Buddhism by country

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The percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related religions (according to the highest estimates).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Estimates of the Buddhist population vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is defined. The most widely accepted estimates range from 350 million to 550 million practicing Buddhists,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] making Buddhism the fourth-largest religion after Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. According to other estimates the Buddhist population exceeds 1 billion.[17][18][19]

Methology[edit]

Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.

Estimating the number of Buddhists in the world, or in many countries, is difficult due to definitional issues as well as practical problems of enumeration. To begin with, the religious beliefs, practices, and identities of East Asians (who comprise the majority of the world's Buddhists by any measure) often blend Buddhism with other traditions including Confucianism, the Chinese folk religion, Daoism, Shinto, and Korean shamanism.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

Some followers of Buddhism do not belong to structured congregations, or observe a definite ritual of adherence such as taking Refuge, making it difficult to accurately estimate the number of practitioners. An additional challenge is the hostility of several national governments (often Communist ones such as China, North Korea, and Vietnam) to religion generally or to Buddhism specifically. Government policies in these countries may encourage the under-reporting or non-reporting of religious adherence, resulting in official totals that may drastically underestimate the number of religious practitioners in these countries.[7][27][28]

By major branches, the numbers are as follows:

(1) Mahayana Buddhism, including East Asian Buddhism, with no fewer than practicing 500 million adherents (who have registered to state-sponsored Buddhist institutions), and possibly several times that many (again, depending on definitional issues). This is the predominant form of Buddhism practiced in China, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam.[29]
(2) Theravada Buddhism, with no fewer than 125 million adherents. This is the predominant form of Buddhism practiced in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Burma.
(3) Vajrayana Buddhism, with approximately 20 million adherents. This form predominates in the greater Tibetan and Mongolian regions, as well as in the Himalayas. Besides the independent countries of Mongolia and Bhutan, and various territories within what is now western China, Vajrayana is traditional to certain regions of Russia (e.g. Kalmykia, Buryatia), India (e.g. Ladakh, Sikkim), and Nepal (e.g. Khumbu). Vajrayana, also known as Tantric Buddhism, is often conflated with Tibetan Buddhism, but this is imprecise, as Shingon and other forms of East Asian Buddhism also practice vajrayana.

At least 7 countries (Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Bhutan, and Mongolia) have unambiguous Buddhist majorities. Depending on how one calculates Chinese and other East Asian adherents, this figure might expand to include several more countries. In addition, Buddhism is the state religion of Cambodia and Bhutan, and receives prominent mention in the constitutions of Thailand and Sri Lanka.

In northern India and Nepal, the religion severely declined during the first millennium. This decline was likely due to the competitive and antagonistic relationship towards Buddhism from the influential Brahmin Hindu caste, and then perhaps the Islamic conquest of northern India. However, there is still some debate over the exact reasons for Buddhism’s decline. See the article Decline of Buddhism in India.

EthnicBuddhism with local traditional religions
Chinese[30]Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion[31][32][33]
Japanese[30]Mahayana Buddhism with Shinto[34][35][36]
Korean[30]Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, and Korean shamanism[37][38][39][40]
Vietnamese[30]Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism,[41][42] and Dao Mau[43]
MongolianVajrayana Buddhism with Tengrism, and Mongolian shamanism[44]
NepaliVajrayana Buddhism with Hinduism[45]
Jewish BuddhistBuddhism with Judaism

By Country[edit]

