Bulwell

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Bulwell
Bulwell is located in Nottinghamshire
Bulwell

 Bulwell shown within Nottinghamshire
DistrictCity of Nottingham
Shire countyNottinghamshire
RegionEast Midlands
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townNOTTINGHAM
Postcode districtNG6
Dialling code0115
PoliceNottinghamshire
FireNottinghamshire
AmbulanceEast Midlands
EU ParliamentEast Midlands
UK ParliamentNottingham North
List of places
UK
England
Nottinghamshire
 
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Coordinates: 53°00′02″N 1°11′50″W / 53.000501°N 1.197229°W / 53.000501; -1.197229

Bulwell
Bulwell is located in Nottinghamshire
Bulwell

 Bulwell shown within Nottinghamshire
DistrictCity of Nottingham
Shire countyNottinghamshire
RegionEast Midlands
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townNOTTINGHAM
Postcode districtNG6
Dialling code0115
PoliceNottinghamshire
FireNottinghamshire
AmbulanceEast Midlands
EU ParliamentEast Midlands
UK ParliamentNottingham North
List of places
UK
England
Nottinghamshire

Bulwell is an English market town approximately 4.5 miles (7.2 km) northwest of Nottingham city centre, on the northern edge of the city. The United Kingdom Census 2001 showed there were almost 30,000 people living in the Bulwell area, accounting for over 10% of the population of the city of Nottingham.

Contents

History

Early settlers

The earliest documented settlements in Bulwell appeared circa 800 A.D, and were most likely built around the same time as the first local bridge spanning across the River Leen. With the river being significantly narrower, shallower and slower-moving in Bulwell than in other potential locations along its length and the threat of highwaymen a very real danger on existing cross-country routes, a toll bridge was constructed in this outpost, allowing for a quicker and safer passage from north to south for travellers but providing an obstacle to less legitimate travellers.

The bridge created a rare direct road to Nottingham from the North West and therefore introduced regular traffic from across the country to the area for the first time.

The tolls levied for crossing the new bridge required the building of a gatehouse for those collecting the levies and providing protection for people using the route: the creation of the toll house thereby inadvertently founding the new settlement. The almost captive market of the travelling parties provided endless potential for trade, and the abundance of natural resources made it easy to erect a dwelling. As the volume of traffic using the road increased, so did the size and population of Bulwell.

Bulwell is mentioned in the Domesday Book, which was compiled in 1086. [2] Recorded in the book as "Buleuuelle" and classified as a village, Bulwell had by this time become established as a small trading post for all kinds of goods and services. It had expanded to cater both for those living and working in the surrounding area and those travelling further afield, and this in itself encouraged many others to settle in the wider area.

Local people, particularly the poorer of the new settlers, often offered space in their homes to travellers requiring overnight stops. Paying a relatively small price, travellers would share a home-cooked meal with their hosts and sleep in their rooms - a much safer and infinitely more sociable arrangement than continuing onto Nottingham. The river provided local entrepreneurs with the facilities to make beer, a fact which it appears was exploited freely, and which perhaps led more 'guests' to become overnighters inadvertently and require accommodation!.

Never slow to evolve, by around 1200 Bulwell had grown to provide all the facilities to accommodate animals and their masters alike in droves, becoming something of a one-stop 'service station' on what was fast becoming a relatively major road. Trade in this still relatively small and compact stopping post thrived, with a steady stream of newcomers attempting to exploit the opportunities Bulwell had to offer. Whilst the increase in trade was good for the local economy, the new-found abundance of salesmen and tradesmen split the town in two.

The owners of the 'official', original businesses, having in some cases incurred large expense to build and maintain premises, complained bitterly about an ever-growing number of roaming salesmen undercutting their prices and taking their trade. Since they were also paying rates to the local landowner, they considered their right to monopolise custom inalienable. In response to the complaints, a local law was enacted (circa 1320 AD) forbidding anyone without 'fixed... and at least part-covered premises' from selling goods or services close to the original businesses.[1]

However, the statute was badly worded: to circumnavigate the laws, the salesmen simply fixed posts into the ground, creating market stalls similar in design to their modern counterparts. The stalls were covered for use and left uncovered in situ when not in use, thus both abiding by the law and designating a permanent venue for their sales. The people using these facilities fought hard against the power of the richer businessmen and successfully defended the right of the marketeers to operate alongside them. The location of the Market Place remains virtually unchanged to this day and still houses a bustling market on Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays.[2]

1100-1600

The population grew steadily throughout this period, but the town itself did not grow much in size: opportunities for betterment and the desire of many to live further away from the 'unhealthy' town centres ensured a relatively even flow of traffic in and out of Bulwell.

