Calvary Chapel

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Calvary Chapel's logo

Calvary Chapel is an evangelical[1] association of Christian churches. Calvary Chapel also maintains a number of radio stations around the world and operates many local Calvary Chapel Bible College programs. It presents itself as a "fellowship of churches" in contrast to a denomination[2][3] with over one thousand congregations worldwide.[4] Churches which affiliate with Calvary Chapel may use the name "Calvary Chapel" but need not do so.

Beginning in 1965 in Southern California, this fellowship of churches grew out of Chuck Smith's Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa. Doctrinally, Calvary Chapel is evangelical, dispensational, pretribulationist, and believes in the principle of sola scriptura.[5]

Chuck Smith's "Calvary Chapel Distinctives" summarizes the tenets for which Calvary Chapel stands. Calvary Chapels place great importance in the practice of expository teaching, a "verse by verse, chapter by chapter, book by book" approach to teaching the Bible.[6][7][8] Typically, Calvary Chapels operate under a senior pastor-led system of church government, sometimes referred to as the "Moses" model. [9][10]

Contents

History

While Chuck Smith was still a member of a denominational church, he claimed that a prophecy came to him in which the Lord said to him that He was changing his name. His new name would mean "Shepherd" because the Lord was going to make him the shepherd of many flocks and the church would not be large enough to hold all of the people who would be flocking to hear the Word of God. [11] In December 1965, Smith became the pastor of a 25-person congregation and in 1968 broke away from the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in Santa Ana, California. Before Smith became their pastor, twelve of the 25 members attended a prayer meeting about whether or not to close their church: they reported that "the Holy Spirit spoke to them through prophecy" and told them that Smith would become their pastor, that he would want to elevate the platform area, that God would bless the church, that it would go on the radio, that the church would become overcrowded, and that he would become known throughout the world.[12] An almost identical prophecy was recorded in Chuck Smith's book Harvest where the prophecy was delivered to 16 discouraged people ready to quit.[13] In 1969, Calvary Chapel became a hub in what later became known as the Jesus Movement when Smith's daughter introduced him to her boyfriend John, a former hippie who had become a Christian. John then introduced Chuck to Lonnie Frisbee, the "hippie evangelist" who became a key figure in the growth of both the Jesus Movement and in Calvary Chapel. Frisbee moved into Smith's home, and he would minister to the other hippies and counter-culture youth on the beaches. At night he would bring home new converts and soon Smith's house was full.[14] Frisbee was put in charge of a new rental home for the steadily growing crowd of Christian hippies and he named the commune House of Miracles, other House of Miracles would be set up throughout California and beyond. As Calvary Chapel grew "explosively",[15] a tent was erected while a new building was under construction.[16] Among the converts were musicians who now were writing music for praise and worship. This became the genesis for Jesus music and Christian rock concerts. Maranatha Music was eventually formed to publish and promote the music.[15] The services usually resembled rock concerts more than any worship services of the time.[17] Frisbee was featured in national television news reports and magazines with images of him baptizing hundreds in the Pacific Ocean at a time.[18] The network of House of Miracles communes/crash pad/coffee houses began doing outreach concerts with Smith or Frisbee preaching, Frisbee calling forth the Holy Spirit and the newly forming bands playing the music.[14]

By the early 1970s Calvary Chapel was home to ten or more musical groups that were representative of the Jesus people movement.[19]

In 1982, John Wimber, a Calvary Chapel pastor, and the Calvary Chapel leadership mutually agreed to part ways. Tension had been mounting over Wimber's emphasis on spiritual manifestations leading Wimber to withdraw from Calvary Chapel and affiliate with a network of churches that would become the Association of Vineyard Churches.[20][21]

Doctrine

Affiliates of Calvary Chapel believe in the fundamental doctrines of evangelical Christianity, which include the inerrancy of the Bible and the Trinity. Within evangelical Christianity, they say that they stand in the "middle ground between fundamentalism and Pentecostalism in modern Protestant theology". While they share with fundamentalism a belief in the inerrancy of the Bible, unlike fundamentalists, they accept spiritual gifts. However, they feel that Pentecostalism values experience at the expense of the word of God.[5]

