CHOP

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For other uses, see Chop (disambiguation).

CHOP is the acronym for a chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CHOP consists of:

Dosing regimen[edit]

DrugStandard [R]-CHOP-14 or [R]-CHOP-21[R]-Maxi-CHOPModeDays
(R)ituximab375 mg/m²375 mg/m²IV infusionDay 1
(C)yclophosphamide750 mg/m²1200 mg/m²IV infusionDay 1
(H)ydroxydaunorubicin50 mg/m²75 mg/m²IV bolusDay 1
(O)ncovin1.4 mg/m² (max. 2 mg)2 mgIV bolusDay 1
(P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone40 mg/m²100 mgPO qdDays 1-5

R-Maxi-CHOP is used in mantle cell lymphoma and is given in 21-day intervals, alternating with R-HDAC (rituximab + high-dose cytarabine).[1]

In most other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (excluding some aggressive forms), standard-dose [R]-CHOP is generally used as first-line therapy.

Uses and indications[edit]

Normal cells are more able than cancer cells to repair damage from chemotherapy drugs.

This regimen can also be combined with the monoclonal antibody rituximab if the lymphoma is of B cell origin; this combination is called R-CHOP. Typically, courses are administered at an interval of two or three weeks (CHOP-14 and CHOP-21 respectively). A staging CT scan is generally performed after three cycles to assess whether the disease is responding to treatment.

In patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, doxorubicin (which is cardiotoxic) is often deemed to be too great a risk and is omitted from the regimen. The combination is then referred to as COP (cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone or prednisolone) or CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone or prednisolone).

Side-effects and complications[edit]

The combination is generally well tolerated.[citation needed] Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may require antiemetics (such as ondansetron), and hemorrhagic cystitis is prevented with administration of mesna. Alopecia (hair loss) is common.

Neutropenia generally develops in the second week. During this period, many clinicians recommend pegfilgrastim or prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin.[1] If a fever develops in the neutropenic period, urgent medical assessment is required for neutropenic sepsis, as infections in patients with low neutrophil counts may progress rapidly.

Allopurinol is typically co-administered prophylactically to prevent hyperuricemia that results from tumor lysis syndrome, the result of rapid death of tumor cells.

History[edit]

A pivotal study published in 1993 compared CHOP to several other chemotherapy regimens (e.g. m-BACOD, ProMACE-CytaBOM, MACOP-B) for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[2] CHOP emerged as the regimen with the least toxicity but similar efficacy.

However, in Germany in 2012, bendamustine has displaced [R-]CHOP to become the first line treatment of choice for indolent lymphoma (a less aggressive subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma).[2]

[R]-CHOEP modification[edit]

In order to develop more effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for aggressive lymphomas, some researchers tried to add (E)toposide to the standard [R]-CHOP regimen.[3]

There were also attempts to further improve the efficacy of the [R]-CHOEP regimen with escalating the chemotherapy doses. This mode was called [R]-High-CHOEP. But it did not show more effectiveness than standard-dose [R]-CHOEP while adding more toxicity and cost.[4]

In order to try improving efficacy of the [R]-CHOEP, some researchers tried to escalate chemotherapy to very high doses, requiring autologic stem cell support in each cycle. Doses in that regimen were increased from cycle to cycle. This regimen was called [R]-MegaCHOEP. But again, such escalation seemed to not improve effectiveness while adding toxicity.[5]

DrugStandard [R]-CHOEP[R]-High-CHOEP[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 1[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycles 2 and 3[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 4 (last)ModeDays
(R)ituximab375 mg/m²375 mg/m²375 mg/m²375 mg/m²375 mg/m²IV infusionDay 1
(C)yclophosphamide750 mg/m²1400 mg/m²1500 mg/m²4500 mg/m²6000 mg/m²IV infusionДень 1
(H)ydroxydaunorubicin50 mg/m²65 mg/m²70 mg/m²70 mg/m²70 mg/m²IV bolusDay 1
(O)ncovin1,4 mg/m² (max 2 mg)2 mg2 mg2 mg2 mgIV bolusDay 1
(E)toposide100 mg/m²175 mg/m²600 mg/m²960 mg/m²1480 mg/m²IV infusionDays 1-3
(P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone40 mg/m²100 mg500 mg500 mg500 mgPO qdDays 1-5

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cullen M, Steven N, Billingham L, Gaunt C, Hastings M, Simmonds P, Stuart N, Rea D, Bower M, Fernando I, Huddart R, Gollins S, Stanley A (2005). "Antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy for solid tumors and lymphomas.". N Engl J Med 353 (10): 988–98. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa050078. PMID 16148284. 
  2. ^ Fisher RI, Gaynor ER, Dahlberg S, Oken MM, Grogan TM, Mize EM, Glick JH, Coltman CA Jr, Miller TP (1993). "Comparison of a standard regimen (CHOP) with three intensive chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.". N Engl J Med 328 (14): 1002–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM199304083281404. PMID 7680764.