY1968)
  • 50.9 in (1,293 mm) (MY1969 conv.)
  • 51.1 in (1,298 mm) (MY1969 coupe)
Chronology
SuccessorChevrolet Camaro (second generation)

The first-generation Chevrolet Camaro appeared in dealerships on September 29, 1966,[5] for the 1967 model year on a brand-new rear-wheel drive GM F-body platform and would be available as a 2-door, 2+2 seat, coupe or convertible with a choice of six-cylinder and V8 powerplants.[6] The first-gen Camaro would last up through the 1969 model year.

The Camaro's standard drivetrain was either a 230 cu in (3.8 L) straight-6 engine rated at 140 hp (104 kW) or a 327 cu in (5.4 L) (307 cu in (5.0 L) in later in 1969) V-8 engine, backed by a Saginaw three-speed manual transmission. There were 8 (in 67), 10 (in 68), and 12 (in 69) different engines available in 67-69 Camaros. And there were several transmission options. A four-speed manual was optional, replacing the base three-speed. The two-speed "Powerglide" automatic transmission was a popular option in 1967 and 1968 until the three-speed "Turbo Hydra-Matic 350" automatic became available starting in 1969. The larger Turbo 400 three-speed automatic was an option on SS396 cars.

There were a plethora of other options available all three years, including three main packages:

The RS was an appearance package that included hidden headlights, revised taillights with back-up lights under the rear bumper, RS badging, and exterior bright trim. It was available on any model.

The SS performance package consisted of a 350 or 396 cu in V8 engine and chassis upgrades for better handling and to deal with the additional power. The SS featured non-functional air inlets on the hood, special striping, and SS badging.

The Z/28 performance package was designed (with further modifications) to compete in the SCCA Trans-Am series. It included a solid-lifter 302 V8, 4-speed transmission, power disc brakes, and two wide stripes down the hood and decklid.

Almost all of 1967-1969 Camaros were built in the two U.S. assembly plants: Norwood, Ohio and Van Nuys, California. There were also five non-U.S. Camaro assembly plants in countries that required local assembly and content. These plants were located in the Philippines, Belgium, Switzerland, Venezuela, and Peru.[7]

1967[edit]

The 1967 Camaro shared the subframe / semi-unibody design with the 1968 Chevy II Nova. Almost 80 factory and 40 dealer options, including three main packages, were available.

1967 Camaro convertible, base six-cylinder model

The RS was an appearance package that included hidden headlights, revised taillights with back-up lights under the rear bumper, RS badging, and exterior rocker trim.

The SS included a 350 cu in (5.7 L) V8 engine and the L35 and L78 396 cu in (6.5 L) big-block V8's were also available. The SS featured non-functional air inlets on the hood, special striping, and SS badging on the grille, front fenders, gas cap, and horn button. It was possible to order both the SS and RS to receive a Camaro RS/SS. In 1967, a Camaro RS/SS convertible with a 396 engine paced the Indianapolis 500.

The Z/28 option code was introduced in December 1966 for the 1967 model year. It was the brainchild of Vince Piggins, who conceived offering "virtually race-ready" Camaros for sale from any Chevrolet dealer.[8] This option package was not mentioned in any sales literature, so it was unknown to most buyers.[9] The Z/28 option required power front disc brakes and a close-ratio Muncie 4-speed manual transmission (posi-traction was optional). It featured a 302 cu in (4.9 L) small-block V-8 engine, 3" crankshaft with 4" bore, an aluminum intake manifold, and a 4-barrel vacuum secondary Holley carburetor of 780 cfm. The engine was designed specifically to race in the Trans Am series (which required engines smaller than 305 cu in (5.0 L) and public availability of the car. Advertised power of this engine was listed at 290 hp (216 kW). This is an under-rated figure.[9] Chevrolet wanted to keep the horsepower rating at less than 1 hp per cubic inch, for various reasons (e.g. insurance and racing classes). The factory rating of 290 hp occurred at 5300 rpm, while actual peak for the high-revving 302 was closer to 360 hp (268 kW) (with the single four barrel carb) and 400 hp (298 kW) (with optional dual-four barrel carbs) at 6800-7000 rpm. The Z/28 also came with upgraded suspension, racing stripes on the hood and trunk lid, '302' front fender emblems on the 67 and early 68 cars, and 'Z/28' emblems in late 68 & 69. It was also possible to combine the Z/28 package with the RS package.

