Building insulation materials

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Building insulation materials are thermal insulation materials used in the construction or retrofit of buildings. The materials are used to reduce heat transfer by conduction, radiation or convection and are employed in varying combinations to achieve the desired outcome (usually thermal comfort with reduced energy consumption).

Categories[edit]

Insulation may be categorized by its composition (material), by its form (structural or non-structural), or by its functional mode (conductive, radiative, convective). Non-structural forms include batts, blankets, loose-fill, spray foam, and panels. Structural forms include insulating concrete forms, structured panels, and straw bales. Sometimes a thermally reflective surface called a radiant barrier is added to a material to reduce the transfer of heat through radiation as well as conduction. Following is a table of materials, most of which have been used for insulating buildings.

R-values per inch given in SI and Imperial units (Typical values are approximations, based on the average of available results. Ranges are marked with "–". Clicking on SI column sorts by median value of range, clicking on Imperial column sorts by lowest value. Third column are real SI values that are not per inch. Based on the units, the two last columns should have a conversion factor of 5.71. In practice, the numbers will have been measured using different methods.)
Materialm2·K/(W·in)ft2·°F·h/(BTU·in)K/W
Vacuum insulated panel5.28–8.8R-30–R-50
Silica aerogel1.76R-10
Polyurethane rigid panel (CFC/HCFC expanded) initial1.23–1.41R-7–R-8
Polyurethane rigid panel (CFC/HCFC expanded) aged 5–10 years1.10R-6.25
Polyurethane rigid panel (pentane expanded) initial1.20R-6.8
Polyurethane rigid panel (pentane expanded) aged 5–10 years0.97R-5.5
Foil faced Polyurethane rigid panel (pentane expanded)45-48 [1]
Foil-faced polyisocyanurate rigid panel (pentane expanded ) initial1.20R-6.855 [1]
Foil-faced polyisocyanurate rigid panel (pentane expanded) aged 5–10 years0.97R-5.5
Polyisocyanurate spray foam0.76–1.46R-4.3–R-8.3
Closed-cell polyurethane spray foam0.97–1.14R-5.5–R-6.5
Phenolic spray foam0.85–1.23R-4.8–R-7
Thinsulate clothing insulation1.01R-5.75
Urea-formaldehyde panels0.88–1.06R-5–R-6
Urea foam[2]0.92R-5.25
Extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) high-density0.88–0.95R-5–R-5.426-40[1]
Polystyrene board[2]0.88R-5.00
Phenolic rigid panel0.70–0.88R-4–R-5
Urea-formaldehyde foam0.70–0.81R-4–R-4.6
High-density fiberglass batts0.63–0.88R-3.6–R-5
Extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) low-density0.63–0.82R-3.6–R-4.7
Icynene loose-fill (pour fill)[3]0.70R-4
Molded expanded polystyrene (EPS) high-density0.70R-4.222-32[1]
Home Foam[4]0.69R-3.9
Rice hulls[5]0.50R-3.024
Fiberglass batts[6]0.55–0.76R-3.1–R-4.3
Cotton batts (Blue Jean insulation)[7]0.65R-3.7
Molded expanded polystyrene (EPS) low-density0.65R-3.85
Icynene spray[3]0.63R-3.6
Open-cell polyurethane spray foam0.63R-3.6
Cardboard0.52–0.7R-3–R-4
Rock and slag wool batts0.52–0.68R-3–R-3.85
Cellulose loose-fill[8]0.52–0.67R-3–R-3.8
Cellulose wet-spray[8]0.52–0.67R-3–R-3.8
Rock and slag wool loose-fill[9]0.44–0.65R-2.5–R-3.7
Fiberglass loose-fill[9]0.44–0.65R-2.5–R-3.7
Polyethylene foam0.52R-3
Cementitious foam0.35–0.69R-2–R-3.9
Perlite loose-fill0.48R-2.7
Wood panels, such as sheathing0.44R-2.59 [10]
Fiberglass rigid panel0.44R-2.5
Vermiculite loose-fill0.38–0.42R-2.13–R-2.4
Vermiculite[11]0.38R-2.1316-17[1]
Straw bale[12]0.26R-1.4516-22[1]
Papercrete[13]R-2.6-R-3.2
Softwood (most)[14]0.25R-1.417.7 [10]
Wood chips and other loose-fill wood products0.18R-1
Snow0.18R-1
Hardwood (most)[14]0.12R-0.715.5 [10]
Brick0.030R-0.21.3-1.8[10]
Glass[2]0.025R-0.14
Poured concrete[2]0.014R-0.080.43-0.87 [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Energy Saving Trust. "CE71 - Insulation materials chart – thermal properties and environmental ratings". Energysavingtrust.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ristinen, Robert A., and Jack J. Kraushaar. Energy and the Environment. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
  3. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  4. ^ "Elastochem Specialty Chemicals | Foams: Spray Foam Insulation, Injection Foam and Pour in Place Foam". Elastochem-ca.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  5. ^ "Rice hulls in construction - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki". Appropedia. 2013-02-23. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  6. ^ "Products | Johns Manville Insulation". Jminsulation.com.au. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  7. ^ [2][dead link]
  8. ^ a b "ICC Legacy Report ER-2833 - Cocoon Thermal and Sound Insulation Products". ICC Evaluation Services, Inc. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  9. ^ a b "Buildings Energy Data Book". Buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Brian Anderson (2006). "Conventions for U-value calculations" (PDF). Bre.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  11. ^ [3][dead link]
  12. ^ "R-Value of Straw Bales Lower Than Previously Reported - EBN: 7:9". Buildinggreen.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  13. ^ [4][dead link]
  14. ^ a b "Home Design & Remodeling | Department of Energy". Energysavers.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 