At some point during this time the magnesium limestone on which Bulwell sits began to be quarried. The strong easily crafted durable rock, a dull yellow-orange magnesium limestone (not to be confused with the Bunter sandstone famously underlying Nottingham Castle), provided a perfect building material which was also easy to quarry. Many houses, schools, churches and - particularly - garden walls built using Bulwell Stone still stand to this day, extending for miles around Bulwell in all directions. An early example can be found in sections of the wall surrounding Wollaton Hall, which was built using Bulwell stone in the late 16th century. The sheer quantities used there - and elsewhere in the city - suggest some kind of professional mining operation must already have been in operation by this time.

Coal is also found in abundance close to Bulwell. Running as part of much larger seams criss-crossing the region, the coal lies underneath the layers of sandstone and is in places only a few feet beneath the surface. Coalmines in the area around Bulwell were therefore among the first in the county to operate on a commercial basis, with large-scale mining from around 1500 onward.[3]

Many fortunes were made at the time from the extraction of coal, including that of Sir Francis Willoughby. Willoughby paid for the building of the extravagant Wollaton Hall (mentioned above) with money obtained through coal-mining. One of the world's first railway lines, completed in 1604 and leading between nearby Strelley and Wollaton, was built by Willoughby's heir to aid transportation of the tons of coal being produced from 'his' mines.

The church on the hill overlooking Bulwell (built 1849-1850) is on the site of the original Bulwell church, which dates back to at least the 13th century. Towering over most of North-East Nottingham, Bulwell Saint Mary the Virgin and All Souls (Known simply as St Mary's) can be seen from many miles away, and its bells still ring out across the area each weekend.

1600-1900

In 1667, George Strelley "built a school for the educating and teaching (of) young children of the Inhabitants of the said Parish", a stunning building that survives to this day, along with many of the other houses built at this time. The building is now used as a private home but retains many of the original features.[4] 1852 brought the act of Parliament allowing for the extension of the gas pipeline from Basford and the South. This allowed for street lighting, commercial and domestic use, and effectively revolutionised life in the town. The earliest supply of water was not to arrive until 1877, with the many local springs, wells and the river providing for the needs of both business and domestic use until this time. Before 1877, water-borne diseases were rife and the river water highly polluted by both industry and sewage, leading to very high rates of infant mortality across the region. The percentage of children dying before reaching their fifth birthday decreased by over 75% in Bulwell between 1870 and 1890 - a situation that led to dreadful overcrowding and even more demand for already overstretched services like housing. Health care again suffered as a result of the insanitary living conditions, but the population continued to grow apace.

1843 brought bad weather that did irreparable damage to Bulwell Saint Mary's church. The church we have today was built in its place between 1849 and 1851; the architect was Henry Isaac Stevens. In 1885 the new church of St. John the Divine on Quarry Road was consecrated.

Bulwell Hall

Bulwell Hall (See picture here[5]) was a grand mansion house built in 1770 by landowner John Newton. It was set in its own large grounds to the North of Bulwell town centre, and was known as Pye Wipe Hall when first built; a name which stuck with local folk until the time of its demolition. After passing through the hands of Newton's ancestors for a time, Bulwell Hall was sold at auction in 1864, along with over 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land, to a man named Samuel Thomas Cooper.[6] Bulwell Hall was later employed variously as a sanatorium, an 'approved school for boys' and an Italian Prisoner of War camp, before its eventual demolition in 1958.

