Burson-Marsteller

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Burson-Marsteller
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryPublic Relations & Marketing
Founded1953
Headquarters230 Park Ave. South
New York City, USA
Area servedWorldwide
Key peopleHarold Burson & Bill Marsteller (founders)
Don Baer, worldwide CEO
Owner(s)WPP plc
ParentYoung & Rubicam
Websitewww.burson-marsteller.com
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Burson-Marsteller
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryPublic Relations & Marketing
Founded1953
Headquarters230 Park Ave. South
New York City, USA
Area servedWorldwide
Key peopleHarold Burson & Bill Marsteller (founders)
Don Baer, worldwide CEO
Owner(s)WPP plc
ParentYoung & Rubicam
Websitewww.burson-marsteller.com

Burson-Marsteller is a global public relations and communications firm headquartered in New York City. Burson-Marsteller operates 67 wholly owned offices and 71 affiliate offices in 98 countries across six continents.[1] The company was founded by Harold Burson and William "Bill" Marsteller in 1953, and, by the early 1980s, had become one of the largest public relations companies in the world. In 1979 it became a subsidiary of Young & Rubicam, which is now owned by WPP Group. The current CEO of Burson-Marsteller is Don Baer, former communications director for the Clinton administration,[2] who joined the company in 2007 and who replaced Mark Penn as worldwide CEO in July 2012.[3]

Burson-Marsteller provides public relations and advertising services to clients, including multinational corporations and government agencies. Burson-Marsteller is primarily known for its crisis management services and political lobbying. It has won numerous awards from the public relations industry over the years for its work in high profile crisis management, including the late 1990s Asian financial crisis, a 2002 extortion attempt against British company GlaxoSmithKline, and a response described as the "gold standard" for its crisis management of the 1982 Chicago Tylenol poisonings. Other high profile crisis cases include the manufacturers of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station and Egypt following terrorist attacks on tourists in 1993. At times it has also been the subject of protests and criticism for its use of smearing and doubt campaigns (to undermine concerns about passive smoking for Philip Morris in the 1990s and anti-Google smear campaigning for Facebook in 2011)[4][5] and its work for regimes facing severe human rights criticisms (Argentina and Indonesia). The firm also specializes in corporate PR, public affairs, technology and healthcare communications and brand marketing.

History[edit]

1950s and 1960s: Founding and early history[edit]

Prior to the establishment of Burson-Marsteller, co-founders Harold Burson and William "Bill" Marsteller owned separate agencies, focused on public relations and advertising, respectively. Burson had established Harold Burson Public Relations in 1946 and was based in New York City. Meanwhile, Marsteller had founded the Chicago-based advertising agency Marsteller Gebhardt and Reed (later renamed Marsteller Inc.) in 1951.[6] Burson and Marsteller met in 1952 when Marsteller needed a PR agency to work on an account for his client, Rockwell Manufacturing[7] and was referred to Burson. The two agencies shared the Rockwell account and, later, an account for Clark Engineering Equipment Company.[8] In 1953, they entered into partnership,[9] creating a new public relations firm that was owned jointly by Burson and by Marsteller's advertising agency.[10]

Beginning with a staff of four and just two main clients,[11] operations quickly grew, and in the early 1960s Burson-Marsteller began to establish a presence outside of the United States. In 1960, they opened an office in Toronto, Canada, becoming the first U.S. PR agency to do so.[12] One year later, in 1961 following the founding of the Common Market in Europe, the company established its first European office in Geneva, shortly followed by an office in Brussels in 1965.[13] At this time Hill & Knowlton was the only other U.S. PR firm with an office outside the United States.[14] In 1967, Burson-Marsteller opened its first London office.[13]

1970s: General Motors[edit]

One of the firm's earliest clients was the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors (GM), the division of GM that made diesel locomotives, beginning in 1956, and was the only PR agency retained by GM at the time.[15] In 1970, Burson-Marsteller was engaged by the main division of GM to manage their PR,[7] following stiff competition from larger firms. According to Harold Burson, GM was seeking outside PR management following the publication of Ralph Nader's book Unsafe At Any Speed, which called into question GM's design practices, and led to negative media representation of the company. GM remained a client of Burson-Marsteller for the next eleven years.[16] At the time they took on GM, Burson-Marsteller was the 10th largest PR firm in the United States.[17]

1980s: Young & Rubicam and worldwide expansion[edit]

In 1979, the company was sold to the communications group Young & Rubicam. In his memoirs, Burson described the decision as being made for two primary reasons. First, Burson-Marsteller required capital in order to finance its expansion. Second, Marsteller's advertising agency had declined in profitability and "needed management fixing".[14] Following the takeover, Burson became executive vice-president and a board member of Young & Rubicam.[6][18] As part of Young & Rubicam in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Burson-Marsteller became known for its crisis management work.[19] Notable clients consulting Burson-Marsteller for crisis management included: Babcock & Wilcox, following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979; Johnson & Johnson, during the 1982 Tylenol crisis[20] and Union Carbide Corporation following 1984 Bhopal disaster.[21][22] The company was also involved in the introduction of New Coke in early 1985. In interviews Burson has stated that the negative reaction of the public to the new product was unexpected.[22] Following the reintroduction of the original Coke recipe, the strategy that Burson-Marsteller advised Coca-Cola to employ was to "be humble" and apologize to the U.S. public for making the decision to change to New Coke.[17][20] Just two months after original Coke was reintroduced as Classic Coke, sales of Coke, Coca-Cola Classic and Cherry Coke had risen 10 percent compared with the previous year.[23]

The 1980s also saw the company involved in large-scale publicity events. In 1984, Burson-Marsteller first brought entertainment and sports together to generate publicity for its clients with the organization of the AT&T Olympic Torch Relay, sponsored by the telecommunications company.[24] This was the largest promotional event that the company had undertaken to date, with up to 150 people working full-time on organizing the 8,000-mile relay.[25] One year later, Burson-Marsteller executive Geoff Nightingale came up with the idea of Hands Across America as a fundraising event for USA for Africa sponsored by its client Coca-Cola.[26]