Calvinism and Arminianism

According to Calvary Chapel literature, the association strives to "strik[e] a balance between extremes" when it comes to controversial theological issues such as Calvinism's and Arminianism's conflicting views on salvation. Calvary Chapels hold the following views on the five points of Calvinism:

  1. Regarding total depravity, Calvary Chapel affirms that "apart from God's grace, no one can be saved," and that "mankind is clearly fallen and lost in sin."[22]
  2. Regarding unconditional election, Calvary Chapel affirms that God, "based on his foreknowledge, has predestined the believer," and that "God clearly does choose, but man must also accept God's invitation to salvation."[23]
  3. Regarding limited atonement, Calvary Chapel affirms that Jesus died "for the whole world" and that the "atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ was clearly sufficient to save the entire human race."[24]
  4. Regarding irresistible grace, Calvary Chapel affirms that "God's grace can either be resisted or received by the exercise of human free will".[25]
  5. Calvary Chapels "believe in the perseverance of the saints (true believers) but are deeply concerned about sinful lifestyles and rebellious hearts among those who call themselves 'Christians'."[26]

Spiritual gifts

Although Calvary Chapel believes in the continuing efficacy of the gift of tongues, it does not recognize uninterpreted tongues spoken in a congregational setting as necessarily inspired (or at least directed) by the Holy Spirit because of its understanding of 1 Corinthians 14. Calvary Chapel accepts that the Bible affirms interpreted tongues and modern prophecy. Practicing tongues in private occurs more commonly.[27] Calvary Chapel does not teach that the outward manifestation of every Christian counts as speaking in tongues. Instead, the movement's theologians regard speaking in tongues as one of the many gifts of the Spirit and see believers as blessed as the Spirit moves.[citation needed]

Similar to other Pentecostal or Charismatic movements,[28] Calvary Chapel holds that the baptism of the Holy Spirit does not take place during conversion, but is available as a second experience.[29] It is their understanding that there are three distinct relationships with the Holy Spirit. The first is that which is experienced prior to conversion. In this relationship the Holy Spirit is convicting the person of his sin.[30] In the second relationship the Holy Spirit indwells believers during conversion for the purpose of sanctification.[31] The third relationship is the baptism of the Holy Spirit which Calvary Chapel believes is for the purpose of being a Christian witness.

Baptism and Communion

Calvary Chapels practice believer's baptism by immersion. Calvary Chapel does not regard baptism as necessary for salvation, but instead sees it as an outward sign of an inward change. As a result, the Chapels do not baptize infants, although they may dedicate them to God. Calvary Chapel views Communion in a symbolic way, with reference to 1 Corinthians 11:23–26.

Eschatology

Calvary Chapels strongly espouse pretribulationist and premillennialist views in their eschatology (the study of the end times). They believe that the rapture of the Church will occur first, followed by a literal seven-year period of Great Tribulation, followed by the second coming of Jesus Christ, and then finally a literal thousand-year reign of Jesus Christ on earth called the Millennial Kingdom. Calvary Chapel also rejects supersessionism and instead believes that the Jews remain God's chosen people and that Israel will play an important part in the end times.[32]

Interest in one event during the Tribulation—the building of a Third Temple in Jerusalem—led in the early 1980s to associations between some in Calvary Chapel (including Chuck Smith) and Jewish groups interested in seeing the temple rebuilt.[33]

Return of Christ in 1981

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Chuck Smith wrote and published a prophetic timeline that declared:

I believe that the generation of 1948 is the last generation. Since a generation of judgment is forty years and the Tribulation period lasts seven years, I believe the Lord could come back for His Church any time before the Tribulation starts, which would mean any time before 1981.[34][35]

The reasoning had to do with the idea that the 7-year Tribulation would end in 1988, forty years after the establishment of the state of Israel. In his 1978 book, Chuck reasoned that Haley's Comet in 1986 would result in problems for those left behind: "The Lord said that towards the end of the Tribulation period the sun would scorch men who dwell upon the face of the earth (Rev. 16). The year 1986 would fit just about right! We’re getting close to the Tribulation and the return of Christ in glory. All the pieces of the puzzle are coming together." [34]

Disappointment resulting from the prophecy not materializing in 1981 caused some to leave the church.[36][37][38][39]

"Generation" living in 1948

In another book titled Snatched Away, Smith proclaimed that the "generation that was living in May of 1948 shall not pass until the second coming of Jesus Christ takes place and the kingdom of God be established upon the earth".