Consideration of materials used[edit]

Factors affecting the type and amount of insulation to use in a building include:

Often a combination of materials is used to achieve an optimum solution and there are products which combine different types of insulation into a single form.

Spray foam[edit]

Spray foam is a type of insulation that is sprayed in place through a gun. Polyurethane and Isocyanate foams are applied as a two-component mixture that comes together at the tip of a gun, and forms an expanding foam. Cementitious foam is applied in a similar manner but does not expand. Spray foam insulation is sprayed onto concrete slabs, into wall cavities of an unfinished wall, against the interior side of sheathing, or through holes drilled in sheathing or drywall into the wall cavity of a finished wall.

Advantages[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

Advantages of closed-cell over open-cell foams[edit]

Advantages of open-cell over closed-cell foams[edit]

Types[edit]

Icynene spray formula
R-3.7 (RSI-0.63) per inch.[4] Icynene uses water for its spray application instead of ozone depleting chemicals. Icynene will expand up to 100 times it original size within the first 6 seconds of being applied It fills all the tiny gaps around electrical sockets and hard to reach areas.

Disadvantages: More expensive compared to traditional insulation methods.

Sealection 500 spray foam
R-3.8 (RSI-0.67) per inch.[5] a water-blown low density spray polyurethane foam that uses water in a chemical reaction to create carbon dioxide and steam which expands the foam. Flame spread is 21 and smoke developed is 217 which makes it a Class I material (best fire rating). Disadvantages: Is an Isocyanate.
Cementitious foam
One example is AirKrete[6] R-3.9 (RSI-0.69) per inch. Non-hazardous. Is the only foam not restricted to a depth of application. Being fireproof, it will not smoke at all upon direct contact with flame, and is a two-hour firewall at a 3.5 in (89 mm) (or normal 2 in × 4 in (51 mm × 102 mm) stud wall) application, per ASTM E-814 testing (UL 1479). Great for sound deadening; does not echo like other foams. Environmentally friendly. Non-expansive (good for existing homes where interior sheathing is in place). Fully sustainable: Consists of magnesium oxide cement and air, which is made from magnesium oxide extracted from seawater. Blown with air (no CFCs, HCFCs or other harmful blowing agents). Nontoxic, even during application. Does not shrink or settle. Zero VOC emission. Chemically inert (no known symptoms of exposure per MSDS). Insect resistant. Mold Proof. Insoluble in water. Disadvantages: Fragile at the low densities needed to achieve the quoted R value[7] and, like all foams, it is more expensive than conventional fiber insulations.
Polyisocyanurate
Typically R-5.6 (RSI-0.99)[8] or slightly better after stabilization - higher values (at least R-7, or RSI-1.23) in stabilized boards.[9] Less flammable than polyurethane.
Phenolic injection foam
Such as Tripolymer R-5.1 per inch (ASTM-C-177). Known for its air sealing abilities. Tripolymer can be installed in wall cavities that have fiberglass and cellulose in them. Non-hazardous. Not restricted by depth of application. Fire resistant – flame spread 5, smoke spread 0 (ASTM-E-84) - will not smoke at all upon direct contact with flame and is a two-hour firewall at a 3.5 in (89 mm), or normal 2 in × 4 in (51 mm × 102 mm) stud wall, application per ASTM E-199. Great for sound deadening, STC 53 (ASTM E413-73); does not echo like other foams. Environmentally friendly. Non-expansive (good for existing homes where interior sheathing is in place). Fully sustainable: Consists of phenolic, a foaming agent, and air. Blown with air (no CFCs, HCFCs or other harmful blowing agents). Nontoxic, even during application. Does not shrink or settle. Zero VOC emission. Chemically inert (no known symptoms of exposure per MSDS). Insect resistant. Mold Proof. Insoluble in water. Disadvantages: Like all foams, it is more expensive than conventional fiber insulations when only comparing sq ft pricing. When you compare price to R value per sq ft the price is about the same.