Buddhism by Country
Country/TerritoryPopulation (July 2013)[46] % BuddhistBuddhist total
Afghanistan Afghanistan31,108,077<0.1%[47]6,282[48]
Algeria Algeria38,087,812<0.1%[47]5,320 - 16,670[48]
 American Samoa54,7190.3%[47] - 0.7%[49]164 - 383
Angola Angola18,565,269<0.1%[47]1,632 - 1,794[48]
Argentina Argentina42,610,9810.1%[47][50]42,611
 Armenia2,974,184<0.1%[47]309[48]
 Aruba109,1530.1%[47] - 0.3%[51]109 - 327
Australia Australia22,262,5012.5%[52]556,563
Austria Austria8,221,6460.1%[53] - 0.2%[47]8,222 - 16,444
 Bahamas319,031<0.1%[47]82[48]
Bahrain Bahrain1,281,3320.2%[54] - 2.5%[47]2,563 - 32,033
Bangladesh Bangladesh163,654,8600.5%[47] - 0.7%[55]818,274 - 1,145,584
 Barbados288,725<0.1%[47]50[56][57] - 109[48]
 Belarus9,625,888<0.1%[58]1,151[48]
Belgium Belgium10,444,2680.3%[47][59] - 1%[60]31,332 - 104,443
Belize Belize334,2970.5%[47][61]1,671
 Bermuda69,4670.5%[47] - 0.7% [62]347 - 486
Bhutan Bhutan725,29675%[47][63] - 84%[64]543,972 - 609,249
 Bolivia10,461,053<0.1%[65][66]7,383 - 8,872[48]
Botswana Botswana2,127,825<0.1%[67]1,120 - 1,231[48]
Brazil Brazil201,009,6220.130%[68] - 0.5%[69]261,313 - 1,005,048
Brunei Brunei415,7178.6%[47] - 13%[70] - 16.8%[71]35,752 - 54,043 - 69,840
Bulgaria Bulgaria6,981,642unknown[72]unknown
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso17,812,961unknown[73]unknown
Myanmar Burma (Myanmar)55,167,33080%[47] - 90%[74][75]44,133,864 - 49,650,597
Cambodia Cambodia15,205,53993%[76] - 97%[47][77]14,141,151 - 14,749,373
Cameroon Cameroon20,549,221<0.1%[78]353 - 1,106[48]
Canada Canada34,568,2111.1%[79] - 3.5%[80]380,250 - 1,209,887
Chad Chad11,193,452<0.1%[47]1,684 - 5,277[48]
 Chile17,216,9450.1%[47][81][82]17,217
China China1,349,585,83820%[47][83] - 50%[84][85]269,917,168 - 674,792,919
 Christmas Island1,51336%[86] - 55%[87] - 75%[88]545 - 832 - 1135
 Colombia45,745,7830.02%[89][90][91]9,149
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo75,507,308<0.1%[92]3,734[48]
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo4,492,689<0.1%[47]283[48]
Costa Rica Costa Rica4,695,9422.2%[93]103,311
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire22,400,835<0.1%[94][95]9,869[48]
Croatia Croatia4,475,6110.03%[47][96]1,343
 Cuba11,394,0430.04%[97] - 0.3%[98]4,558 - 27,614[48]
 Curaçao146,8360.5%[99]734
 Cyprus1,155,4030.2%[47] - 0.6%[100]2,311 - 6,932
Czech Republic Czech Republic10,162,9210.1%[47][101] - 0.3%[102][103]10,163 – 30,489
Denmark Denmark5,556,4520.2%[47] - 0.5%[104][105]11,113 - 27,782
 Dominica73,2860.1%[47][106]73
 Dominican Republic10,219,6300.1%[47][107][108]10,220
 East Timor1,172,3900.1%[109] - 0.4%[110]1,172 - 4,690
 Ecuador15,439,4290.1%[47][111][112] - 0.2%[48]15,439 - 30,878
Egypt Egypt85,294,388<0.1%[47]1,687[48]
El Salvador El Salvador6,108,5900.1%[47][113][114]6,108
 Estonia1,266,3750.1%[47][115][116]1,266
Ethiopia Ethiopia93,877,025<0.1%[47]1,327[48]
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)3,1400.2%[47][117]6
 Federated States of Micronesia106,1040.4%[47] - 0.7%[118]424 - 743
 Fiji896,7580.2%[119][120]1,794
Finland Finland5,266,1140.1%[47][121][122]5,266
France France65,951,6111.2%[123][60][124] - 1.5%[125]791,419 - 1,002,464
 French Guiana239,4503.6%[126]8,620
 French Polynesia277,2930.5%[127][128]20,922
Germany Germany81,147,2650.35% [129] - 1.1%[123]284,015 - 892,620
Ghana Ghana22,931,299<0.1%[130][131][132][133]488 - 1,195[48]
Greece Greece10,772,9670.1%[47][134][135]5,339 10,773 - 15,517[48]
 Guam160,3781.1%[47] - 2.2%[136] - 3%[137]1,764 – 3,528 – 4,811