Practices

Calvary Chapel pastors tend to prefer expositional sermons rather than topical ones, and they will often give their sermons sequentially from the Bible from Genesis to Revelation. They believe that expository preaching allows the congregation to learn how all parts of the Bible address issues as opposed to topical sermons which they see as allowing preachers to emphasize certain issues more than others.[40] Another advantage, they say, is that it makes difficult topics easier to address because members of the congregation won't feel like they are being singled out.[41] It sees expository teaching as providing consistent teaching that, over time, brings the "perfecting of the saints" which is part of their general philosophy for the Church.[42] In teaching expositorily through scripture sequentially, Calvary Chapel believes God sets the agenda, not the pastor.

Calvary Chapels believe that most churches have a "dependent, highly organized, [and] structured" environment, but that most people want an "independent and casual way of life". Calvary churches typically have a casual and laid-back atmosphere.[43] As a practical implication of this philosophy, people may wear street clothes to church.[44] Praise and worship usually consists of upbeat contemporary Christian music though many Calvarys also play hymns. The style of worship generally reflects the region and the specific make-up of the congregation.

Calvary Chapel does not have a formalized system of church membership. Calling a Calvary Chapel one's church usually means regularly attending church services and becoming involved in fellowship with other "members" of the church.

Organization

The form of church government practiced by Calvary Chapel does not conform to any of the three historical forms. They do not employ congregational polity, believing that God's people collectively made poor decisions in the Old Testament, citing Exodus 16:2 as an example.[45] They also criticize presbyterian polity because when "the pastor is hired by the board and can be fired by the board," they fear that "the pastor becomes a hireling".[45] Although Calvary Chapel's governance shares a similarity with episcopal polity in that the congregation has no direct authority over the pastor, it does not have the formal hierarchy characteristic of episcopal polity.

The majority of Calvary Chapels have adopted models of government based on their understanding of the theocracy that God established in the Old Testament they sometimes call the "Moses model". In this system, God was head of his people and under God's authority was Moses, who led the Israelites as God directed him. Moses also had a priesthood and seventy elders providing him support. Calvary Chapel has adapted this order believing their pastors have a role like Moses and their boards of elders function in supporting roles.[44][45]

Calvary Chapels are independent and self governing churches. They do not have church membership apart from pastors recognized through their affiliate program. The Calvary Chapel Outreach Fellowship (CCOF) has the responsibility of affiliating churches with Calvary Chapel. A church that affiliates with Calvary Chapel often (but not always) uses the name "Calvary Chapel". Three requirements for becoming affiliated exist:

  1. the pastor must "embrace the characteristics of the Calvary Chapel movement as described in Calvary Chapel Distinctives"
  2. the church must have the characteristics of a church (as opposed to a less-developed home fellowship)
  3. an applicant must express willingness to spend the time to fellowship with other Calvary Chapels[46]

The requirements do not include a seminary degree. In accordance with Calvary's interpretation and understanding of the Bible (see 1 Timothy 3:2 and 1 Timothy 3:12), Calvary Chapel does not ordain women or homosexuals as pastors.

Regional lead pastors exercise a measure of accountability.[47] Since no legal or financial ties link the different Calvary Chapels, only disaffiliation can serve as a disciplinary procedure.

Criticisms

Various criticisms of the organization and of the pastorate role in the organization exist. For example, journalist David Templeton described intense peer pressure during his time as an active participant in Calvary Chapel ministry.[48] Chuck Smith has been criticized for drawing connections between disasters (e.g., earthquakes, the September 11 attacks) and divine wrath against homosexuality and abortion.[39][49]

Calvary Chapel leaders, including Smith, are the subject of a currently pending lawsuit alleging that they knew or should have known that a minister named Anthony Iglesias was prone to sexual abuse when they moved him from ministry positions in Diamond Bar, California, to Thailand, to Post Falls, Idaho.[50][51] Iglesias was convicted of lewd conduct with two 14-year-old boys in California in 2004, and the current lawsuit stems from events in Idaho, but all alleged abuse occurred in or before 2003.[50]