By 1983, Burson-Marsteller had become the world's largest PR firm, with $63.8 million in revenue for that year.[7] The following year it acquired Cohn & Wolfe, an Atlanta-based public relations firm,[27] which operated as a subsidiary of Burson-Marsteller until 2000. The firm had established its first offices in Asia in 1973, with offices in Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Tokyo,[17] and by the mid-1980s it had further expanded overseas operations with the founding of offices in Australia and New Zealand.[28] A subsidiary of the Xinhua News Agency (New China News Agency) went into partnership with Burson-Marsteller in 1985, providing commercial public relations for foreign firms in China and for Chinese companies internationally.[29] This subsidiary later became China Global Public Relations, mainland China's first specialized public relations consulting firm.[30] Following Burson-Marsteller's appointment as the official public relations counsel for the Seoul Olympics in 1988,[9] it was the first foreign public relations firm to be granted a license to open a wholly owned communications and marketing office in South Korea.[31]

Burson-Marsteller also expanded into Central and South America during the 1980s. Offices were established in San Juan, Puerto Rico and Sao Paulo. A regional headquarters was established in Miami in May 1989,[32] and with the regional headquarters in place, the company won MasterCard International's Latin American account, which became one of the firm's largest accounts of the time.[33]

The agency's business grew by about 24% annually during the 1980s, according to Burson, and PR Week stated in 1988 that Burson-Marsteller was by that point "the largest international PR firm in the world".[9] The following year, Burson stepped down as CEO of the firm. He continued to work on major accounts such as Coca-Cola and Merrill Lynch,[22] while James H. Dowling succeeded him as the second ever CEO of Burson-Marsteller.[34]

1990s: Global presence and Philip Morris[edit]

By 1990 Burson-Marsteller had branches in 28 countries, with 52 offices and over 2,300 employees.[18] Notable international work carried out by Burson-Marsteller in the early 1990s included a public relations campaign undertaken for the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism in 1993, following terrorist attacks on tourists in Egypt. The campaign aimed to encourage tourists to visit Egypt, focusing on recent archaeological discoveries.[35]

In December 1994, the company received attention after an executive at Burson-Marsteller was killed by a mailbomb sent by the "Unabomber". The Washington Post reported that Ted Kaczynski targeted Burson-Marsteller executive Thomas Mosser due to a belief Exxon had consulted with Burson-Marsteller during the Valdez oil spill. Burson-Marsteller stated that they had advised Exxon in the past and had been asked to review and analyze Exxon's handling of the disaster afterwards, but had not been engaged to manage the crisis itself.[36]

In the 1990s the company also received considerable attention for PR campaigns on behalf of tobacco company Altria (formerly Philip Morris Companies Inc.) in which it was engaged to discredit anti-smoking research and legislation attempts.[37] In 1993 Burson-Marsteller helped organize a response to a 1992 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report which had identified secondhand smoke as a Group A human carcinogen.[38] The strategy employed by Burson-Marsteller was to build doubt among consumers about the scientific validity of the EPA report and to target legislators who supported curbs on smoking.[39] As part of this strategy, the company organized a smokers' rights group called the National Smokers Alliance (NSA),[40] to target politicians who supported anti-smoking legislation.[41][42][43] The NSA was founded with an estimated $4 million in Philip Morris seed money and involvement of some fifty other tobacco industry players.[44]

Their activities also included support for The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), which was created in 1993 by APCO Worldwide, another major public relations firm, with funding from Philip Morris.[45][46] In Europe, Burson-Marsteller provided support for an advertising campaign in 1996 carried out by Philip Morris. Advertisements were published comparing the health risks of second hand smoke exposure with a range of other activities. This campaign received significant coverage in the media across Europe.[47] Burson-Marsteller was criticized in the media for its involvement with Philip Morris, and in 1999 a demonstration was held outside of the firm's headquarters, protesting their role as PR for Philip Morris.[48] Those involved went to great lengths not to reveal the tobacco industry support of these organizations, in order to give the appearance they represented grassroots opposition to anti-smoking laws rather than the business interests of their sponsors.[49][50]

At the end of the 1990s, the firm had retained its position as the largest PR agency in the world, with fees of over $274 million for that year.[22] As part of the company's continued growth it had acquired a grassroots lobbying organization, Direct Impact, in April 1999.[51] In the same year, Burson was named by PR Week as the PR industry's "most influential person of the 20th century".[7][22]

2000s[edit]

Young & Rubicam became a subsidiary of the media group WPP Group PLC in 2000, and Burson-Marsteller became part of WPP.[7] A noteworthy client has been the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, which first hired Burson-Marsteller in 1995[52] to publicize the new designs of U.S. currency bills, both within the United States and internationally. The Bureau had launched a second redesign in ten years of the bills, with the intention of preventing counterfeiting.[53] As well as the media campaign, Burson-Marsteller was also involved in research prior to the redesign to ensure that the new designs would be acceptable to the public.[54]

In December 2005, Burson-Marsteller acquired the Indian firm Genesis PR as a wholly owned subsidiary. Following this acquisition India and China became Burson-Marsteller's second and third largest markets worldwide, based on number of employees.[55] The renamed Genesis Burson-Marsteller was announced as the company's hub for the South Asian market in 2008.[56] Prior to the acquisition, since 2002, Genesis had been Burson-Marsteller's exclusive representative in India.[57]

Mark Penn became the CEO of Burson-Marsteller in December 2005,[58] following a period of instability at the firm during which there were three leadership changes in one year.[59] Penn's predecessor, Tom Nides, had left Burson-Marsteller after eight months in the role.[60] A White House political pollster for six years, he was best known for his work with President Bill Clinton, Tony Blair and Bill Gates.[61] Penn (who had not previously worked within PR) introduced new strategies at Burson-Marsteller, including one called "DIGS" (digital, integrated, global, strategic)[62] and "Evidence-Based Communications",[62] described by the company as a scientific and data-driven approach to communications,[63] which drew from Penn's background in research.[59]

Penn and Burson-Marsteller received negative media attention in 2008 when his work on behalf of the Colombian government (then seeking a free-trade agreement with the United States) became a political liability for the presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton, who was opposed to a free-trade pact with Colombia. Penn described the dual role an "error in judgment" following which the Colombian government terminated its client relationship.[64][65] Clinton later revised her opinion in favor of the free-trade pact.[66][67]

Penn’s leadership at Burson-Marsteller has been cited by PR Week as a model for the public relations industry, particularly combining public affairs experience with public relations.[68][68][69][70] In April 2011, industry expert Paul Holmes named Burson-Marsteller the U.S. Large Agency of the Year, citing its double-digit growth within the United States and record 2010 profits as factors in the award, crediting Penn with improved performance and Burson’s "global recovery".[59]

