Calcium oxide

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Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
Identifiers
CAS number1305-78-8 YesY
PubChem14778
ChemSpider14095
UNIIC7X2M0VVNH
UN number1910
RTECS numberEW3100000
ATCvet codeQP53AX18
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCaO
Molar mass56.0774 g/mol
AppearanceWhite to pale yellow/brown powder
Odorodorless
Density3.34 g/cm3[1]
Melting point2613 °C, 2886 K, 4735 °F[1]
Boiling point2850 °C, 3123 K (100 hPa)[2]
Solubility in water1.19 g/L (25 °C), 0.57 g/L (100 °C), exothermic reaction[3]
Solubility in acidssoluble (also in glycerol, sugar solution)
Solubility in methanolinsoluble (also in diethyl ether, n-octanol)
Acidity (pKa)12.8
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
40 J·mol−1·K−1[4]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−635 kJ·mol−1[4]
Hazards
MSDS[1]
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium sulfide
Calcium hydroxide
Other cationsBeryllium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Strontium oxide
Barium oxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
Identifiers
CAS number1305-78-8 YesY
PubChem14778
ChemSpider14095
UNIIC7X2M0VVNH
UN number1910
RTECS numberEW3100000
ATCvet codeQP53AX18
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCaO
Molar mass56.0774 g/mol
AppearanceWhite to pale yellow/brown powder
Odorodorless
Density3.34 g/cm3[1]
Melting point2613 °C, 2886 K, 4735 °F[1]
Boiling point2850 °C, 3123 K (100 hPa)[2]
Solubility in water1.19 g/L (25 °C), 0.57 g/L (100 °C), exothermic reaction[3]
Solubility in acidssoluble (also in glycerol, sugar solution)
Solubility in methanolinsoluble (also in diethyl ether, n-octanol)
Acidity (pKa)12.8
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
40 J·mol−1·K−1[4]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−635 kJ·mol−1[4]
Hazards
MSDS[1]
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium sulfide
Calcium hydroxide
Other cationsBeryllium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Strontium oxide
Barium oxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature. The broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. By contrast, "quicklime" specifically applies to the single chemical compound calcium oxide. Calcium oxide which survives processing without reacting in building products such as cement is called free lime.[5]

Quicklime is relatively inexpensive. Both it and a chemical derivative (calcium hydroxide, of which quicklime is the base anhydride) are important commodity chemicals.

Preparation[edit]

Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials such as limestone, or seashells, that contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3; mineral calcite) in a lime kiln. This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 °C (1,517 °F),[6] a process called calcination or lime-burning, to liberate a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2); leaving quicklime. The quicklime is not stable and, when cooled, will spontaneously react with CO2 from the air until, after enough time, it will be completely converted back to calcium carbonate unless slaked with water to set as lime plaster or lime mortar.

Annual worldwide production of quicklime is around 283 million metric tons. China is by far the world's largest producer, with a total of around 170 million tonnes per year. The United States is the next largest, with around 20 million tonnes per year.[7]

Usage[edit]

CaO (s) + H2O (l) is in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2 (aq) (ΔHr = −63.7 kJ/mol of CaO)
As it hydrates, an exothermic reaction results and the solid puffs up. The hydrate can be reconverted to quicklime by removing the water by heating it to redness to reverse the hydration reaction. One litre of water combines with approximately 3.1 kilograms (6.8 lb) of quicklime to give calcium hydroxide plus 3.54 MJ of energy. This process can be used to provide a convenient portable source of heat, as for on-the-spot food warming in a self-heating can.

Use as a weapon[edit]

Historian and philosopher David Hume, in his history of England, recounts that early in the reign of Henry III, the English Navy destroyed an invading French fleet by blinding the enemy fleet with quicklime:

D’Albiney employed a stratagem against them, which is said to have contributed to the victory: Having gained the wind of the French, he came down upon them with violence; and throwing in their faces a great quantity of quicklime, which he purposely carried on board, he so blinded them, that they were disabled from defending themselves.[15]

Quicklime is also thought to have been a component of Greek fire. Upon contact with water, quicklime would increase its temperature above 150 °C and ignite the fuel.[16]

Health issues[edit]

Because of vigorous reaction of quicklime with water, quicklime causes severe irritation when inhaled or placed in contact with moist skin or eyes. Inhalation may cause coughing, sneezing, labored breathing. It may then evolve into burns with perforation of the nasal septum, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Although quicklime is not considered a fire hazard, its reaction with water can release enough heat to ignite combustible materials.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.55. ISBN 1439855110. 
  2. ^ Calciumoxid. GESTIS database
  3. ^ Committee on Water Treatment Chemicals, Food and Nutrition Board, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council (1982). Water Chemicals Codex. p. 20. ISBN 0-309-07368-5. 
  4. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  5. ^ "free lime" DictionaryOfConstruction.com. WebFinance, Inc. May 29, 2014 <http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/free-lime.html>.
  6. ^ Merck Index of chemicals and Drugs , 9th edition monograph 1650
  7. ^ Miller, M. Michael (2007). "Lime". Minerals Yearbook. U.S. Geological Survey. p. 43.13. 
  8. ^ Collie, Robert L. "Solar heating system" U.S. Patent 3,955,554 issued May 11, 1976
  9. ^ Gray, Theodore (September 2007). "Limelight in the Limelight". Popular Science: 84. 
  10. ^ Kozu, Masato; et al (2008). "Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production". Fuel (Elsevier) 87 (12). doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.10.019. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Zhu, Huaping; et al (2006). "Preparation of Biodiesel Catalyzed by Solid Super Base of Calcium Oxide and Its Refining Process". Chinese Journal of Catalysis (Elsevier) 27 (5): 391–396. doi:10.1016/S1872-2067(06)60024-7. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  12. ^ Neolithic man: The first lumberjack?. Phys.org (August 9, 2012). Retrieved on 2013-01-22.
  13. ^ Karkanas, Panagiotis; Stratouli, Georgia (2011). "Neolithic Lime Plastered Floors in Drakaina Cave, Kephalonia Island, Western Greece: Evidence of the Significance of the Site". The Annual of the British School at Athens 103: 27. doi:10.1017/S006824540000006X. 
  14. ^ Connelly, Ashley Nicole (May 2012) Analysis and Interpretation of Neolithic Near Eastern Mortuary Rituals from a Community-Based Perspective. Baylor University Thesis, Texas
  15. ^ David Hume (1756). History of England I. 
  16. ^ Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 0-387-95076-1. 
  17. ^ CaO MSDS. hazard.com

External links[edit]