Accountability of the pastorate system

As a result of what he saw as micromanaging church elders and board members, Chuck Smith used "an independent board of elders" when he took the senior pastor role at Calvary Chapel. Smith subsequently wrote that "senior pastors should be answerable to God, not to a denominational hierarchy or board of elders". Christianity Today says that Smith's "Moses Model", in which senior pastors do not permit their authority to be challenged, can lead to churches that are often resistant to accountability. In response, Smith says he is following the authority structure that God used when Israel was under the rule of Moses.[52]

According to one article, "Smith's book Calvary Chapel Distinctives teaches that senior pastors should be answerable to God, not to a denominational hierarchy or board of elders." "Critics say this 'Moses model' produces pastors who refuse to let their authority be challenged. Such pastors often resist accountability measures such as financial audits and providing detailed financial statements. Some curious Calvary Chapel attendees, who have sought financial information from their churches, say they were ostracized."[52]

Ministries

Bible college

Technically, Calvary Chapel has only one Bible college: Calvary Chapel Bible College (CCBC), located in Murrieta, California. However, this school also has at least 50 affiliated campuses throughout the world.[53] Founded in 1975, it originally offered a "short, intensive study program",[54] but it subsequently became a two-year school which awards Certificates of Completion, Associate in Theology degrees (for high-school graduates), and Bachelor of Biblical Studies degrees (to students who have an Associate of Arts from an approved college).[55] [56] The college as a whole does not have accreditation, but students can transfer CCBC credits to some major accredited colleges such as Azusa Pacific.[citation needed] The college does not seek accreditation,[57] as this allows Calvary Chapel to keep the cost of tuition lower and offer courses taught by pastors who do not have Master's degrees.[58]

Harvest Crusades

Harvest Crusades operate as a ministry of Harvest Christian Fellowship (a Calvary Chapel in Riverside, California). They carry out an evangelistic ministry similar to Billy Graham's. They meet in stadiums and have Christian music bands play followed by an evangelical message normally given by Greg Laurie. They estimate three million people have attended since its inception in 1990.[59]

Broadcasting

Several radio stations are operated by Calvary Chapel churches. These include:

In addition, the CSN International (originally known as the "Calvary Satellite Network") and Effect Radio networks were founded by a Calvary Chapel in Twin Falls, Idaho; though CSN still carries a significant number of programs from several Calvary Chapels, the networks and the church (now known by the name "The River Christian Fellowship") have all apparently severed their official ties with the Calvary Chapel.