Closed-cell polyurethane
White or yellow. May use a variety of blowing agents. Resistant to water wicking and water vapor.
Open-cell (low density) polyurethane
White or yellow. Expands to fill and seal cavity, but expands slowly, preventing damage to the wall. Resistant to water wicking, but permeable to water vapor. Fire resistant. Some polyurethane insulation are pour-able.
Polystyrene (expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS))
Great Stuff
A Dow Chemical product that comes in cans and consists of several complex chemicals mixed together (isocyanates, ether, polyol). Dow manufactures this for small applications, but there is nothing stopping someone from buying dozens of cans for a large retrofit task, such as sealing the sill plate. Since the blowing agent is a flammable gas, using large quantities in a short time requires strict attention to ventilation. Toxic vapors are minimal due to low vapor pressure[10] and what little there is should be removed quickly if adequate ventilation is used. However, a respirator with an organic vapor sorbent may be advisable in some cases, for example if the foam is heated.[11] Very thick applications should be done layer-by-layer to ensure proper curing in a reasonable time frame.
Honeywell's Enovate Foam Blowing Agent
An HFC used in some closed-cell spray foam insulations. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has a high global warming potential of 950 (meaning it is 950 times as potent as CO2 in its global warming effect). For example, E:zero spray foam solutions[12] offers both open and closed cell varieties of spray foam insulation, some of which use Enovate high global warming potential blowing agents.

Insulating concrete forms[edit]

Insulating concrete forms (ICFs) are stay-in-place formwork made from insulating materials to build energy-efficient, cast-in-place, reinforced concrete walls.

Rigid panels[edit]

Rigid panel insulation is made from fibrous materials (fiberglass, rock and slag wool) or from plastic foam.

Structural insulated panels[edit]

Structural insulated panels (SIPs), also called stressed-skin walls, use the same concept as in foam-core external doors, but extend the concept to the entire house. They can be used for ceilings, floors, walls, and roofs. The panels usually consist of plywood, oriented strandboard, or drywall glued and sandwiched around a core consisting of expanded polystyrene, polyurethane, polyisocyanurate, compressed wheat straw, or epoxy. Epoxy is too expensive to use as an insulator on its own, but it has a high R-value (7 to 9), high strength, and good chemical and moisture resistance.

SIPs come in various thicknesses. When building a house, they are glued together and secured with lumber. They provide the structural support, rather than the studs used in traditional framing.

Advantages[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

Fiberglass batts and blankets (Glass wool)[edit]

Batts are precut, whereas blankets are available in continuous rolls. Compressing the material reduces its effectiveness. Cutting it to accommodate electrical boxes and other obstructions allows air a free path to cross through the wall cavity. One can install batts in two layers across an unfinished attic floor, perpendicular to each other, for increased effectiveness at preventing heat bridging. Blankets can cover joists and studs as well as the space between them. Batts can be challenging and unpleasant to hang under floors between joists; straps, or staple cloth or wire mesh across joists, can hold it up.

