Idiopathicleg cramps are common and typically affect the calf muscles at night.Edema also is common and in many cases idiopathic. In a small study of factory workers in good health, wearing compression garments helped to reduce edema and the pain associated with edema. A small study of runners found that wearing knee-high compression stockings while running significantly improved performance.
The circumference of the calf has been used to estimate selected health risks. In Spain, a study of 22,000 persons 65 or older found that a smaller calf circumference was associated with a higher risk of undernutrition. In France, a study of 6265 persons 65 or older found an inverse correlation between calf circumference and carotid plaques.
Calf augmentation and restoration is available, using a range of prosthesis devices and surgical techniques.
Calf and calf of the leg are documented in use in Middle English, respectively, circa 1350 and 1425.
Historically, the absence of calf, meaning a lower leg without a prominent calf muscle, was regarded by some authors as a sign of inferiority: it is well known that monkeys have no calves, and still less do they exist among the lower orders of mammals.
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^Blättler W, Kreis N, Lun B, Winiger J, Amsler F (2008). "Leg symptoms of healthy people and their treatment with compression hosiery". Phlebology / Venous Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine23 (5): 214–21. doi:10.1258/phleb.2008.008014. PMID18806203.
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^Debette S, Leone N, Courbon D, Gariépy J, Tzourio C, Dartigues JF, Ritchie K, Alpérovitch A, Ducimetière P, Amouyel P, Zureik M (November 2008). "Calf circumference is inversely associated with carotid plaques". Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation39 (11): 2958–65. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.520106. PMID18703804.