Notable Persons

Pastors

Musicians

Notable congregations


External links

References

  1. ^ Ballmer, Randall (2006). "California Kickback". Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Journey Into the Evangelical Subculture in America. Oxford University Press US. 
  2. ^ "What We Believe". http://www.calvarychapel.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=37. Retrieved 2010-02-14. "We are not a denominational church, nor are we opposed to denominations as such, only their over-emphasis of the doctrinal differences that have led to the division of the Body of Christ." 
  3. ^ Miller, Donald (1999). Reinventing American Protestantism: Christianity in the New Millennium. University of California Press. "Smith was not attempting to create a denomination; rather, what emerged was a loose fellowship of like-minded people.... Asked about what is preventing the a movement the size of Calvary Chapel, Smith emphatically answers, "Me," and then clarifies how a relationally based movement was ensured "by being fiercely independent and implanting this independence in them [the offspring churches]; by each of them incorporating independently; by not requiring reports; by keeping the affiliation [of churches] just a very loose affiliation." He states that there are no requirements, no calls, no letters from headquarters, unless there are major deviations from Calvary Chapel philosophy, at which point there might be a call from "Dad" to inquire what is going on. Calvary Chapel doctrine, if it can be called that, is simple. On many points there can be diversity of opinion so long as the centrality of scripture is maintained, along with such fundamental Christian beliefs as the deity of Christ and the resurrection of Jesus." 
  4. ^ "Churches List Ordered By City". http://www.calvarychapel.com/?show=Churches.List&Page=1&StartRecord=1&Sort=City,ASC. Retrieved 2006-04-19. 
  5. ^ a b Taylor, Larry. What Calvary Chapel Teaches. http://biblefacts.org/church/WCCT.pdf. 
  6. ^ Miller, Donald (1999). Reinventing American Protestantism: Christianity in the New Millennium. University of California Press. "The trademark of the doctrine of Chuck Smith and all Calvary Chapels is their verse-by-verse exposition of the Bible." 
  7. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 51. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "Another primary distinctive of Calvary Chapel is our endeavor to declare the whole counsel of God." 
  8. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 52. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "For the most part, the teaching ministry of Calvary Chapel is expositional in style." 
  9. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 20. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "As [senior] pastors, we need to be like Moses, in touch with Jesus and receiving His direction and guidance." 
  10. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 21. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "It's necessary to have godly men who recognize that God has called and ordained you as the pastor of the church. Men who will work with you and support those things that god is directing you, as the pastor, to implement within the church." 
  11. ^ Smith, Chuck & Tal Brooke (2003) Harvest. pp. 23. ISBN 0-936728-42-6, The Word For the Today Publishers, www.twft.com
  12. ^ Smith, Chuck (Fall, 1981). "The history of Calvary Chapel" (PDF). Last Times. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2008-07-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20080716203806/http://www.calvarychapel.com/assets/pdf/LastTimes-Fall1981.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-09. "While the tiny group at Calvary Chapel was praying about closing the church and not knowing what to do, the Holy Spirit spoke to them through prophecy. He said that He would lay a burden upon the heart of Chuck Smith to come and pastor. The Spirit said that Chuck wouldn't be happy with the church building. He would want to remodel it immediately, the platform area and all. God would bless the church and it would go on the radio. The church would become overcrowded. They would have to move to new quarters on the bluff overlooking the bay. And the church would become known throughout the world." 
  13. ^ Smith, Chuck & Tal Brooke (2003) Harvest. pp. 23-24. ISBN 0-936728-42-6, The Word For the Today Publishers, www.twft.com.
  14. ^ a b David di Sabatino (2001). Frisbee: The Life and Death of a Hippie Preacher (Documentary movie). United States: David Di Sabatino. http://www.lonniefrisbee.com. 
  15. ^ a b Newton, Gwen (Spring,1998). "Religious Movements Homepage: Calvary Chapel". University of Virginia New Religious Movements Archive. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on August 28, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060828125904/religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/calvary.html. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  16. ^ "The Big Tent Revival Church". Cbn.com. http://www.cbn.com/700club/features/cow/Calvary_CostaMesa_072307.aspx. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  17. ^ Miller, Donald (1999). Reinventing American Protestantism: Christianity in the New Millennium. University of California Press. "Using contemporary instrumentation similar to what one might hear at a rock conert, these groups have written lyrics that express their perception of an encounter with Jesus." 
  18. ^ Coker, Matt (April 14, 2005). "Ears on Their Heads, But They Don’t Hear: Spreading the real message of Frisbee". Orange County Weekly. http://www.ocweekly.com/2005-04-14/film/ears-on-their-heads-but-they-don-t-hear/. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  19. ^ Rabey, Steve (April 1991). "Marathana! Music Turns Twenty". CCM Magazine 13 (10): 12. ISSN 1524-7848. 