Gaps between batts (bypasses) can become sites of air infiltration or condensation (both of which reduce the effectiveness of the insulation) and requires strict attention during the installation. By the same token careful weatherization and installation of vapour barriers is required to ensure that the batts perform optimally. Air infiltration can be also reduced by adding a layer of cellulose loose-fill on top of the material.

Thermographic image of a vulture in the winter. It uses a layer of trapped air as insulation.

Types[edit]

Natural fiber[edit]

Natural fiber insulations (similar to mineral fiber and fiberglass insulation at 0.04 W/mK), treated as necessary with low toxicity fire and insect retardants, are available in Europe :[14] Natural fiber insulations can be used loose as granulats or formed into flexible or semi-rigid panels and rigid panels using a binder (mostly synthetic such as polyester, polyurethane or polyolefin). The binder material can be new or recycled.

Examples include cork,[15] cotton, recycled tissue/clothes, hemp, flax, coco, wool, lightweight wood fiber, cellulose, seaweed, etc. Similarly, many plant-based waste materials can be used as insulation such as nut shells, the cob of corns, most straws including lavender straw, recycled wine bottle corks (granulated), etc. They may have a little less thermal performance than industrial products which can re-gained with a little more thickness.[16] They may or may not require fire retardants or anti-insect/pest treatments. Clay coating is a nontoxic additive which often meets these requirements.

Traditional clay-impregnated light straw insulation has been used for centuries in the northern climates of Europe. The clay coating gives the insulation a half hour fire rating according to DIN (German) standards.

Sheeps Wool Insulation[edit]

Sheep's wool insulation is a very efficient thermal insulator with a higher performance than glass fibre and no reduction in performance even when condensation is present. It is made from the waste wool that the carpet and textile industries reject, it is available in both rolls and batts for both thermal and acoustic insulation of housing and commercial buildings. Wool has the ability to absorb significant levels of condensation, 40% of its own weight, and yet still be dry. As wool absorbs moisture it heats up and therefore reduces the risk of condensation. It has the unique ability to absorb VOC gases such as Formaldehyde, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulphur Dioxide and lock them up permanently.[17] Sheep's Wool Insulation has a long lifetime due to the natural crimp in the fibre, endurance testing has shown it has a life expectance of over 100 years.

Wood fiber[edit]

Wood fiber insulation is available as loose fill, flexible batts and rigid panels for all thermal and sound insulation uses. It can be used as internal insulation : between studs, joists or ceiling rafters, under timber floors to reduce sound transmittance, against masonry walls or externally : using a rain screen cladding or roofing, or directly plastered/rendered,[18] over timber rafters or studs or masonry structures as external insulation to reduce thermal bridges. There are two manufacturing processes:

Cotton batts (Blue Jean)[edit]

Cotton insulation is increasing in popularity as an environmentally preferable option for insulation. It has an R-value of around 3.7 (RSI-0.65), equivalent to the median value for fiberglass batts. The cotton is primarily recycled industrial scrap, providing a sustainability benefit. The batts do not use the toxic formaldehyde backing found in fiberglass, and the manufacture is nowhere near as energy intensive as the mining and production process required for fiberglass. Boric acid is used as a flame retardant. A small quantity of polyolefin is melted as an adhesive to bind the product together (and is preferable to formaldehyde adhesives). Installation is similar to fiberglass, without the need for a respirator but requiring some additional time to cut the material. As with any batt insulation, proper installation is important to ensure high energy efficiency.[19]

Advantages[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

Loose-fill (including cellulose)[edit]

Loose-fill materials can be blown into attics, finished wall cavities, and hard-to-reach areas. They are ideal for these tasks because they conform to spaces and fill in the nooks and crannies.[20] They can also be sprayed in place, usually with water-based adhesives. Many types are made of recycled materials (a type of cellulose) and are relatively inexpensive.