Notable clients for Burson-Marsteller in the late 2000s (decade) include Ford Motor Company, which took on the company as crisis management consultants in 2009,[71] and American International Group (AIG), on whose behalf the firm undertook crisis management work in 2008 and 2009. Burson-Marsteller was brought in by AIG to help respond to requests for information from customers, employees and the media, due to the liquidity crisis it suffered in September 2008.[72] In 2010, Burson-Marsteller announced it had made a commitment to no longer accept work on behalf of the tobacco industry.[73]

In May 2011, Burson-Marsteller was hired by Facebook to conduct a PR attack on Google.[74][75] Burson-Marsteller contacted a number of media companies and bloggers in an effort to get them to write unflattering stories about Google. The campaign backfired when one of the bloggers went public by posting the emails he received from Burson-Marsteller on the Internet.[76]

Operations[edit]

Company overview[edit]

Burson-Marsteller offers clients integrated communications services including both public relations and advertising services.[22][77] The firm's reputation as a "leading-edge" communications consultancy[9] was established largely through its work with corporate clients and in crisis situations, although it also undertakes a wide range of other communications and public relations work.[71] The services Burson-Marsteller provides for clients include public relations, public affairs, advertising and other communications, including web-related services.[78][79] The company is split into several practices, within which a range of services is offered. These include: Public Affairs, Corporate and Financial Communications, Healthcare, Technology, Brand Management, and an Issues & Crisis Group.[80] Within each of these practices there are specialty teams focusing on particular disciplines such as media management, investor communications, product liability and recalls, and corporate counseling.[18][81]

Structure and employees[edit]

Burson-Marsteller is split into four divisions by geographic region: Asia Pacific, Europe/MiddleEast/Africa, Latin America and the United States. Within each region there is a separate leadership structure, all of which report to the CEO Worldwide.[82] The company is practice-based and is therefore organized into practice specialties and client teams,[83] with each practice having its own global chair[78][84] and chairs within each geographic location.[85] Across all practices worldwide, Burson-Marsteller employs more than 2,000 people. Key employees in the firm include: Don Baer, worldwide CEO; Patrick Ford, U.S. president and CEO[71] Bob Pickard, Asia-Pacific president and CEO;[71] Ramiro Prudencio, Latin America president and CEO; Jeremy Galbraith, Europe/Middle East/Africa CEO and global chair of Public Affairs; and Jay Leveton, worldwide EVP.[86] Other notable current employees of the company include Karen Hughes, former senior aide to U.S. President George W. Bush and former White House Press Secretary Dana Perino, and Don Baer, the three of whom were brought to the firm by Mark Penn.[59][87]

Training[edit]

Within the industry Burson-Marsteller is known for its effective company employee training programs[88] and for having helped to develop the careers of many members of the public relations industry.[89] From early in the company's history, employees were expected to participate in ongoing training. Due to this practice, Harold Burson estimated in the early 1980s that 65 percent of the company's costs were related to human resources.[90] The aim of Burson-Marsteller's training is to create a uniform approach to public relations across all clients and locations.[33] In 2005, the company launched Burson-Marsteller University, providing comprehensive training to its executives in developing corporate communications that are consistent worldwide while remaining culturally appropriate.[91] In 2009, when the firm debuted a new approach to public relations called "Evidence-Based Communications", Burson-Marsteller also introduced an extensive training program designed to help employees apply it to ongoing projects and new proposals.[92] Specific training is also provided to employees relevant to their practice areas. In the Issues & Crisis Group, employees are trained to communicate the correct information during crises for a variety of different clients and issues.[19]

In an interview in 2003, Harold Burson was quoted as saying that Burson-Marsteller has been "a training ground for the industry",[14] with more than 35,000 people continuing to participate in the company's alumni network as of 2010.[93] Notable former employees at Burson-Marsteller include: Thomas Nides, the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State; Lord Watson of Richmond, a member of the House of Lords; Perry Yeatman, senior vice president of corporate affairs at Kraft Foods; Kathryn Beiser, vice president of corporate communications at Discover Financial Services; Bob Feldman and Jeff Hunt, co-founders and principals of PulsePoint Group communications consultancy;[89] and Daniel Lamarre, CEO of Cirque du Soleil[94] and prominent figures in a number of PR companies, including the CEOs of Ketchum Inc.,[89] Cohn & Wolfe and Wunderman.

Crisis management[edit]

Through its crisis management work, Burson-Marsteller has become identified with many major corporate crises of the past half-century.[11][81] Burson-Marsteller added crisis management as a service following Young & Rubicam's 1979 takeover of the company. In 2008, Burson-Marsteller established a global practice called the Issues & Crisis Group (ICG) that focus specifically on this area of communications.[95] The company's ICG practice has a network of specially certified experts in crisis management located in its offices worldwide.[81] Services include providing communication with clients' employees, customers and the general public during crises.[19]

In addition to helping clients deal with crises as they occur, Burson-Marsteller also provides clients with assistance in developing contingency plans for potential crises.[81] The firm provides intelligence reports to clients either hourly or daily that advise of new issues, public reception, and critical or supportive responses[96] and carries out market research into CEO and corporate reputation.[97] Burson-Marsteller also offers services including communications tools and techniques intended to help companies to recover following a crisis.[81]

In particular, Burson-Marsteller has had a close working relationship with many global producers and marketers of petroleum products, especially assisting on key communications of specific crisis situations such as oil spills and serious accidents. It has also worked with these companies in the development of environmental upgrade programs. Significant clients have included Shell[18] and ExxonMobil.[11]

The company has received a number of awards for its work in crisis management. In 1999, Burson-Marsteller was awarded a Public Relations Society of America Silver Anvil, the public relations industry's highest award for organizations, recognizing its communications program aimed at restoring confidence in the Korean economy during the Asian financial crisis of 1998.[98] It also received a Silver Anvil in 2003 for its work with the United States Postal Service for managing communications during the anthrax crisis.[99] In 2002, the company received a Golden World Award, the highest award from the UK-based International Public Relations Association, for its crisis management work on behalf of GlaxoSmithKline following an extortion attempt involving its Panadol brand.[100]

Since the early 1980s, Burson-Marsteller has dealt with a range of much-publicized crisis management situations, from industrial accidents to acts of terrorism. Notable early cases include work involving the 1982 and 1986 Tylenol contaminations and the Bhopal disaster.