  20. ^ Newton, Gwen (Spring,1998). "Religious Movements Homepage: Vineyard Churches". University of Virginia New Religious Movements Archive. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on August 28, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20000824034415/http://www.people.virginia.edu/~kgq2e/vineyard.html. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  21. ^ Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 2005. p. 136. ISBN 0-8028-2819-1. 
  22. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Calvinism, Arminianism and the Word of God. The Word For Today. http://www.calvarychapelblythewood.com/books/calvinismarminianismandth.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-11. "We believe that all are sinners (Romans 3:23) and unable by human performance to earn, deserve, or merit salvation (Titus 3:5). We believe that the wages of sin is death (Romans 6:23), and that apart from God's grace, no one can be saved (Ephesians 2:8–9). We believe that none are righteous, or capable of doing good (Romans 3:10–12), and that apart from the conviction and regeneration of the Holy Spirit, none can be saved (John 1:12–13; 16:8–11; I Peter 1:23–25). Mankind is clearly fallen and lost in sin." 
  23. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Calvinism, Arminianism and the Word of God. The Word For Today. http://www.calvarychapelblythewood.com/books/calvinismarminianismandth.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-11. "We believe that God chose the believer before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4–6), and based on His foreknowledge, has predestined the believer to be conformed to the image of His Son (Romans 8:29–30). We believe that God offers salvation to all who will call on His name. Romans 10:13 says, "For whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved." We also believe that God calls to Himself those who will believe in His Son, Jesus Christ (I Corinthians 1:9). However, the Bible also teaches that an invitation (or call) is given to all, but that only a few will accept it. We see this balance throughout scripture. Revelation 22:17 states, "And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely." I Peter 1:2 tells us we are, "elect according to the foreknowledge of God, the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ." Matthew 22:14 says, "For many are called, but few are chosen (elected)." God clearly does choose, but man must also accept God's invitation to salvation." 
  24. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Calvinism, Arminianism and the Word of God. The Word For Today. http://www.calvarychapelblythewood.com/books/calvinismarminianismandth.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-11. "We believe that Jesus Christ died as a propitiation (a satisfaction of the righteous wrath of God against sin) "for the whole world" (I John 2:2; 4:9–10), and that He redeems and forgives all who will believe in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as their only hope of salvation from sin, death, and hell (Ephesians 1:7; I Peter 1:18–19). We believe that eternal life is a gift of God (Romans 6:23), and that "whosoever believeth" in Jesus Christ will not perish, but will have eternal life (John 3:16–18). I Timothy 4:10 says "we trust in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, specially of those that believe." Hebrews 2:9 states that Jesus, "was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, should taste death for every man." The atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ was clearly sufficient to save the entire human race." 
  25. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Calvinism, Arminianism and the Word of God. The Word For Today. http://www.calvarychapelblythewood.com/books/calvinismarminianismandth.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-11. "In Stephen's message in Acts 7:51, he concluded by saying, "Ye stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost; as your fathers did, so do ye." In Romans 10:21, the apostle Paul quotes Isaiah 65:2 when he speaks of God's words to Israel, "All day long I have stretched forth My hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people." In one of the five warning passages of the book of Hebrews, we read in Hebrews 10:26, "For if we sin wilfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins." Verse 29 adds, "Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, with which he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?" Clearly, God's grace can either be resisted or received by the exercise of human free will." 
  26. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Calvinism, Arminianism and the Word of God. The Word For Today. http://www.calvarychapelblythewood.com/books/calvinismarminianismandth.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-11. "We believe that nothing can separate us from the love of God in Jesus Christ our Lord (Romans 8:38–39), and that there is no condemnation to those who are in Jesus Christ (Romans 8:1). We believe that the promise of Jesus in John 10:27–28 is clear: "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of My hand." Jesus said in John 6:37, "him that cometh to Me I will in no wise cast out." We have this assurance in Philippians 1:6 "Being confident of this very thing, that He who hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ." We believe that the Holy Spirit has sealed us unto the day of redemption (Ephesians 1:13–14; 4:30). But we also are deeply concerned over the words of Jesus in Matthew 7:21–23" 