S.T Cooper and The National School

As a result of the above sale of Bulwell Hall, Samuel Thomas Cooper became the "Lord of the Manor" of Bulwell and its larger areas. Cooper was a philanthropist, and in 1866 he paid £3000 for another school to be built for the local children.[7] Then named the National school, it provided education for up to 518 children at a time; a remarkable feat considering the size of the building. Remaining in use as the "old building" of St. Mary's C of E Primary and Nursery School primary school, it is now listed, and houses many fewer pupils than at the time of its creation. (See picture here.[8])

After Cooper's death, his widow, Annie Cooper, donated £600 to Bulwell Saint Mary's church to provide for a better organ. Still in use (although now operating electrically powered bellows), the organ houses a plaque commemorating Mrs Cooper's donation, "in memory of (her) husband".

Some sources claim that this man was the same S.T. Cooper who later went on to enclose Bulwell Bogs as his own private ground. (See below.) It is known that Cooper died in 1871, aged 39, and also that the protest over the Bogs took place in 1872, but this does not show conclusively whether the protest taking place after his death was not down to his actions whilst still alive. There is no other "S.T. Cooper" recorded as being Lord of the Manor of Bulwell, leading many to believe the man to be the same.

Boundary changes

The Deanery of Bulwell was created in 1888, four years after the creation of the Southwell diocese. Bulwell then remained a town in its own right until a boundary change in the 1890s made it a part of the City of Nottingham. The beautiful Old Town Hall, rendered useless by the change and built in the 18th century, is now a retail outlet for fireplaces and more recently the top floor which houses the buildings old dance floor(which was unused and discarded for years) has had extensive refurbishment from what was a rundown space last being used as a factory for clothing garments, now being converted back to a place for its primary purpose to be a place for dancing.This is in the form of a dance school housing over 250 local children and adults alike. the buildings tired "old town hall" signage has now gone and a reproduction in its place, vibrant and proudly displaying "old town hall home of Take 5 theatre school of dancing" in the same style and colours of the buildings predecessor this is just one of the signs of the hard work and dedication of those that attend the school and their efforts to bring this landmark building of bulwell back to life.

1900 - present day

Over the past century, Bulwell has grown enormously with the creation of housing estates such as Crabtree Farm, Snape Wood, Highbury Vale and Hempshill Vale.

Snape Wood and Sellers Wood were originally part of a swathe of woodland that bordered the landfill site to the north-west of Bulwell, stretching down to the farmland that became Hempshill Vale estate to the south-west. Both woods were protected under Royal Warrants stretching back to the 14th century, but drastic shortage of housing in Bulwell in the 1960s and 1970s, as in Nottingham as a whole, led to the protection being removed and new housing estates being built.

A token remnant of Snape Wood was left behind in the middle of the new estate, amounting to little more than a small fenced-in copse with three pathways leading through it. Owned by the local authority, Nottingham City Council, the site was designated a Local Nature Reserve, but years of neglect have left the site rubbish-strewn and in need of a structured management plan. Despite constant fly-tipping and a lack of proactive conservation, this site surprisingly supports a wide variety of wildlife, from rare wildflowers to mammals such as grey squirrels, hedgehogs and urban foxes, as well as up to 20 different species of bird. In February 2009, plans to set up a community group to take ownership for the maintenance and conservation of the site on behalf of the local authority were moved forward.[9]

A larger proportion of Sellers Wood remains, with the land also designated as a Local Nature Reserve, actively managed by Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust on behalf of the local authority, Nottingham City Council. Sellers Wood was declared a Site of Special Scientific Interest by English Nature in 1981, being cited as "a fine example of broad-leaved semi-natural woodland...of regional importance".[10]

Bulwell no longer has a working quarry, landfill site, coalmine or brewery to employ its residents. Designated industrial areas such as those found on Greasley Street and Commercial Road were constructed early in the latter half of the 20th Century, followed in the 1980s and '90s by smaller developments of offices and light industrial units such as those on Pottery Way (off Sellers Wood Drive).