Tylenol[edit]

Burson-Marsteller's handling of the Chicago Tylenol poisonings for Johnson & Johnson in September 1982 has been referred to as the "gold standard" for crisis management.[101] Seven people in the Chicago area were killed when they took Tylenol capsules tainted with cyanide,[102] and Johnson & Johnson went to Burson-Marsteller for advice on how to approach the situation.[103] After an eighth death, which occurred in California, the response by Johnson & Johnson was to announce a nationwide recall of all Tylenol capsules.[102] Burson-Marsteller organized a press conference televised across 35 markets in the United States, addressing the recall and reporting that the product tampering had occurred on the shelves, not during manufacturing.[17][19] During late October 1982, a brief television campaign was undertaken asking for the public to trust Tylenol,[104] and Burson-Marsteller carried out nationwide polling which found that the majority of the population still had confidence in Johnson & Johnson.[20] Ninety percent of respondents stated that they did not hold the manufacturer responsible for the deaths.[104]

At a Burson-Marsteller organized press conference in November 1982, Johnson & Johnson introduced new tamper-proof packaging,[104] becoming the first company to introduce triple-sealed packaging, which later became the industry standard.[17] The conference gave Johnson & Johnson the opportunity to announce that they were reintroducing Tylenol capsules to the market and would replace any Tylenol that consumers had thrown away.[104][105] In addition, Johnson & Johnson published advertisements with coupons for consumers to use in replacing Tylenol that had been thrown out[104] and produced commercials and print advertisements thanking the public for their "continuing confidence and support".[105] Within six weeks of the introduction of the repackaged product Tylenol's sales returned to the previous level.[17] In 1983, Burson-Marsteller was awarded a Silver Anvil for "out-of-the-ordinary crisis management" for its work with Johnson & Johnson.[106] The company was brought back to handle crisis management during a second Tylenol crisis, involving cyanide tainting in New York in 1986.[101]

Bhopal[edit]

The Bhopal Disaster was one of the world's worst industrial catastrophes. In 1984 a gas leak killed over 2,000 people at a plant in Bhopal, India and poisoned thousands more.[107] The plant was jointly owned by Union Carbide Corporation, now Dow Chemicals, and the Indian government, and run by local Indian management. Burson-Marsteller consultants were brought in by Union Carbide to organize communications following the leak and provide advice to Union Carbide executives.[108] Specifically, the company set up an information center to provide information to the media and help to transmit news from the remote location to newspaper, TV and radio outlets,[11] and facilitate daily press conferences that reported on steps taken following the accident. Under advice from Burson-Marsteller's consultants and corporate lawyers, Union Carbide CEO Warren Anderson traveled to Bhopal where he was placed in custody by the Indian government. Anderson posted bail, returned to the United States, and refused to return to India. He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on 1 February 1992, for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant.[109] While his visit to India several days after the leak was viewed positively by the media and other corporations and brought attention to Union Carbide's actions in showing its concern for what had happened in Bhopal[110] it didn't deflect criticism of Union Carbide for cutting costs on safety measures.[111] While Burson-Marsteller has been criticized for its involvement with Union Carbide, Harold Burson has stated that he is proud of the company's work in helping the media cover the story.[21]

Other cases[edit]

After the Three Mile Island accident of 1979 became the most significant accident in the history of U.S. commercial nuclear power generation, Burson-Marsteller conducted public relations work for Babcock & Wilcox, the plant's manufacturer.[112]

The company organized a campaign for Egypt's Ministry of Tourism following terrorist attacks on tourists in 1993. The campaign focused on Western Europe and the United States, and featured TV commercials and other media coverage of new archeological discoveries and the role of Egypt in the Middle East.[35]

Blackwater USA, the private military company, took on Burson-Marsteller's subsidiary company BKSH to help founder Erik Prince prepare for a congressional hearing in 2007. In September of that year, Blackwater guards were involved in a shooting in Baghdad in which 13 Iraqis were killed. Blackwater faced a large amount of negative publicity and Prince was asked to give testimony to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.[113]

Corporate PR[edit]

Burson-Marsteller's second-largest practice is its Corporate and Financial Communications group.[114] The company's corporate PR practice focuses on four different specialties: corporate brand positioning, financial communications, organizational performance, and C-suite positioning.[115] Services provided by Burson-Marsteller include market research into corporate reputation,[116] corporate communications strategies and intelligence tools.[97][117] Among the corporate intelligence initiatives launched by Burson-Marsteller's corporate practice, its Global Social Media Check-up, a study of how social media (including corporate blogs) is used by the top 100 companies from the Fortune Global 500 index, was viewed online by over 60,000 people in 2010.[63] One of Burson-Marsteller's longstanding corporate clients was the Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC). The company began work with the petrochemical producer in the late 1970s when they first entered the market in the Middle East.[118] Other notable corporate clients have included Procter and Gamble, British Gas Plc, Philips, Unilever, Du Pont, Coca-Cola, GlaxoSmithKline,[18] Merrill Lynch, General Electric,[7] the Federal Communications Commission, and Colgate-Palmolive.[71]

Technology[edit]

Burson-Marsteller first established a technology group in its New York office in the early 1980s, specializing in "high-tech PR services".[119] The company's technology practice expanded rapidly over the 1990s with major clients including Apple, Sun Microsystems and Qualcomm and its headquarters moved to Silicon Valley in the late 1990s. The practice focuses specifically on public relations for technology companies[120][121] and organizations using technology as a key part of their business.[122] Notable clients include HP,[123] Intel[124] and business software corporation SAP AG.[125]

Public affairs[edit]

Within Burson-Marsteller's public affairs practice, the company specializes in public relations and communications for government and corporate clients.[126] Notable public affairs clients have included the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing,[52] the Hebrides Range Task Force, for whose campaign Burson-Marsteller won several awards in 2010,[127] South Korea, including representation of the Seoul Olympics Organizing Committee in the late 1980s,[128][129] and the Brazilian government tourism agency.[130] Burson-Marsteller has in the past taken on government clients who have been controversial, in particular during the 1970s when clients notably included Romania, Indonesia, and Argentina.[131] The company has received awards for its public affairs work, including an award for the Europe/Middle East/Africa public affairs agency of the year at the 2009/10 SABRE awards, the world's largest awards competition for the public relations industry,[63] and a Silver Anvil from the Public Relations Society of America in 2004 for their work for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[132]

Romania[edit]