General procedure for retrofits in walls:

Advantages[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

Types[edit]

Regulations[edit]

U.S. regulatory standards for cellulose insulation

Aerogels[edit]

Skylights, solariums and other special applications may use aerogels, a high-performance, low-density material. Silica aerogel has the lowest thermal conductivity of any known substance (short of a vacuum), and carbon aerogel absorbs infrared radiation (i.e., heat from sun rays) while still allowing daylight to enter. The combination of silica and carbon aerogel gives the best insulating properties of any known material, approximately twice the insulative protection of the next best insulative material, closed-cell foam.

Straw bales[edit]

The use of highly-compressed straw bales as insulation, though uncommon, is gaining popularity in experimental building projects for the high R-value and low cost of a thick wall made of straw. "Research by Joe McCabe at the Univ. of Arizona found R-value for both wheat and rice bales was about R-2.4 (RSI-0.42) per inch with the grain, and R-3 (RSI-0.53) per inch across the grain. A 23" wide 3 string bale laid flat = R-54.7 (RSI-9.64), laid on edge (16" wide) = R-42.8 (RSI-7.54). For 2 string bales laid flat (18" wide) = R-42.8 (RSI-7.54), and on edge (14" wide) = R-32.1 (RSI-5.66)" (Steen et al.: The Straw Bale House, 1994). Using a straw bale in-fill sandwich roof greatly increases the R value. This compares very favorably with the R-19 (RSI-3.35) of a conventional 2 x 6 insulated wall. When using straw bales for construction, the bales must be tightly-packed and allowed to dry out sufficiently. Any air gaps or moisture can drastically reduce the insulating effectiveness.

Reflective insulation and radiant barriers[edit]

Reflective insulation and radiant barriers reduce the radiation of heat to or from the surface of a material. Radiant barriers will reflect radiant energy. A radiant barrier by itself will not affect heat conducted through the material by direct contact or heat transferred by moist air rising or convection. For this reason, trying to associate R-values with radiant barriers is difficult and inappropriate. The R-value test measures heat transfer through the material, not to or from its surface. There is no standard test designed to measure the reflection of radiated heat energy alone. Radiated heat is a significant means of heat transfer; the sun's heat arrives by radiating through space and not by conduction or convection. At night the absence of heat (i.e. cold) is the exact same phenomenon, with the heat radiating described mathematically as the linear opposite. Radiant barriers prevent radiant heat transfer equally in both directions. However, heat flow to and from surfaces also occurs via convection, which in some geometries is different in different directions.

Reflective aluminum foil is the most common material used as a radiant barrier. It has no significant mass to absorb and retain heat. It also has very low emittance values "E-values" (typically 0.03 compared to 0.90 for most bulk insulation) which significantly reduces heat transfer by radiation.

Types of radiant barriers[edit]

Radiant barriers can function as a vapor barriers and serve both purposes with one product.

Materials with one shiny side (such as foil-faced polystyrene) must be positioned with the shiny side facing an air space to be effective. An aluminum foil radiant barrier can be placed either way - the shiny side is created by the rolling mill during the manufacturing process and does not affect the reflectivity of the foil material. As radiant barriers work by reflecting infra-red energy, the aluminum foil would work just the same if both sides were dull.

Types of reflective insulation[edit]

Reflective insulation is commonly made of either aluminum foil attached to some sort of backing material or two layers of foil with foam or plastic bubbles in between creating an airspace to reduce convective heat transfer also. The aluminum foil component in reflective insulation will reduce radiant heat transfer by up to 97%. As reflective insulation incorporates an airspace to reduce convective heat flow, it carries a measurable R-Value.[citation needed]

Advantages[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

Hazardous and discontinued insulation[edit]

Certain forms of insulation used in the past are now no longer used because of recognized health risks.

Urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI) and panels[edit]

Urea-formaldehyde insulation releases poisonous formaldehyde gas, causing indoor air quality problems. The chemical bond between the urea and formaldehyde is weak, resulting in degradation of the foam cells and emission of toxic formaldehyde gas into the home over time. Furthermore, some manufacturers used excess formaldehyde to ensure chemical bonding of all of the urea. Any leftover formaldehyde would escape after the mixing. Most states outlawed it in the early 1980s after dangers to building occupants were discovered. However emissions are highest when the urea-formaldehyde is new and decrease over time, so houses that have had urea-formaldehyde within their walls for years or decades do not require remediation.