The larger developments for industry built in Sellers Wood in the 1980s (off Blenheim Lane/Camberley Road/Dabell Avenue) were further added to during the 1990s. Many other industrial buildings have sprung up in the surrounding area since then and the larger area looks set to grow outwards once more in the near future. The extended industrial estate includes warehousing and distribution for national food retailers, large printing factories, office blocks of all sizes and numerous small- to medium-sized units offering a variety of goods and services. A large Cash and Carry wholesalers recently joined the supermarket, petrol station and small row of fast-food outlets between this industrial estate and the rest of Bulwell. This utilises yet another piece of the land that was used for landfill until the 1960s/1970s; leaving only two large fields now without some kind of development.

Just next to the supermarket is a very steep hill which still marks out the edges of the long-abandoned quarry.

Geography

Bordering Ashfield and Broxtowe districts, 'Greater' Bulwell stretches across an area of around 3.5 square miles (though many would argue that Bulwell's 'catchment' should still include the Bestwood, Bestwood Park, Heathfield and Leen Valley estates, as it did in the past, increasing the size to around 5 square miles.)

The Greater Bulwell area, as designated by the City Council, includes Top Valley, Heron Ridge, Crabtree Farm, Bulwell Hall, Snape Wood, Sellers Wood, Highbury Vale, Hempshill Vale, Bulwell Forest, Bulwell Central, Moorbridge and the area adopting the title 'Bulwell Village', and also a significant amount of Rise Park.

Although the addresses for the Bestwood estates were also originally suffixed 'Bulwell', ward and local area boundaries have been changed to instead link the entire 'Greater Bestwood' area with Basford and Sherwood. The old "seven fields" between Bulwell and Bestwood have now been largely developed, but the historic links between the areas remains constant. The newer estates now covering the fields have just added to the list of 'Satellites' affiliated with Bulwell.

Bulwell Bogs

The centre of Bulwell is located in a valley next to the banks of the River Leen. The Bog area beside the Leen, known for over 900 years as "Bulwell Bogs", has long been set aside as a place where children can play, paddle and fish.

After an attempt by the Lord of the Manor to enclose the land around the Bogs, in 1872, the people of Bulwell staged a peaceful protest, massing in their hundreds to protect the 'common' land. Described as "...impeccably well behaved and peaceable to a man; indeed rather joyous of spirit!" in the official records, the people of Bulwell marched a short distance before enjoying lunch by the river. After this, the crowd is said to have "...dispersed quietly and as directed with no further disturbance", later winning the fight to designate the land for the "pleasure and leisure of the people of Bulwell".[11]

The whole Bogs area was set to be demolished in 2002, to make way for a large road-bridge and a transport interchange, from where buses, trams, taxis and trains could all be caught. Fierce public opposition from local people resulted in a campaign being launched to prevent the work; the City Council eventually scrapped the plans.[12] With help from local community groups and residents, the facilities at Bulwell Bogs were instead upgraded in 2003 to produce a bigger play-park, a safer paddling pool and a cleaner feel, and won a Green Flag Award in 2004 for the work done to regenerate the area.[13]

As well as the Bogs, there is an area about a mile upstream, near the present-day Moorbridge, which historically attracted children from miles around to play. This led to the nickname "Bulwell-on-Sea" being applied by other Nottingham residents. The building of the outdoor Lido pool nearby further strengthened the connection, with families historically travelling from across the city to spend a day by the water in Bulwell. Unfortunately, despite fierce opposition by local residents, the Lido was demolished in 2006, with the land being sold off to private housing developers.[14]

Transport

Bulwell is a transportation hub for the North Nottingham area. There are three stations serving Bulwell on the Nottingham Express Transit tram system: Bulwell, Bulwell Forest and Moor Bridge. These provide access to Nottingham and Hucknall.[15] Next to Bulwell tram Station is the railway station, where trains on the Robin Hood Line link Nottingham to Worksop.[16] There is also a large bus station and a taxi rank, with two taxi firms based in Bulwell.

Nottingham City Transport

Doyles

Nottingham Express Transit

Education

Schools in and around Bulwell have historically been among the worst-performing in the UK. The entire Bulwell area was designated an "Education Action Zone" in 1999, as part of a high-profile scheme aimed at addressing the problems. Standards have risen slightly since then, but certain major deficiencies persist.[17] The North Nottingham region has the lowest level of students progressing to higher education in the UK,[18] and the 2006-7 league tables for secondary education showed Nottingham's schools to be second-worst achieving in the country.[19] More recent results show that drastic improvements have been made in some of Bulwell's schools over the past few years; unfortunately in the same time some have also stagnated or even become worse.