Burson-Marsteller represented the Romanian government in the early 1970s, during which time the country gained Most Favored Nation status for trade with the United States. At the time the United States and other western nations regarded Romania's president Nicolae Ceauşescu as the friendliest of the Soviet bloc leaders to their interests. U.S. President Nixon visited Ceauşescu in Bucharest in 1969, which he viewed as a diplomatic opportunity to gain access to China,[133] and later the Romanian dictator was said to be instrumental in arranging Nixon's visit to China. Burson-Marsteller was brought in by the Romanian government specifically to promote trade and tourism for Romania; one result was a weeklong visit to the country by NBC's Today program.[131]

Indonesia[edit]

Following the 1991 Santa Cruz massacre of East Timor protesters by occupying Indonesian forces, the Indonesian government retained Burson-Marsteller[134][135][136] "to help improve the country's human rights and environmental image", according to the Far Eastern Economic Review. Another contract was signed in 1996.[137] The company was retained in total from 1992 to 1998.[citation needed] Over the six years that the company worked for the country's government, Burson-Marsteller promoted Indonesia's trade opportunities in order to encourage foreign investment[134] and aided the country in attempts to improve its human rights image.[138][139]

Argentina[edit]

Burson-Marsteller carried out public relations work for the last Argentine military dictatorship (1976–1983), for which it received criticism.[140] The corporation accepted the military junta government of General Jorge Videla as a client with the full knowledge of and advice from the U.S. State Department,[citation needed] and the remit of attracting industrial investment, marketing Argentine bonds, promoting Argentine products, mainly wine, and improving the image of the dictatorship around the world.[131] In doing so the company produced press kits and direct mailings, arranged for journalists to visit Argentina, and held lunches with business groups and financial seminars.[141]

At that time human rights organizations were denouncing state crimes against humanity including forced disappearances and torture that were taking place in what later became known as the Dirty War. Burson-Marsteller has maintained that it was not asked to defend human rights violations, however, researcher Rubén Morales wrote that the company created a slogan to coincide with the September 1979 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights' fact-finding visit which stated in its English translation, "We Argentines are right and humane".[142][143] Naomi Klein wrote in The Shock Doctrine that Burson-Marsteller executive Victor Emmanuel stated that "violence was necessary to open up Argentina's economy" since securing investment was impossible if a state of civil war existed, and that while acknowledging that "a lot of innocent people were probably killed", "given the situation, immense force was required".[144] Burson-Marsteller did not seek an extension of its four-year contract.

Ukraine[edit]

In 2012, Burson-Marsteller was hired by Ukraine's ruling Party of Regions (PoR), "to help the PoR communicate its activities as the governing party of Ukraine, as well as to help it explain better its position on the Yulia Tymoshenko case", as explained by Robert Mack, a senior manager at Burson-Marsteller.[145]

The tasks of the PR company include setting up press interviews for Ukraine's deputy prosecutor general, Renat Kuzmin, during his visits in Brussels. Kuzmin has been criticised for his direct accusations to Tymoshenko, including for a 1990s contract killing, helding to violate Kuzmin's status as an independent jurist. Other PR companies have reported the operation to the UK's Crown Prosecution Service as possibly in violation of the UK bribery act, as "Kuzmin is getting PR benefit as a gift from PoR".[145]

The public relations contract coincides with a government campaign against former prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko, detained in a penal colony, and whose case has been top in the agenda of EU-Ukraine relations, delaying the signature of a DCFTA and Association Agreement between the two.

Healthcare[edit]

Burson-Marsteller established its Healthcare practice in the 1980s and by the early 1990s was listed as the top ranked healthcare PR firm by O'Dwyer's PR Services Report.[146] The company's healthcare practice provides public relations and communications for clients in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, healthcare provider, policy, nutrition, cosmetics and consumer health markets.[147] Specific services provided by the company's healthcare practice include grassroots mobilization, patient advocacy and scientific and political consensus building.[148] Significant campaigns undertaken by the practice have included a campaign launching the first biotechnology firm[146] and also the organization of the first National Breast Cancer Awareness Month.[149] Notable clients have included AstraZeneca, Allergan, Wyeth,[150] Schering-Plough, Sandoz, and Bristol-Myers Squibb.[146] Burson-Marsteller has won a number of international awards for campaigns by its healthcare practice,[150] including a Platimum PR Award for its 2002 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month campaign.[149]

Google smear campaign[edit]

It became public knowledge that Burson-Marsteller had been soliciting negative articles about Google's privacy practices after security researcher Christopher Soghoian re-posted a pitch[151] he received from a Burson-Marsteller representative. Other influential outlets, including USA Today,[152] confirmed that they had received similar pitches and even offers for help in writing article content. It was soon discovered by The Daily Beast that Google-competitor Facebook had hired the firm[153] to promote press coverage critical of Google's practices, although Burson-Marsteller did not initially divulge to writers who had paid for their services. This was confirmed by Facebook itself shortly after.

Burson-Marsteller has since admitted its role in the campaign, and claims to have parted ways with Facebook.[154]

Brand Marketing[edit]

The company's Brand Marketing practice focuses on brand management with services including consumer lifestyle communications and brand communications across a range of markets.[155] Notable campaigns by the practice include the launch of Segway[156] and brand marketing for Old Navy.[157]

Subsidiaries and affiliates[edit]