Guatemala Guatemala14,373,4720.1%[138][139][140]14,372
Guinea Guinea11,176,026<0.1%[141][142]8,983[48]
 Guyana739,9030.5%[143][144]3,700
 Haiti9,893,934<0.1%[47]258[48]
Honduras Honduras8,448,4650.1%[47][145]8,448
Hong Kong Hong Kong7,182,72415%[47][146] - 90%[147][148]1,077,409 - 6,464,452
 Hungary9,939,4700.1%[47][149][150]9,939
Iceland Iceland315,2810.2%[151] - 0.4%[47]631 - 1,261
India India1,220,800,3590.8%[152] - 3%[123][153]9,766,403 – 36,624,011-195,200,000
Indonesia Indonesia251,160,1240.72%[47][154] - 1.7%[155]1,808,353 - 4,269,722
Iran Iran79,853,900<0.1%[47]444 - 1,391[48]
Iraq Iraq31,858,481<0.1%[47]285 - 893[48]
 Ireland4,775,9820.2%[47][156]9,552
Israel Israel7,707,0420.3%[47][157][158]23,121
Italy Italy61,482,2970.2%[47][159][160]122,965
 Jamaica2,909,7140.1%[161][162] - 0.3%[163]2,910 - 8,729
Japan Japan127,253,07536%[47][164] - 70%[165] - 96%[123][166]45,811,107 - 89,077,153 - 122,162,952
Jordan Jordan6,482,0810.4%[47]25,928
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan17,736,8960.2%[47][167]35,474
Kenya Kenya44,037,656<0.1%[47][168][169]1,276 - 3,221[48]
North Korea North Korea24,720,4071.5%[47] - 4.5%[170] - 13.8%[171][172]370,806 - 1,112,418 - 3,411,416
South Korea South Korea48,955,20323%[47][173] - 50%[174][175]11,259,697 - 24,477,602
Kuwait Kuwait2,695,3162.8%[47] - 3.8%[176]75,469 - 102,422
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan5,548,0420.35%[177] - 0.5% [178]19,418 - 27,740
Laos Laos6,695,16667%[47][179][180]4,485,761
 Latvia2,178,4430.01%[47][181][182]2,178
Lebanon Lebanon4,131,5830.1%[183] - 2.1%[184][185]4,132 - 86,763
Lesotho Lesotho1,936,181unknown[186]unknown
Liberia Liberia3,989,703unknown[187]unknown
Libya Libya6,002,3470.3%[47][188]20,209 - 21,982[48]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein37,0090.3%[189]111
 Lithuania3,515,858<0.1%[47][190][191]665[48]
 Luxembourg514,862unknown[192]unknown
Macau Macau583,00317%[47][193] - 50%[194] - 80%[195]99,111 - 291,502 - 466,402
 Macedonia2,087,171unknown[196]unknown
Madagascar Madagascar22,599,0980.1%[197][198]22,599
Malawi Malawi16,777,547unknown[199][200]unknown
Malaysia Malaysia29,628,39218%[47][201] - 21%[202]5,333,111 - 6,221,962
Maldives Maldives393,9880.6%[47][203]2,364
Mali Mali15,968,882unknown[204]unknown
 Malta411,277unknown[205][206]unknown
 Martinique403,7950.1%[47]102 - 405[48]
Mauritius Mauritius1,322,2380.4% [207] - 1.5%[208] - 2%[209]5,289 - 19,834 - 26,445
Mexico Mexico116,220,9470.016%[210][211]18,595
Mongolia Mongolia3,226,51653%[212] - 72%[213] - 93%[44][214]1,710,053 - 2,323,092 - 3,000,660
 Montenegro653,474unknown[215]unknown
Morocco Morocco32,649,130unknown[216]unknown
Mozambique Mozambique24,096,669<0.1%[47]2,035 - 6,376[48]
Namibia Namibia2,182,852unknown[217]unknown
 Nauru9,4341.1%[47] - 8%[218] - 11.9%[219]104 – 755 – 1,123
Nepal Nepal30,430,2679%[220] - 11%[47][221][222]2,738,724 - 3,347,329
Netherlands Netherlands16,805,0370.1%[223] - 0.2%[47] - 1.2%[60][224]17,000 - 33,610 – 201,660
 New Caledonia264,0220.6%[47][225]1,584
 New Zealand4,365,1131.5%[47][226] - 2.5%[227] - 5%[228]65,477 - 109,128 - 218,256
Nicaragua Nicaragua5,788,5310.1%[47][229]5,789
Nigeria Nigeria174,507,539<0.1%[230][231]8,458 - 13,133[48]
 Northern Mariana Islands51,17010.6%[47] - 15.6%[232]5,424 - 7,983
Norway Norway4,722,7010.7%[47][233] - 1%[60]33,059 - 47,227
Oman Oman3,154,1340.8%[47][234]25,233
Pakistan Pakistan193,238,868<0.1%[235]1,492[236] - 106,989 - 109,400[48]
 Palau21,1080.8%[47] - 1%[237]169 - 211
Palestinian territories Palestine4,293,313unknown[238]unknown