UFFI provides little mechanical strength, as the material is weak and brittle. Before its risks were recognized, it was used because it was a cheap, effective insulator with a high R-value and its open-cell structure was a good acoustic insulator. Though it absorbed moisture easily, it regained effectiveness as an insulator when dried. See[24] and[25]

Asbestos[edit]

Asbestos once found common use as an insulation material in homes and buildings because it is fireproof, a good thermal and electrical insulator, and resistant to chemical attack and wear. It has been found that asbestos can cause cancer when in friable form (that is, when likely to release fibers into the air - when broken, jagged, shredded, or scuffed).

When found in the home, asbestos often resembles grayish-white corrugated cardboard coated with cloth or canvas, usually held in place around pipes and ducts with metal straps. Things that typically might contain asbestos:

Health and safety issues[edit]

Spray polyurethane foam (SPF)[edit]

All polyurethane foams are composed of petrochemicals. Foam insulation often uses hazardous chemicals with high human toxicity, such as isocyanates, benzene and toluene. The foaming agents no longer use ozone-depleting substances. Personal Protective Equipment is required for all people in the area being sprayed to eliminate exposure to isocyanates which constitute about 50% of the foam raw material.[26]

Fiberglass[edit]

Fiberglass is the most common residential insulating material, and is usually applied as batts of insulation, pressed between studs. Health and safety issues include potential cancer risk from exposure to glass fibers, formaldehyde off-gassing from the backing/resin, use of petrochemicals in the resin, and the environmental health aspects of the production process. Green building practices shun Fiberglass insulation.

The World Health Organization has declared fiber glass insulation as potentially carcinogenic (WHO, 1998[27]). In October 2001, an international expert review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) re-evaluated the 1988 IARC assessment of glass fibers and removed glass wools from its list of possible carcinogens by downgrading the classification of these fibers from Group 2B (possible carcinogen) to Group 3 (not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans). All fiber glass wools that are commonly used for thermal and acoustical insulation are included in this classification. IARC noted specifically: "Epidemiologic studies published during the 15 years since the previous IARC Monographs review of these fibers in 1988 provide no evidence of increased risks of lung cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the lining of the body cavities) from occupational exposures during manufacture of these materials, and inadequate evidence overall of any cancer risk."

The IARC downgrade is consistent with the conclusion reached by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, which in 2000 found "no significant association between fiber exposure and lung cancer or nonmalignant respiratory disease in the MVF [man-made vitreous fiber] manufacturing environment." However, manufacturers continue to provide cancer risk warning labels on their products, apparently as indeminfication against claims.

However, the literature should be considered carefully before determining that the risks should be disregarded. The OSHA chemical sampling page provides a summary of the risks, as does the NIOSH Pocket Guide.

Miraflex is a new type of fiberglass batt that has curly fibers that are less itchy and create less dust. You can also look for fiberglass products factory-wrapped in plastic or fabric.

Fiberglass is energy intensive in manufacture. Fiberglass fibers are bound into batts using adhesive binders, which can contain phenol formaldehyde, a hazardous chemical known to slowly off-gas from the insulation over many years.[28] The industry is mitigating this issue by switching to binder materials not containing phenol formaldehyde; some manufacturers offer agriculturally-based binder resins made from soybean oil. Formaldehyde-free batts and batts made with varying amounts of recycled glass (some approaching 50% post-consumer recycled content) are available.

Loose-fill cellulose[edit]

Cellulose is 100% natural and 75–85% of it is made from recycled newsprint. Health issues (if any) appear to be minor, and most concerns around the flame retardants and mold potential seem to be misrepresentations.

U.S. Health and Safety Partnership Program[edit]

In May 1999, the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association began implementing a comprehensive voluntary work practice partnership with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The program, known as the Health and Safety Partnership Program, or HSPP, promotes the safe handling and use of insulation materials and incorporates education and training for the manufacture, fabrication, installation and removal of fiber glass, rock wool and slag wool insulation products. (See health effects of fiberglass). (For authoritative and definitive information on fiber glass and rock and slag wool insulation, as well as the HSPP, consult the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA) website).