Burson-Marsteller operates a number of subsidiary companies, including grassroots marketing consultancy Direct Impact, government affairs and lobbying firm Prime Policy Group, advertising consultancy Proof Integrated Communications, and strategic communications consultancy PivotRED.[158] In addition to these subsidiary companies, Burson-Marsteller also has a large number of affiliates, with partners in 60 countries and 70 affiliate offices worldwide. Among them, Burson-Marsteller has formed strategic partnerships with firms inside the United States, including Targeted Victory, a political and advocacy consultancy,[159] and also international firms including Mikhailov and Partners in Russia[160] and Engage Burson-Marsteller in the Dominican Republic.[161]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Launches Integrated Government and Political Services Group" (Press release). Burson-Marsteller. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  2. ^ McKinnon, John D. (14 April 2009). "Bush Aide Perino to Join Firm Led by Clinton Adviser". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  3. ^ "Mark Penn Exits Burson-Marsteller For Strategy Role At Microsoft". The Holmes Report. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Burson-Marsteller admits to secretly working on behalf of Facebook in anti-Google smear campaign
  5. ^ http://www.tobacco.org/news/176036.html
  6. ^ a b Bryson York, Emily (12 October 2009). "Ad legend Richard Christian dead at 84; The executive behind 'Keep America Beautiful' is fondly remembered". Advertising Age. p. 17. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Much, Marilyn (11 May 2004). "Harold Burson Burnishes Stars; Innovate: PR maven takes firms that shine and makes them more brilliant". Investors.com. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  8. ^ Burson, Harold (2004). e pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. pp. 36–8. 
  9. ^ a b c d Holmes, Paul (28 March 1988). "35 Years at the helm". PR Week. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  10. ^ Burson, Harold (2004). e pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. p. 38. 
  11. ^ a b c d Beckett, Andy (13 August 1997). "The Acceptable Face of Disaster". The Guardian (London). 
  12. ^ Burson, Harold (2004). e pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. p. 47. 
  13. ^ a b Burrell, Ian (31 August 2009). "'We have represented clients in the past that are controversial'". The Independent (London). 
  14. ^ a b c Karmali, Naazneen (23 June 2003). "Let your good work speak for you". Business India. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  15. ^ Burson, Harold (2004). e pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. p. 48. 
  16. ^ Burson, Harold (2004). e pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. pp. 119–121. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Hynum, Rick (Winter 2001). "Wagging the dog". Ole Miss Alumni Review. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Izat, Janet (28 June 1990). "Still on top of his empire – The founder and chairman of Burson-Marsteller". PR Weekl. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c d Sobczynski, Anna (28 April 1986). "Companies receive help coping with a crisis". Advertising Age. 
  20. ^ a b c Johnson Piper, Jill (16 January 1989). "Still A Player". The Memphis Commercial Appeal. p. C1. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  21. ^ a b Gemma, O'Reilly (10 October 2008). "Profile Harold Burson: "I won't rest until I'm old"". PR Week. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f Klingbeil, Abigail (15 April 2001). "He's Mr. Public Relations; Burson has shaped profession that links business to the public". The Enquirer. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  23. ^ "Survey Shows 'Old' Coke Outselling New Formula". The Associated Press. 1 October 1985. 
  24. ^ "Burson-Marsteller expands entertainment group". Business Wire. 10 February 1988. 
  25. ^ "Milestones: 1980s". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  26. ^ McDougal, Dennis (24 November 1985). "Hands Across America: Can Ken Kragen Make it Work?". Los Angeles Times. p. 5. 
  27. ^ "Cohn & Wolfe Public Relations opens Chicago office". Business Wire. 2 November 1988. 
  28. ^ "Burson-Marsteller: Peter Walford". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 8 July 1987. 
  29. ^ Hooper, John (2 September 1985). "China brushes up on public relations". The Guardian (London). 
  30. ^ "About CGPR". China Global Public Relations. Retrieved 14 Month 2011. 
  31. ^ Yoshihara, Nancy (6 June 1988). "South Korea Holds a Coming Out Party". Los Angeles Times. 
  32. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Establishes Mexico Venture". PR Newswire. 14 September 1989. 
  33. ^ a b Zisser, Melinda (13 November 1989). "Growth Potential Spurs Agency Into Latin America". South Florida Business Journal. 
  34. ^ Daniel, Cuff (7 January 1988). "New Chief Is Chosen At Burson-Marsteller". The New York Times. p. 2D. 
  35. ^ a b Holliday, Kalen (22 March 1993). "Egypt plans campaign to win back tourists". Advertising Age. 
  36. ^ Thomas, Pierre; Weiser, Benjamin (13 April 1996). "Reputed 'Manifesto' Recovered". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  37. ^ "Philip Morris and Burson – Marsteller: A Partnership". University of California, San Francisco: Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  38. ^ Ong, Bisa K.; Glantz, Stanton A. (November 2001). "Constructing "Sound Science" and "Good Epidemiology": Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms". American Journal of Public Health 91 (11): 1749–57. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1749. PMC 1446868. PMID 11684593. 
  39. ^ Muggli, M; Hurt, R; Becker, L (2004). "Turning free speech into corporate speech: Philip Morris' efforts to influence U.S. And European journalists regarding the U.S. EPA report on secondhand smoke". Preventive Medicine 39 (3): 568–80. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.02.014. PMID 15313097. 
  40. ^ Gellene, Denise (17 December 1998). "PR Chief Says He's No Spin Doctor". Los Angeles Times. p. 8C. 
  41. ^ http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ttd85e00/pdf "NSA Political Plan Outline", December 1993, Philip Morris, Inc., Bates no. 2023203153/3158
  42. ^ http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lyo07e00/pdf "National Smokers Alliance 1994 Political Action Plan", 3 February 1994, Philip Morris, Co., Bates no. 2047897334/7347
  43. ^ http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=National_Smokers_Alliance
  44. ^ http://www.no-smoke.org/document.php?id=257 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, "The National Smokers Alliance Exposed: A Report On The Activities Of Philip Morris' No. 1 Front Group"
  45. ^ http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qdf02a00/pdf Ellen Merlo, Philip Morris USA Internal Memorandum to William I Campbell, 17 February 1993, Philip Morris USA, Bates no. 2021183916/3930
  46. ^ Ong EK, Glantz SA (November 2001). "Constructing "Sound Science" and "Good Epidemiology": Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms". Am J Public Health 91 (11): 1749–57. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1749. PMC 1446868. PMID 11684593. 