  27. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). Charisma vs. Charismania. Word for Today. ISBN 0-936728-49-3. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/cvc.htm. 
  28. ^ Arrington, French L. (Fall). "The Indwelling, Baptism, and Infilling with the Holy Spirit: A Differentiation of Terms". Pneuma: the Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 3 (1): 1–2. 
  29. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 27. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "We believe that there is an experience of the empowering of the Holy Spirit in the life of a believer that is distinct and separate from the indwelling of the Spirit that takes place at conversion." 
  30. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 28. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "We believe that the Holy Spirit is dwelling with a person prior to conversion. He is the One convicting him of his sin, convincing him that Jesus Christ is the only answer." 
  31. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993) (PDF). Calvary Chapel Distinctives. Word for Today. p. 29. ISBN 0-936728-80-9. http://www.calvarynetradio.com/images/stories/pdf/Distinctives.pdf. "So we see the dynamic power of the Spirit in us which comes when we accept Jesus. He begins that work in us of transforming us into the image of Jesus Christ." 
  32. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). "The Rapture Of The Church". Calvary Chapel Distinctives. The Word For Today. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/ccd.htm. 
  33. ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2007). "Terror at the Holy of Holies: Christians and Jewish Builders of the Temple at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century". Journal of Religion and Society. Omaha, Nebraska: Kripke Center for the Study of Religion and Society. http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2007/2007-5.html. Retrieved 2009-01-02. "According to one source, [Stanley] Goldfoot was the one to establish the contacts, which became vital since the 1990s, between the Temple Mount Faithful and its Christian supporters (Kol HaIr 13 October 1995: 44–49). In the early 1980s, Chuck Smith, a noted evangelist and minister of Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa, California, one of the largest and most dynamic Charismatic churches in America (on Smith, see Miller), invited Stanley Goldfoot to lecture in his church, and Smith’s followers helped to finance Goldfoot’s activity. Chuck Smith’s involvement in the rebuilding of the Temple is demonstrative of the constituency of Christians interested in the Temple and the prospect of its rebuilding." 
  34. ^ a b End Times: A Report on Future Survival, Chuck Smith, 1978Smith, Chuck (1978). End Times: A Report on Future Survival. Maranatha House Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 0-89337-011-8. "Jesus taught us that the generation which sees the "budding of the fig tree," the birth of the nation Israel, will be the generation that sees the Lord's return. I believe that the generation of 1948 is the last generation. Since a generation of judgment is forty years and the Tribulation period lasts seven years, I believe the Lord could come back for His Church any time before the Tribulation starts, which would mean anytime before 1981. (1948+40+7=1981)" 
  35. ^ Smith, Chuck. "End Times: A Report on Future Survival (9780893370114): Chuck Smith: Books". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0893370118. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  36. ^ Gorenberg, Gershom. The End of Days:Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. p. 123.
  37. ^ Abanes, Richard. End-Time Visions : The Road to Armageddon. pp. 326, 412–413.
  38. ^ DiSabatino, David. The Jesus People Movement: An Annotated Bibliography and General Resource. Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies. p.68
  39. ^ a b Goffard, Christopher (2 September 2006). "Father, Son and Holy Rift". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2006/sep/02/local/me-smiths2. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  40. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). "The Priority of the Word". Calvary Chapel Distinctives. The Word For Today. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/ccd.htm. "Topical sermons are good, and they have their place, but when you're preaching topically, you're prone by nature to preach only those topics that you like.... If you're only preaching topically, you may also tend to avoid controversial or difficult topics, and the people won't gain a well-balanced view of God's truth." 
  41. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). "The Priority of the Word". Calvary Chapel Distinctives. The Word For Today. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/ccd.htm. "Another advantage of teaching the whole counsel of God is that when you come to difficult issues that deal with problems in an individual's life or within the Church body, you can address them straightforwardly. we need not worry about people thinking, 'Oh, he's aiming at me today.' People in the congregation know that it's simply the passage of of Scripture being studied that day. So it can't be, 'Oh man, he's really picking on me," because they realize that you're going straight through the Book, and you're not jumping from topic to topic. We're just going straight through the entire Word of God."  Another advantage, they say, is that it makes difficult topics easier to address because members of the congregation won't feel like they are being singled out.}}
  42. ^ Smith, Chuck (1993). "The Priority of the Word". Calvary Chapel Distinctives. The Word For Today. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/ccd.htm. 