Panama Panama3,559,4080.5%[239] - 0.9%[240] - 2.1%[241]17,797 - 32,035 - 74,748
 Papua New Guinea6,431,9020.2%[242] - 0.3%[243]12,864 - 19,296
 Paraguay6,623,2520.2%[244][245]13,257
 Peru29,849,3030.2%[47] - 0.3%[246][247]59,699 - 89,548
Philippines Philippines98,215,000[248]<0,1-2%[47][249][250]1,964,300
Poland Poland38,383,8090.1%[47][251][252]38,384
 Portugal10,799,2700.6%[47] - 0.8%[253]64,796 - 86,394
 Puerto Rico3,674,2090.1%[254] - 0.3%[47]3,674 - 11,023
Qatar Qatar2,042,4441.9%[255] - 3.1%[47] - 6%[256]38,806 - 63,316 - 122,547
Réunion Réunion839,5000.2%[47][257]1,679
 Romania21,790,4790.01%[258][259]2,179
Russia Russia142,500,4820.7%[260] - 1.05%[261] - 1.4%[262]1,000,000 – 1,500,000 – 2,000,000
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia26,939,5830.3%[47][263]70,000[264] - 80,819
Senegal Senegal12,521,851<0.1%[265][266]1,679 - 2,057[48]
 Serbia10,150,265unknown[267][268]unknown
Seychelles Seychelles90,8460.1%[269][270]91
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone5,612,685unknown[271][272]unknown
Singapore Singapore5,460,30233%[273] - 44%[274] - 51%[275]1,801,900 - 2,402,533 - 2,784,754
Slovakia Slovakia5,488,3390.1%[276][277]5,488
Slovenia Slovenia1,992,690unknown[278]unknown
 Solomon Islands597,2480.3%[47][279]1,792
South Africa South Africa48,601,0980.2%[47] - 0.3% - 0.4%[280]97,202 - 159,220 - 194,809[48]
 Spain47,370,5420.1%[47][280] - 0.4% - 0.7%47,370 - 200,000 - 300,000[281]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka21,675,64870%[282][283]15,172,954
Sudan Sudan34,847,910<0.1%[47]982 - 3,076[48]
 Suriname566,8460.6%[47] - 0.9%[284]3,401 – 5,102
Swaziland Swaziland1,403,362unknown[285]unknown
Sweden Sweden9,119,4230.4%[47][286] - 1%[60]36,478 - 91,194
Switzerland Switzerland7,996,0260.3%[287] - 0.4%[47] - 1%[60]23,988 - 31,984 - 79,960
Taiwan Taiwan23,299,71635%[288] – 80%[289] – 93%[290]8,154,901 - 18,639,773 - 21,668,736
Tajikistan Tajikistan7,910,041<0.1%[291]4,446[48]
Tanzania Tanzania48,261,942<0.1%[292]10,157 - 33,856[48]
Thailand Thailand67,448,12093%[293] - 95%[294]62,726,752 - 64,075,714
Togo Togo7,154,237unknown[295][296]unknown
 Tonga106,3220.1%[297]106
Tunisia Tunisia10,835,873<0.1%[47]79 - 247[48]
 Trinidad and Tobago1,225,2250.3%[47] - 0.7%[298]3,676 - 8,577
Turkey Turkey80,694,485<0.1%[299]35,416 - 48,148[48]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan5,113,040<0.1%[47]712[48]
 Tuvalu10,6980.1%[300]11
Uganda Uganda34,758,809<0.1%[301][302]2,005 - 6,283[48]
Ukraine Ukraine44,573,2050.1%[47][303]44,573
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates5,473,9722%[47][304] - 4%[305]109,479 - 218,959
United Kingdom United Kingdom63,395,5740.4%[47][306] - 1.2%[123][60]253,582 - 760,747
United States United States316,668,5670.7%[307] - 1.3%[47][308] - 2%[309]2,216,680 - 4,116,691 - 6,333,371
 Uruguay3,324,4600.1%[310][311]3,324
United States Virgin Islands US Virgin Islands104,737unknown[312]unknown
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan28,661,6370.1%[313] - 0.2%[314] - 0.3%[315]28,662 – 57,323 – 85,985
 Vanuatu261,5650.2%[316] - 0.3%[317]523 - 785
Venezuela Venezuela28,459,0850.1%[318] - 0.2%[319]28,459 - 56,918
Vietnam Vietnam92,477,85710%[320] - 55%[321] - 75%[322]9,247,786 - 46,238,929 - 69,358,393
Yemen Yemen25,408,288<0.1%[47]131[48]
Zambia Zambia14,222,233<0.1%[323]3,927 - 12,304[48]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe13,182,908<0.1%[324][325][326]189 - 591[48]
TOTAL7,095,217,9807.13%[327] - 16.15%506,079,682 - 1,146,042,210[123][328][329]