See also[edit]

Insulation
Building

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ US Department of Energy, Consumer Guide, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11620
  2. ^ What You Need to Know About the Safe Use of Spray Polyurethane Foam, http://www.epa.gov/dfe/spf_presentation_2009_epa_osha_niosh_cpsc.pdf
  3. ^ "Environmentally Friendly Green Insulation : Non Toxic Spray Specialist". Envirofoaminsulation.com. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  4. ^ "Icynene". 
  5. ^ "Sealection 500". Demilec (USA) LLC. 
  6. ^ "AirKrete". 
  7. ^ "Insulation Alternatives: Blown or Foamed Through a Membrane". Toolbase.org. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  8. ^ "Expanded Polystyrene Products and Prices". Wayne's Building Supply. 
  9. ^ "Polyisocyanurate". David Darling. 
  10. ^ "Great Stuff MSDS". 
  11. ^ "MSDS for professional version of Dow Great Stuff". 
  12. ^ http://www.ezerosolutions.com
  13. ^ Johns Manville. "Insulation has 30% recycled content ", Retrieved on 2010-02-15
  14. ^ National Non-Food Crops Centre. "Natural fibre insulation factsheet", Retrieved on 2009-03-26
  15. ^ "Liège Spécial Façade / Cork ETICS external thermal insulation systems", Retrieved on 2009-03-26
  16. ^ "USA gov. insulation materials facts"
  17. ^ Indoor Air Quality - Black Mountain Insulation 2012
  18. ^ "Gutex ETICS external thermal insulation system", Retrieved on 2010-05-24
  19. ^ "Environmental Home Center product information". Environmentalhomecenter.com. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  20. ^ "Primary Applications of Loose-Fill Insulations". Retrieved 2011-11-06. 
  21. ^ "Home Energy Savings - Blown-In Cellulose Insulation". Diynetwork.com. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  22. ^ "Comparative Performance of Loose-Fill Insulations". Retrieved 2011-11-06. 
  23. ^ "Department of Energy - Cellulose Insulation Material guide". Eere.energy.gov. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  24. ^ [5][dead link]
  25. ^ "Formaldehyde | Indoor Air &#124". US EPA. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  26. ^ What You Need to Know About the Safe Use of Spray Polyurethane Foam, http://www.epa.gov/dfe/spf_presentation_2009_epa_osha_niosh_cpsc.pdf
  27. ^ [6]
  28. ^ "House Institute, Fiberglass Insulation: Use With Care". Healthyhouseinstitute.com. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  29. ^ "Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association - Cellulose Facts". Cellulose.org. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 

References[edit]

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies.
  • Loose-Fill Insulations, DOE/GO-10095-060, FS 140, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), May 1995.
  • Insulation Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of Energy, update to be published 1996. Also available from EREC.
  • Lowe, Allen. "Insulation Update," The Southface Journal, 1995, No. 3. Southface Energy Institute, Atlanta, GA.
  • ICAA Directory of Professional Insulation Contractors, 1996, and A Plan to Stop Fluffing and Cheating of Loose-Fill Insulation in Attics, Insulation Contractors Association of America, 1321 Duke St., #303, Alexandria, VA 22314, (703)739-0356.
  • US DOE Consumer Energy Information.
  • Insulation Information for Nebraska Homeowners, NF 91-40.
  • Article in Daily Freeman, Thursday, 8 September 2005, Kingston, NY.
  • TM 5-852-6 AFR 88-19, Volume 6 (Army Corp of Engineers publication).
  • CenterPoint Energy Customer Relations.
  • US DOE publication, Residential Insulation
  • US DOE publication, Energy Efficient Windows
  • US EPA publication on home sealing
  • DOE/CE 2002
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Alaska Science Forum, May 7, 1981, Rigid Insulation, Article #484, by T. Neil Davis, provided as a public service by the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, in cooperation with the UAF research community.
  • Guide raisonné de la construction écologique (Guide to products /fabricants of green building materials mainly in France but also surrounding countries), Batir-Sain 2004