  43. ^ Niebuhr, Gustav (3 January 1998). "Religion Journal; New Groups' Adherents Bolster Churchgoing Data". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/03/us/religion-journal-new-groups-adherents-bolster-churchgoing-data.html?scp=1&sq=Niebuhr%2C+Gustav+reinventing&st=nyt. Retrieved 9 September 2011. "...pastors and congregants alike favor informal attire..." 
  44. ^ a b Smith, Chuck. The Philosophy of Ministry of Calvary Chapel. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/tpomocc.htm. 
  45. ^ a b c Smith, Chuck (1993). "Church Government". Calvary Chapel Distinctives. The Word For Today. http://www3.calvarychapel.com/library/smith-chuck/books/ccd.htm. 
  46. ^ "Calvary Chapel Outreach Fellowship Introduction". http://www.ccofweb.com/. Retrieved 2006-04-15. 
  47. ^ "Calvary Chapel Outreach Fellowship Mission Statement". Archived from the original on 2006-04-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20060404055418/http://ccofweb.com/missionstatement.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15. 
  48. ^ Templeton, David (April 2-8, 1998). "Losing My Religion". Sonoma County Independent. http://www.metroactive.com/papers/sonoma/04.02.98/calvary-9813.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  49. ^ Lobdell, William (22 September 2001). "In Aftermath of Attacks, Talk of 'End Days' Soars". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2001/sep/22/local/me-48633. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  50. ^ a b Graman, Kevin 2011. Churches protected predator, suit says, The Spokesman-Review. Published 16 April 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  51. ^ Arellano, Gustavo 2011. Lawsuit claims Calvary Chapel allowed shuffling of pedophile employee from Diamond Bar to Idaho, OC Weekly. Published 23 August 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  52. ^ a b Moll, Rob (2007-02-16). "Day of Reckoning: Chuck Smith and Calvary Chapel face an uncertain future.". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/article_print.html?id=40794. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  53. ^ "CCBC Affiliate Campuses". http://calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2&Itemid=55. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  54. ^ "CCBC Main Campus". http://www.calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/wb/. Retrieved 2006-04-16. 
  55. ^ "CCBC Undergraduate Program". http://www.calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/wb/pages/main-campus/academic-information/undergraduate-program.php. Retrieved 2006-04-16. 
  56. ^ "CCBC Graduation Worksheet" (PDF). http://data.calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/ccbc/forms/GraduationWorksheet.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  57. ^ "Calvary Chapel bible College – Accreditation". 2008. http://www.calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/wb/pages/main-campus/general-information/accreditation.php. Retrieved 2008-10-26. "We are not accredited, nor are we seeking accreditation, so as to be free from outside control and remain open to the leading of the Holy Spirit." 
  58. ^ "CCBC Accreditation". http://www.calvarychapelbiblecollege.com/wb/pages/main-campus/general-information/accreditation.php. Retrieved 2008-10-26. "We desire to continue in our independent standing so as not to compromise the integrity of the vision or direction the Lord has given to CCBC. We believe that the credibility of CCBC is not in accreditation, but in the fruitfulness and surrendered lives of the students who have attended." 
  59. ^ "Harvest Crusades". http://www.harvest.org/crusades/index.php/137.html. Retrieved 2006-04-19. 
  60. ^ "KWVE Programs". Archived from the original on 2006-02-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060218183834/http://www.kwve.com/index.cfm?event=programs. Retrieved 2006-04-19. 
  61. ^ a b c "K-Wave Radio Network". http://network.kwve.com. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  62. ^ "M88 Radio". http://www.m88.org/default.asp. Retrieved 2006-04-19. 
  63. ^ "Calvary Chapel Bangor Maine". http://www.ccbangor.org/. 
  64. ^ The Bridge FM
  65. ^ Reach FM
  66. ^ Coker, Matt (2005-03-03). "The First Jesus Freak: A pot-smokin, LSD-droppin seeker turned Calvary Chapel into a household name. So why is Lonnie Frisbee missing from church history?". OC Weekly. Santa Ana, California: Village Voice. http://www.ocweekly.com/2005-03-03/features/the-first-jesus-freak/1. Retrieved 2008-11-30. "Lonnie left after about four years as Calvary's unofficial youth pastor and, after a brief time in the Shepherding movement, wound up at the soon-to-become Vineyard Church of Yorba Linda." 
  67. ^ "Meet the Pastors". Melbourne, Florida: Calvary Chapel of Melbourne. 2007. http://www.calvaryccm.com/en/about/meetthepastors.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-11. "Mark Balmer is the senior pastor of Calvary Chapel of Melbourne in West Melbourne, Florida." 
  68. ^ "About Calvary". Albuquerque, New Mexico: Calvary Chapel of Albuquerque. 2009. http://www.calvaryabq.org/pastorbios/content_pastorbio_skiph.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-11. "Skip, along with Lenya and their son, moved back to California in January 2004 to serve as Senior Pastor at Ocean Hills Community Church in San Juan Capistrano. Skip served in this capacity until July 2006, when he and Lenya returned to Albuquerque to once again serve as Senior Pastor at Calvary of Albuquerque." [dead link]
  69. ^ "Welcome to Sound Truth Online". Merritt Island, Florida: Sound Truth Online. 2008. http://www.soundtruthonline.com/. Retrieved 2009-02-11. "Sound Truth is the teaching ministry of Pastor Malcolm Wild, Senior Pastor of Calvary Chapel Merritt Island in Merritt Island Florida."