One Bulwell school, Hempshill Hall Primary, was served by long standing headteacher Marcia Puckey, who was Britain's longest-serving school Head when she retired in summer 2005, and was awarded the OBE, in recognition of her ‘services to education’ in the Queen's New Year's Honours List 2006.[20][21]

Bulwell's flagship school, The Bulwell Academy, was officially opened in September 2009 and move into the new building in August 2010.


Crime

Crime levels are very high in the area, compared to both the Nottingham and national averages.[22] In 2003 Bulwell gained the nation's attention after a Nottingham PC, Ged Walker, was killed here in the line of duty. PC Walker was dragged to his death as he attempted to arrest the driver of a stolen taxi; local resident David Parfitt was later sentenced to 13 years for his manslaughter.[23] A memorial stone marking the spot where PC Walker died [24] was badly vandalised in January 2006, with a hammer being used to deface and damage the engravings.[25]

Another officer was badly injured in a remarkably similar incident on 10 October 2006. The special constable required extensive reconstructive surgery after being dragged along the road by a car when attempting to arrest a man on the Bulwell Hall estate.[26] Four people were arrested.

The fatal shooting of local lad Marvin Bradshaw outside a Bulwell pub, in 2003, led to "gangland-style" reprisal attacks on a large scale, and attracted international interest.[27] A passenger in the car Mr Bradshaw had been driving on the night of his murder, whilst unhurt in the attack, himself died within months of the event, leading friends and family members to seek revenge on his behalf.[28] The parents of Michael O'Brien, the man convicted of Mr Bradshaw's murder, were targeted, and despite moving into a "safe house" on the Lincolnshire coast were both also murdered soon afterwards.

O'Brien had already been sentenced to 24 years in prison for Mr Bradshaw's murder. Three of the eight men arrested on charges of conspriracy to murder Mr and Mrs Stirland (O'Brien's parents) were found guilty, in a case still being investigated by the Independent Police Complaints Commission [29] "Extremely serious matters" are said to have been found in connection with the way the police handled the case.[30] It has since been proven that corrupt police officers implicated heavily in the case actually had passed information to gang boss Colin Gunn around the time of the murders Gunn received a sentence of 35 years for conspiracy to murder Mr and Mrs Stirland and a further 9 years for bribery and corruption of policers officers Gunn was also implicated and arrested,but never charged with the murder of Marian Bates the jeweller.[31][32][33]

On 1 July 2006, The day after the 3 were sentenced for the Stirland's murders, a large riot broke out on the Bestwood estate, the former home of Gunn and his gang. Lasting several hours and causing an estimated £10,000 worth of damage, the riots were said to have been triggered by the outcome of the murder trial. 9 people have been convicted in connection with the disturbances.[34]

On 7 August 2006, a local teenager died after he was attacked outside the Moon & Stars pub. 18-year-old Aaron Smith suffered severe head injuries in the attack, which took place on 3 August. A local 24 year old man pleaded guilty to Mr Smith's manslaughter, and awaits sentencing.[35]

Another local man was shot in the neck and back outside the Lord Nelson pub in November 2006, before being abducted, tied up, driven to a country road and left for dead. Three people were arrested and bailed in connection with the crime, which left the 27 year old victim, from Aspley, with serious injuries.[36]

Retail

There are a variety of shops in the Bulwell area, which cover most people's needs, with major store like Argos, boots and Wilkinsons, a few clothes shops and Bulwell has quite a few discount shops where bargains can be had. Bulwell is also the home of Bradrail Awnings and Blinds in Nottingham which is one of the oldest blinds companies in Nottingham and been trading before 1969 and is still one of the largest independent retail shops in Bulwell.