Only 602 Z/28s were sold in 1967, along with approximately 100 Indianapolis Pace Car replicas.[10] The 1967 and 1968 Z/28s did not have the cowl induction hood, optional on the 1969 Z/28s. The 1967 Z28 received air from an open element air cleaner or from an optional cowl plenum duct attached to the side of the air cleaner that ran to the firewall and got air from the cowl vents. 15-inch rally wheels were included with Z/28s while all other 1967-9 Camaros had 14-inch wheels.

The origin of the Z/28 nameplate came from the RPO codes - RPO Z28 was the code for the Special Performance Package. RPO Z27 was for the Super Sport package.

Cars assembled in Switzerland, at GM's local facility in Biel, were all coupés with the 198 PS (146 kW; 195 hp) 4,638 cc (283 cu in) small-block V8 - an engine which was not available in contemporary Camaros built in the United States. The Swiss-built Camaros were not available with the three-speed manual and had a differential lock and front disc brakes as standard. Some additional safety equipment was also standard.[1]

Production numbers:

RS:64,842
SS:34,411
Z28:602
Total:99,855


1968[edit]

1968 Camaro RS 327 (original optional stripe was black)
1968 Chevrolet Camaro SS convertible

The styling of the 1968 Camaro was very similar to the 1967 design. With the introduction of Astro Ventilation, a fresh-air-inlet system, the side vent windows were deleted. Side marker lights were added on the front and rear fenders which was a government requirement for all 68 vehicles. It also had a more pointed front grille and divided rear taillights. The front running lights (on non-RS models) were also changed from circular to oval. The big block SS models received chrome hood inserts that imitated velocity stacks.

The shock absorber mounting was staggered to resolve wheel hop issues and higher performance models received multi-leaf rear springs instead of single-leaf units. A 396 cu in (6.5 L) 350 hp (261 kW) big block engine was added as an option for the SS, and the Z28 appeared in Camaro brochures. The 427 cu in (7.0 l) was not available as a Regular Production Option (RPO). Several dealers, such as Baldwin-Motion, Dana, and Yenko, offered the 427 as a dealer-installed replacement for the factory-supplied 396 cid engine.

Production numbers:

RS:40,977
SS:27,884
Z28:7,199
Total:76,060|[11]


1969[edit]

1969 Chevrolet Camaro Indianapolis 500 Pace Car included the RS & SS options.
1969 Chevrolet Camaro SS.

The 1969 Camaro carried over the previous year's drivetrain and major mechanical components, but all-new sheetmetal, except the hood and trunk lid, gave the car a substantially sportier look. The grille was redesigned with a heavy "V" cant and deeply inset headlights. New door skins, rear quarter panels, and rear valance panel also gave the car a much lower, wider, more aggressive look. This styling would serve for the 1969 model year only. Collectors often debate the merits of smooth, rounded lines of 1967 and 1968 model versus the heavily creased and sportier looks of the 1969.

To increase competitiveness in the SCCA Trans Am racing series, optional four wheel disc brakes with four-piston calipers were made available during the year, under RPO JL8, for US$500.30.[12] This system used components from the Corvette and made for a major improvement in the braking capability and was a key to winning the Trans Am championship. The option was expensive and only 206 units were produced.

The Rally Sport (RS) option, RPO Z22, includes special black painted grille with concealed headlights and headlight washers, fender striping (except when sport striping or Z28 Special Performance Package is specified), simulated rear fender louvers, front and rear wheel opening moldings, black body sill, RS emblems on grille, steering wheel and rear panel, Rally Sport front fender nameplates, bright accented taillights, back-up lights below rear bumper; also includes bright roof drip moldings on Sport Coupe. $131.65, 37,773 built. This option could be added to any other option IE- SS or Z/28, making the model an RS/SS or a RS/Z28.