Top 20 countries[edit]

Top 20 by practicing Buddhists on the left (lowest numbers) and by cultural/nominal adherents whom are strongly influenced by Buddhist practices with folk religions on the right (highest numbers) as of 2013.

Top 20 Buddhist countries/territories (by population)
Top 20 (lowest)Top 20 (highest)
RankCountryPracticing BuddhistsCountryCultural Buddhists
1 China269,917,168 China674,792,919
2 Thailand62,726,752 Japan122,162,952
3 Japan45,811,107 Vietnam69,358,393
4Burma Burma/Myanmar44,133,864 Thailand64,075,714
5 Sri Lanka15,172,954Burma Burma/Myanmar49,650,597
6 Cambodia14,141,151 India36,624,011
7 South Korea11,259,697 South Korea24,477,602
8 India9,766,403 Taiwan21,668,736
9 Vietnam9,247,786 Sri Lanka15,172,954
10 Taiwan8,154,901 Cambodia14,749,373
11 Malaysia5,333,111 Hong Kong6,464,452
12   Nepal2,738,724 United States6,333,371
13 United States2,216,680 Malaysia6,221,962
14 Indonesia1,808,353 Laos4,485,761
15 Singapore1,801,900 Indonesia4,269,722
16 Mongolia1,710,053 North Korea3,411,416
17 Hong Kong1,077,409   Nepal3,347,329
18 Russia1,000,000 Mongolia3,000,660
19 Bangladesh818,274 Singapore2,784,754
20 France791,419 Russia2,000,000
Top 20 Buddhist countries/territories (by percentage)
Top 20 (lowest)Top 20 (highest)
RankCountry % Practicing BuddhistsCountry % Cultural Buddhists
1 Cambodia93% Cambodia97%
2 Thailand93% Japan96%
3Burma Burma/Myanmar80% Thailand95%
4 Bhutan75% Taiwan93%
5 Sri Lanka70% Mongolia93%
6 Laos67%Burma Burma/Myanmar90%
7 Mongolia53% Hong Kong90%
8 Japan36% Bhutan84%
9 Christmas Island36% Macau80%
10 Taiwan35% Vietnam75%
11 Singapore33% Christmas Island75%
12 South Korea23% Sri Lanka70%
13 China20% Laos67%
14 Malaysia18% Singapore51%
15 Macau17% China50%
16 Hong Kong15% South Korea50%
17 Northern Mariana Islands10.6% Malaysia21%
18 Vietnam10% Brunei16.8%
19   Nepal9% Northern Mariana Islands15.6%
20 Brunei8.6% North Korea13.8%

Remarks: Lower numbers/percentages are practicing adherents, or who those who have taken the Refuge. Higher numbers/percentages represent nominal or cultural Buddhists and practitioners of Buddhism alongside related faiths such as Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto, etc., as well as those who subscribe to Buddhism and its philosophies but stop short of any ceremonial or formal practice. Note that communist governments in China, North Korea, and Vietnam officially discourage religion, and lower estimates reflect those who have registered to state-sponsored Buddhist institutions.