Pronunciation and origin of name

Bulwell is locally pronounced as the monosyllabic word 'Bool', which gradually formed through 'Bulwell', 'Bulwull' and then to 'Buwull'.[37]

The name is supposed to have been derived from the spring which runs out of the Bunter sandstone over a bed of clay, near to the northern end of the forest, called "Bull Well." In The Place Names of Notts., it is suggested that the first part of the name may stand for an Anglo Saxon person called Bulla, or a bull, or it may describe the bubbling sound produced by the flowing water of the spring.[38]

Legend has it that the town was named after a bull struck a sandstone rock causing it to seep water - a well. The now sealed well-housing, located in the nature reserve off Bestwood Road, is said to be the original well; i.e. the place that the bull gored. Both Bulwell Saint Mary's school and the Seventh-day Adventist church next door have illustrations of the tale relief-carved into sandstone blocks. Generations of Bulwell's children have grown up with the legend, and with the city council recently erecting a statue of a bull goring a well in the marketplace, it seems that the traditions surrounding the legend will continue indefinitely.

Sankeys

Richard Sankey and Son Ltd, perhaps the best known manufacturer of earthenware flower pots in the world, was founded in 1855 at Bulwell. Their clay flower pots were stamped "Sankeys Bulwell Nottingham" around the circumference beneath the rim. Production of terracotta pots ceased in the early 1980s because of competition from plastic.

Notable Bulwellians

References

  1. ^ Parish records.
  2. ^ http://www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/sitemap/bulwell_market
  3. ^ Smith, R S (1989), Early Coal Mining Around Nottingham 1500-1650, University of Nottingham
  4. ^ http://www.nottshistory.org.uk/articles/tts/tts1907/gill1907p2.htm
  5. ^ http://www.broxtowehundred.co.uk/bulwell.htm
  6. ^ http://homepage.ntlworld.com/joyce.wilkinson1/bulwell_hall.htm
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ http://bulwellstmarys.com/
  9. ^ http://snapewood.org.uk/
  10. ^ http://66.249.93.104/search?q=cache:kprH83-FtMsJ:www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/_nature_networker_10_v4.pdf+sellers+wood+history&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=1
  11. ^ http://www.clarelittleford.net/updatemay02.htm
  12. ^ http://www.clarelittleford.net/updatemay02.htm
  13. ^ http://www.greenflagaward.org.uk/winners/default.asp?n=&sectionID=22&parentId=25&pageID=296
  14. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/nottingham/features/2004/05/swimming_pools.shtml
  15. ^ http://www.thetram.net/maps/bulwell.asp
  16. ^ http://nottingham.openguides.org/?Robin_Hood_Line
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ (Nottm Eve. Post, 8/9/2006)
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ "Seeing in new year with a gong", Nottingham Evening Post, 31 December 2005
  21. ^ "New Year honours in education", The Guardian, 31 December 2005
  22. ^ http://img.findaproperty.com/crimefacts.aspx?edid=00&salerent=1&areaid=6873
  23. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/nottinghamshire/4286340.stm
  24. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/nottinghamshire/4286340.stm
  25. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/nottinghamshire/4630532.stm
  26. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/nottinghamshire/6039560.stm
  27. ^ http://www.wmsa.net/news/MiscNewsSources/gu041708_gang_wars_in_uk.htm
  28. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/gun/Story/0,,1731108,00.html
  29. ^ http://www.ipcc.gov.uk/news/pr241204_stirland
  30. ^ [4]
  31. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article2188274.ece How police set up band of ‘untouchables’ to snare crime gang that held city in fear The Times August 2, 2007
  32. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article3419497.ece Couple killed in revenge attack after police failed to give proper protection The Times February 23, 2008
  33. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1559304/Gangland-boss-Colin-Gunn-jailed-for-life.html
  34. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/nottinghamshire/6048972.stm
  35. ^ http://www.hucknalltoday.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=743&ArticleID=1897653
  36. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/nottinghamshire/6135664.stm
  37. ^ Prof. Davies, G (2009), Origins of local dialect around the Nottingham Area, University of Greenland
  38. ^ http://www.nottshistory.org.uk/articles/mellorsarticles/bulwell1.htm

John Bird was not educated at Henry Mellish School; that was the grammar school for county boys. He was educated at High Pavement Grammar School and, in his final year, was House Captain of Trent House. I recall throwing pennies at him in House Assembly, that being the traditional way of contributing to the Benevolent Fund collection each week.

External links