Calcium hypochlorite

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Calcium hypochlorite or Calcium oxychloride
Calcium hypochlorite
Identifiers
CAS number7778-54-3 YesY
ChemSpider22912 YesY
EC number231-908-7
UN number1748
RTECS numberNH3485000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCa(ClO)2
Molar mass142.98 g/mol
Appearancewhite/gray powder
Density2.35 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point100 °C
Boiling point175 °C, decomposes
Solubility in water21 g/100 mL, reacts
Solubilityreacts in alcohol
Hazards
MSDSICSC 0638
EU Index017-012-00-7
EU classificationOxidant (O)
Corrosive (C)
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrasesR8, R22, R31, R34, R50
S-phrases(S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD50850 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium chloride
Other cationsSodium hypochlorite
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Calcium hypochlorite or Calcium oxychloride
Calcium hypochlorite
Identifiers
CAS number7778-54-3 YesY
ChemSpider22912 YesY
EC number231-908-7
UN number1748
RTECS numberNH3485000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCa(ClO)2
Molar mass142.98 g/mol
Appearancewhite/gray powder
Density2.35 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point100 °C
Boiling point175 °C, decomposes
Solubility in water21 g/100 mL, reacts
Solubilityreacts in alcohol
Hazards
MSDSICSC 0638
EU Index017-012-00-7
EU classificationOxidant (O)
Corrosive (C)
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrasesR8, R22, R31, R34, R50
S-phrases(S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
LD50850 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium chloride
Other cationsSodium hypochlorite
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent. This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

Preparation[edit]

It is manufactured by the calcium process:

2 Cl
2
+ 2 Ca(OH)
2
Ca(OCl)
2
+ CaCl
2
+ 2 H
2
O

"Bleaching powder" is a mixture of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) and the basic chloride CaCl2, H2O with some slaked lime, Ca(OH)2. [1]

Properties[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is a yellow white solid which has a strong smell of chlorine. It is not highly soluble in water and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. It has two forms: dry and hydrated. The hydrated form is safer to handle.

Calcium hypochlorite reacts with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate and release dichlorine monoxide:

Ca(ClO)
2
+ CO
2
CaCO
3
+ Cl
2
O

A calcium hypochlorite solution is basic. This is due to the hydrolysis performed by the hypochlorite ion, as hypochlorous acid is weak, but calcium hydroxide is a strong base. As a result, the hypochlorite ion is a strong conjugate base, and the calcium ion is a weak conjugate acid:

ClO
+ H2O → HClO + OH

Similarly, calcium hypochlorite reacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride, water and gaseous chlorine:

Ca(OCl)2 + 4 HCl → CaCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 Cl2

Uses[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. Generally it is sold as 68% calcium hypochlorite combined with calcium chloride and other salts. It is used as a sanitizer in outdoor swimming pools in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer, which reduces the loss of chlorine due to ultraviolet radiation. The calcium content hardens the water and tends to clog up some filters; hence, some products containing calcium hypochlorite also contain anti-scaling agents.

Calcium hypochlorite is an ingredient in bleaching powder, used for bleaching cotton and linen. It is used in bathroom cleaners, household disinfectant sprays, moss and algae removers, and weedkillers.

In addition, calcium hypochlorite may be used to manufacture chloroform.

Chlorine compounds, including calcium hypochlorite, are widely used in the food industry to kill bacteria and disinfect surfaces and production equipment[2]

Safety[edit]

Calcium hypochlorite is best kept in a cool dry place away from any organic material. It is known to undergo self heating and rapid decomposition accompanied by the release of toxic chlorine gas.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Mannsvile Chemical Products Corp. (1987) Chemical Products Synopsis: Calcium Hypochlorite, Asbuiy Park, NJ

External links[edit]