See also[edit]

Other religions:

General:

External links[edit]

References[edit]

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  12. ^ Keown, Damien (2005). Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195678703. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. x. ISBN 9780313384523. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Bailey, Lee Worth; Taitz, Emily, eds. (2006). Introduction to the World's Major Religions 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780313336348. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  15. ^ Maguire, Jack (2001). Essential Buddhism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs and Practices. New York, NY: Atria Books. p. 1. ISBN 9780671041885. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  16. ^ "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. 9 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  17. ^ Snyder, David N. (2009). "Buddhists Around the World". The Dhamma. Vipassana Foundation. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "China seeking to expand influence over Buddha's birthplace". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
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  56. ^ Tara Buddhist Centre, Barbados
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  60. ^ a b c d e f g Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 p.381
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  66. ^ SGI-Bolivia Holds General Meeting
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  71. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Brunei (9.7% Buddhist + 5.2% Chinese Folk Religion + 1.9% Confucianist)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  118. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Federated States of Micronesia (0.4% Buddhist + 0.3 Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  164. ^ ""宗教的なもの" にひかれる日本人〜ISSP国際比較調査(宗教)から〜(in Japanese)". NHK 放送文化研究所 (NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute). Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
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  180. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Laos". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  185. ^ AllGov - Lebanon
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  188. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Libya". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. , AllGov - Libya
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  190. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Lithuania". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  191. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Lithuania". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  192. ^ Soka Gakkai Luxembourg
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  196. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Macedonia". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  197. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Madagascar". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  198. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk - Madagascar
  199. ^ "Buddha In Africa" (Story Of Malawian Boy Raised In Chinese Orphanage & Trained In Martial Arts) Gets Development Boost
  200. ^ Amitofo Care Center, Malawi
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  202. ^ state.gov (19.8% Buddhist + 1.3% Taoism/Confucianism/Chinese Folk Religion
  203. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Belgium". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  204. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Mali". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  205. ^ Malta Buddhist Association.org
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  207. ^ "Resident population by religion and sex". Statistics Mauritius. p. 68. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
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  210. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 – Cuestionario básico". INEGI. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  211. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Mexico". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  213. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Mongolia (54.2% Buddhist + 0.6% Chinese Folk Religion + 18.6% Ethnoreligionist = 72.8% in total)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  214. ^ state.gov - Mongolia
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  216. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Morocco". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  218. ^ Adherents.com – Nauru
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  220. ^ 2011 Nepal Census Report
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  225. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – New Caledonia". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  228. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – New Zealand". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  229. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Nicaragua". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  230. ^ Nigeria News - Being Buddhist
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  232. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Northern Mariana Islands (10.6% Buddhist + 4.9% Chinese Folk Religion + 0.1% Confucianist)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  233. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Norway". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  234. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Oman". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  235. ^ state.gov - Pakistan
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  237. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Palau (0.8% Buddhist + 0.2% Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  238. ^ "Buddhism in Palestine". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  239. ^ Adherents.com - Panama
  240. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Panama (0.8% Buddhist + 0.1% Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  241. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk – Panama
  242. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Papua New Guinea". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  244. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Papua New Guinea". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  245. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk – Paraguay
  246. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Peru (0.2% Buddhist + 0.1% Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  247. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk - Paraguay
  248. ^ Projected Population as of May 6, 2013, PH: Commission on Population, 6 May 2013 
  249. ^ "An Information Guide — Buddhism". buddhist-tourism.com. 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  250. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Philippines". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  251. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Poland". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  252. ^ BuddhaNet - List of Buddhist centers in Poland
  253. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Portugal (0.6% Buddhist + 0.2% Chinese)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  254. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Puerto Rico". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  255. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Qatar". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  256. ^ state.gov - Qatar
  257. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Réunion". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  258. ^ Primul centru de buddhism tibetan din Romania s-a deschis la Mosoaia
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  265. ^ Vietnamese Continue Traditions in Senegal
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  269. ^ Seychelles Travel Guide - Religion
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  271. ^ SGI-Sierra Leone Hosts Buddhist Seminar
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  274. ^ state.gov - Singapore
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  277. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Slovakia". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  278. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Slovenia". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  279. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Solomon Islands". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  280. ^ a b "Religious Adherents, 2010 – South Africa". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  281. ^ Nacional (15 November 2011). "El 7% de los fieles profesan una fe que no es la católica". 20minutos.es. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
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