  47. ^ Rogers, Danny (12 July 1996). "Campaigns: Public Awareness – Stoking up the smoking ban ire". PR Week. 
  48. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Confronted for Supporting Philip Morris INFACT's Kraft Boycotters Mobilize Nationwide". PR Newswire. 29 April 1999. 
  49. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446868/pdf/0911749.pdf Bisa K. Ong, MD MS, and Stanton A. Glantz, PhD, "Constructing "Sound Science" and "Good Epidemiology": Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms", American Journal of Public Health, November 2001, Vol 91, No. 11
  50. ^ Monbiot, George (19 September 2006). "The Denial Industry". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  51. ^ Elliott, Stuart (14 April 1999). "Acquisitions By 2 Companies". The New York Times. p. 8C. 
  52. ^ a b Parpis, Eleftheria (9 October 1995). "Fresh Look for Some Old Favorites; Y&R Inc. to Build Acceptance of Redesigned U.S. Currency Bills". Adweek. 
  53. ^ Quenqua, Douglas (16 August 2002). "Burson-Marsteller lands global remit for a new-look US dollar". PR Week. 
  54. ^ Streisand, Betsy (28 September 2003). "Need Change for a $20 bill? Call Hollywood". New York Times. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  55. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Acquires Genesis PR". Business Line. 13 December 2005. 
  56. ^ "Burson-Marsteller To Make India South Asian Hub". Asia Pulse. 21 April 2008. 
  57. ^ "Burson Marsteller, Genesis PR Tie Up". Business Line. 13 July 2002. 
  58. ^ Bosman, Julie (8 December 2005). "Burson-Marsteller Appoints Political Consultant as Chief". The New York Times. p. 5. 
  59. ^ a b c d Holmes, Paul (25 April 2011). "Burson-Marsteller Named US Large Agency of the Year". Holmes Report. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  60. ^ Herskovits, Beth (12 December 2005). "Burson Hires Pollster Penn to Become Firm's Next CEO". PR Week (US). p. 1. 
  61. ^ Charter, David (25 February 2006). "The Most Important Man In Washington (You've Never Heard Of)". The Times Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  62. ^ a b Holmes, Paul (2010). "PR Agency Report Card 2010: Burson Marsteller". The Holmes Report: 32–34. 
  63. ^ a b c "PR Week Global Reports: Burson-Marsteller". PR Week UK. United Kingdom. 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  64. ^ McKenna, Barrie (8 April 2008). "There is No Better NAFTA Deal, Despite What the Democrats Preach". Globe and Mail (Canada). 
  65. ^ Broder, John M. (5 April 2008). "Colombia to Penn: You're Fired". The New York Times.com. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  66. ^ Krause-Jackson, Flavia (28 January 2011). "U.S. Committed to Free-Trade Accord With Colombia". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  67. ^ "Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, Gives Her Opinions About Colombia". Semana. 21 January 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  68. ^ a b Barrett, Steve (14 January 2011). "A new sheriff hits town at H&K". PR Week US.com. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  69. ^ Mattinson, Alec (12 January 2011). "Paul Taaffe's Departure From Hill & Knowlton Prompts Agency To Change Its Leadership Structure". PR Week.com. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  70. ^ Barrett, Steve (25 February 2011). "H&K's Martin rejects Burson comparison". PR Week US.com. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  71. ^ a b c d e "2010 Agency Business Report: Burson-Marsteller". PR Week. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  72. ^ Garcia, Tonya (27 October 2008). "AIG employs Burson's help". PR Week (US). p. 1. 
  73. ^ "Vision, Mission & Ethics". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  74. ^ "Facebook vs. Google fight turns nasty". CNN. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  75. ^ Byron Acohido, Scott Martin (12 May 2011). "Facebook, Burson discuss role in Google Circle dispute". USA Today. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  76. ^ "Untitled". 3 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  77. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Appoints New Singapore Market Leader". BursonMarsteller.com. 2 August 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
  78. ^ a b "Burson-Marsteller: Helene Ellison Joins Burson-Marsteller as Chair, Global Healthcare Practice". Oncology Business Week. 4 April 2010. 
  79. ^ "Burson-Marsteller". O'Dwyer's PR Report. August 2006. 
  80. ^ "Practices and Specialties". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  81. ^ a b c d e "Burson-Marsteller". O'Dwyer's PR Report 23 (1): 39. January 2009. 
  82. ^ "Regional Leadership". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  83. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Reports Double-Digit Revenue Gains Worldwide; Strengthens Its Position As Number One Firm". PR Newswire. 4 March 1997. 
  84. ^ "Global Leadership". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  85. ^ "Genesis Burson-Marsteller strengthens team". domain-b. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  86. ^ Garcia, Tonya (12 November 2010). "Roll Call: McDonald's, B-M, FEMA, and More". TV Newser. Mediabistro. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  87. ^ "Press release: Don Baer Appointed to Senior Level Posts at Penn, Schoen & Berland and Burson-Marsteller". PSBResearch.com. Penn, Schoen & Berland. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
  88. ^ "PR Legend to Speak at TPRA Conference; Harold Burson, Burson-Marsteller, to Serve as Keynote Speaker". Business Wire. 7 March 2007. 
  89. ^ a b c Hood, Julia (1 September 2010). "The Burson Legacy: Career Guide 2010". PR Week (US). Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  90. ^ Jones, Alex (26 March 1984). "New no. 1 in public relations". New York Times. 
  91. ^ "Burson Marsteller Launches Global Corporate Executive Training Program". Market News Publishing. 8 December 2005. 
  92. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Makes Commitment to "Evidence-Based Communications"". Business Wire. 14 December 2009. 
  93. ^ Barrett, Steve (12 November 2010). "Burson's legacy is as relevant as ever". PR Week. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  94. ^ Lamarre, Daniel (19 June 2010). "The Boss – The Path to Cirque du Soleil". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  95. ^ "Issues & Crisis Group opens". PR Week (US). 14 July 2008. p. 2. 
  96. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Launches Business Intelligence Tool to Help Clients Turn Raw Data into Solutions". Canada NewsWire. 4 April 2007. 
  97. ^ a b "Corporate Reputation Takes 3.2 Years to Recover from a Crisis, Finds Burson-Marsteller Market Research". Business Wire. 19 July 2006. 
  98. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Takes Top Industry Award for Program to Restore Confidence in the Korean Economy". Business Wire. 16 June 1999. 
  99. ^ Carter, Bill; Rutenberg, Jim (9 June 2003). "2 P.R. Agencies Tie For Silver Anvils". The New York Times. p. 10C. 
  100. ^ "PR gold for Panadol strategy". B&T Weekly (Australia). 9 July 2002. 
  101. ^ a b Yang, Jia Lynn (22 May 2007). "Getting a handle on a scandal". Fortune (CNN). Retrieved 10 February 2011. 