The Z28 option was still available with the 302 cid small block. It was backed by Muncie four-speed with a new-for-69 standard Hurst shifter and connected to a 12-bolt rear axle with standard 3.73 gears. The 302 featured 11:1 compression, forged pistons, forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods, solid lifter camshaft, and Holley carburetion on a dual-plane intake manifold. A dual four-barrel crossram intake manifold was available as a dealer-installed option.[12]

The 1969 model year was exceptionally long, extending into November 1969, due to manufacturing problem that delayed the introduction of the second generation model planned for 1970. It is a popular myth late-'69 Camaros were sold as 1970 models (due to GM publicity pictures of the '69 Camaro labeled as a 1970), but they were all assigned 1969 VIN codes.

Production numbers:

RS:37,773
SS:34,932
Z28:20,302
Total:93,007

COPO 427s[edit]

A GM corporate edict forbade Chevrolet from installing engines larger than 400 cu in (6.6 l). Requests from dealers (notably Don Yenko) who were dealer-installing 427 cu in (7.0 l) engines in the Camaro caused Chevrolet to use an ordering process usually used on fleet and special orders (taxis, trucks, etc.) to offer 427 engines in the Camaro. Two Central Office Production Orders (COPO), numbers 9560 and 9561, were offered in the 1969 model year.[13]

The COPO 9561 used the solid lifter L72 big-block engine, making an underrated 425 hp (317 kW) gross. Yenko ordered 201 of these cars to create the now-legendary Yenko Camaro. Other dealers also became aware of the L72 engine package and ordered it. Around 900-1,000 Camaros were fitted with the L72 engine option.[14]

The COPO 9560 used an all-aluminum 427 cu in (7.0 L) big-block called the ZL-1 and was designed specifically for drag racing. The package was conceived by drag racer Dick Harrell, and ordered through Fred Gibb Chevrolet in La Harpe, IL, with the intention of entering NHRA Super Stock drag racing. Just 69 ZL-1 Camaros were produced, the engine alone cost over US$4,000—nearly twice that of a base coupe with a V8. Though rated at 430 hp (321 kW) gross, the ZL-1 made 376 SAE Net HP in its "as installed" state. With exhaust changes and some tuning, the horsepower jumped to over 500.[15]

The ZL1 engines were hand assembled in a process that took 16 hours each, in a room that Corvette Chief Engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov described as "surgically clean".[16] All ZL1 engines were manufactured at the Tonawanda Assembly Plant before being installed in Corvettes, Camaros, or sold over the counter to racers.[17]

Two of the 69 ZL-1's are known to have landed in Australia, with both owned by local motor racing legend and milti-millionaire tyre retailer Bob Jane, with both cars painted in Jane's team colour Sebring Orange. One of the Camaro's was used by Jane for drag racing in Australia. Jane drove the other Camaro to win the 1971 and 1972 Australian Touring Car Championships (the forerunner to today's V8 Supercars), though due to regulation changes Jane was forced to replace the 427 engine with a 350 in 1972. The ATCC winner, which holds the record for the largest capacity car to ever win the championship since it first began in 1960, has since been restored to its former glory and has been seen at numerous historic events around Australia.

First-generation engines[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Braunschweig, Robert; et al, eds. (9 March 1967). "Automobil Revue Modelle 1967/Revue Automobile modèles 1967" (in German/French) 62. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 222. 
  2. ^ GM Heritage Center. Official GM MY1967 Camaro Spec sheet. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
  3. ^ GM Heritage Center. Official GM MY1968 Camaro Spec sheet. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  4. ^ GM Heritage Center. Official GM MY1969 Camaro Spec sheet. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
  5. ^ Strohl, Daniel (6 July 2011). "Down the throat: the introduction of the 1967 Camaro". Hemmings Daily. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Kilpatrick, Bill (October 1966). "The really new ones". Popular Mechanics 126 (4): 105–108. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Camaro Foreign Assembly Plants
  8. ^ Rod Action, 2/85, p.31.
  9. ^ a b Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (3 January 2007). "1967 Chevrolet Camaro Z28". Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  10. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960-1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.485.
  11. ^ General Motors production totals
  12. ^ a b General Motors documentation
  13. ^ COPO Camaros discusses both COPOs.
  14. ^ GM Tonawanda engine production data
  15. ^ COPO Camaros
  16. ^ America’s Star Spangled Sports Car, Karl Ludvigsen, p.228
  17. ^ Auto Restorer, December 2000, pp.14-15.

External links[edit]