  102. ^ a b Malcolm, Andrew (6 October 1982). "Tylenol maker recalls capsules after strychnine incident in west". New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  103. ^ Wallop, Harry (24 June 2006). "Reputation restorers give high-gloss finish". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  104. ^ a b c d e Hilts, Philip (12 November 1982). "Tylenol is reintroduced in triple-sealed package". Washington Post. 
  105. ^ a b Atkinson, Rick (12 November 1982). "The Tylenol Nightmare: How a Corporate Giant Fought Back". Kansas City Times. 
  106. ^ "Union Carbide". United Press International. 20 December 1984. 
  107. ^ http://www.bhopal.com/faq.htm
  108. ^ Lueck, Thomas (14 December 1984). "Crisis Management at Carbide". The New York Times. p. 1D. 
  109. ^ "knowmore.org". Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  110. ^ Larabee, Ann (1999). Decade of Disaster. University of Illinois Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-252-06820-3. 
  111. ^ "UCC's cost-cutting measures lead to Bhopal gas leak?". The Times Of India. 22 June 2010. 
  112. ^ Vidal, John (8 January 2002). "Anti-GM warrior Melchett joins PR firm that advised Monsanto". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  113. ^ Lardner, Richard (5 October 2007). "Secrecy rule bars Blackwater from discussing work in Iraq, limiting PR firm's effectiveness". Washington. The Associated Press. 
  114. ^ "People Moves". PR News 57 (20). 21 May 2001. 
  115. ^ "Corporate Financial Communications". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  116. ^ "Corporate Rumor Mill Moves From The Water Cooler to The Web, According to New Study by Burson-Marsteller". Business Wire. 26 June 2003. 
  117. ^ "Burson-Marsteller launches Business Intelligence tool designed to help clients". Business Wire Latin America. 5 April 2007. 
  118. ^ Rivas, Paul (14 October 1997). "Market research agency launched in Riyadh". Saudi Gazette. 
  119. ^ "Profiles of High-Tech Firms". O'Dwyer's PR Services Report. November 1994. p. 26. 
  120. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Names William Fasig Chairman of Technology Practice, Headquartered in Silicon Valley". Business Wire. 11 May 1998. 
  121. ^ Fisher, Lawrence M. (13 March 1996). "Seeking to Fix Damaged Image, Apple Hires Burson-Marsteller". The New York Times. p. 18D. 
  122. ^ "Technology". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  123. ^ Grant, Alex. "No free lunch for HP PR agencies". Printing World. p. 12. 
  124. ^ Shah, Aarti (16 June 2008). "Intel maintains its outreach plans despite FTC scrutiny". PR Week (US). p. 2. 
  125. ^ "Bayer Implements Global IT Strategy With SAP". PR Newswire. 27 July 2010. 
  126. ^ "Government". Burson-Marsteller.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  127. ^ "Hebrides Range Taskforce Wins Accolade". The Stornoway Gazette. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  128. ^ McNellis, Maryanne (27 April 1987). "Korean Politics Have Marketers Seoul Searching; Despite Unrest, Olympic Sponsorship Appears a Winning Proposition". Adweek. 
  129. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Reports 1999 Worldwide Revenue at 275 Million". PR Newswire. 29 February 2000. 
  130. ^ Dougherty, Phillip H. (15 September 1986). "Brazil Tourism Account Given to Two Agencies". The New York Times. 
  131. ^ a b c Ravindran, Pratap (26 March 2002). "'Controversial' Corporate Clients". Business Line. 
  132. ^ "Public Relations Society Of America (PRSA Recognizes Burson-Marsteller Client Teams With Four Silver Anvil Awards, Two Bronze Anvils" (Press release). Burson-Marsteller. 2004. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  133. ^ Price, Raymond (1977). With Nixon. Viking Adult. pp. 303–4. ISBN 0-670-77672-6. 
  134. ^ a b "President Soeharto Urges U.S. Business to Take Advantage of Economic Growth Policies". PR Newswire. 25 September 1992. 
  135. ^ Franke-Ruta, Garance (25 July 1998). "From the K Street Corridor". The National Journal 30 (30): 1762. 
  136. ^ Lloyd Parry, Richard (6 August 2000). "Old Etonian Smoothie Fails to Buff Indonesian Leader's Image". The Independent (London). p. 17. 
  137. ^ http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2005Q1/indo.html
  138. ^ Cohen, Nick (8 December 1996). "Hold on a Minute". The Observer. p. 28. 
  139. ^ O'Dwyer, Jack (13 May 1992). "B-M Has $950,000 Indonesia Contract". Jack O'Dwyer's Newsletter 25 (20): 1. 
  140. ^ Guest, Iain (1990). Behind the disappearances: Argentina's dirty war against human rights and the United Nations. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-8122-1313-0. 
  141. ^ Hrebenar, Ronald J. (1997). Interest group politics in America (3rd ed.). p. 96. ISBN 1-56324-703-8. 
  142. ^ Morales, Rubén. "Somos derechos y humanos" [We are right and humane]. Publicidad Politica (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  143. ^ Kaplan, Temma (2004). Taking back the streets: women, youth, and direct democracy. p. 131. ISBN 0-520-23649-1. 
  144. ^ Klein, Naomi (2008). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Picador. pp. 136–7. ISBN 0-312-42799-9. 
  145. ^ a b EU Observer, 27 April 2012
  146. ^ a b c "Profiles of top healthcare PR firms". O'Dwyer's PR Services Report. October 1991. p. 32. 
  147. ^ "Healthcare". Burson-Masteller.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  148. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Announces Global and U.S. Healthcare Leadership Appointments". Business Wire. 11 October 2004. 
  149. ^ a b "Platinum PR Award Winner: Public Service Announcement: PSA Uses Lighthearted Peg To Promote Heavy Message". PR News 59 (44). 17 November 2003. 
  150. ^ a b "Helene Ellison Joins Burson-Marsteller as Chair, Global Healthcare Practice". Business Wire. 16 March 2010. 
  151. ^ Soghoian, Christopher. "Email Pastebin". Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  152. ^ Acohido, Byron (10 May 2011). "Google deflects PR firm's attack of Gmail privacy". USA Today. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  153. ^ Lyons, Dan. "Facebook Busted in Clumsy Smear on Google". Newsweek. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  154. ^ Krietsch, Beth. "Burson-Marsteller and Facebook part ways". PRWeek. PRWeek. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  155. ^ "Brand Marketing at Burson-Marsteller Bolsters Consumer Lifestyle and Brand Communications Capabilities with Appointment of Carline Jorgensen as Managing Director". Business Wire. 25 August 2010. 
  156. ^ Burnett, James (10 December 2001). "Burson Helps Turn". PR Week (US). p. 3. 
  157. ^ Ward, Celeste (22 September 2004). "Old Navy Awards PR to Burson-Marsteller". Adweek. 
  158. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Launches Strategic Consultancy, PivotRED". Businesswire.com. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  159. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Announces Strategic Partnership with Targeted Victory". Enhanced Online News. 4 January 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  160. ^ "Russia: Mikhailov and Partners and Burson-Marsteller become strategic partners". Esmerk. 25 June 2009. p. B5. 
  161. ^ "Burson-Marsteller Partners With Dominican Firm". Holmes Report. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 

External links[edit]