There was also an early unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony at Darién, and the short-lived Scottish colonization of Nova Scotia (New Scotland) from 1629 to 1632. Thousands of Scotsmen also participated in the English colonization even before the two countries were united in 1708.
Bermuda, these islands, located in the North Atlantic, were first settled in 1609 by the London Virginia Company; Administration passed to The Somers Isles Company, formed by the same shareholders, in 1615. Also known officially as The Somers Isles, they remain a British overseas territory.
Province of Canada combined the colonies of Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada) from 1841 to 1867.
Colony of Vancouver Island, founded by the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Victoria in 1843. Received royal charter for the Island as a colony in 1849, and merged with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
the Colony of British Columbia, formed in 1866 from a merger of the Vancouver Island and Mainland Colonies. The name British Columbia was chosen for the newly merged colony despite the opposition from Vancouver Island colonists.
Non-colonial British territories in North America
Columbia District, the trading district of the Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1821 to the Oregon Treaty of 1846, by which most of the Columbia District was formally annexed to the United States. HBC lands south of the 49th parallel were guaranteed by the Oregon Treaty but ownership and compensation issues were not fully resolved until 1861.
New Caledonia, fur district. First created in 1805 as part of North West Company for operations, administered by Hudson's Bay Company following the two companies' forced merger in 1821, until incorporated as the part of the Colony of British Columbia in 1858, by which time the term "New Caledonia" had come to refer to the whole of the British mainland, not just the original fur district in what is now its Central Interior.
North-Western Territory, a Hudson's Bay Company trading area covering lands north and northwest of Rupert's Land and, after 1863, north of the Stikine Territory's original boundary at the 62nd parallel. Its remnant was incorporated at the Yukon Territory after the part of it south of the 60th parallel was amalgamated to British Columbia.
the southeastern Alaska Panhandle was leased from the Russian Empire, from 1839 to 1867, until the lease was ignored by both the Russians and Americans and, subsequently, by the Canadian and the British imperial governments, despite British Columbia's protests.
Central and South America, Caribbean
English and later British Caribbean colonies
Saint Kitts - The island was settled by Sir Thomas Warner in 1623. The following year the French also settled part of St Kitts. After they massacred the Caribs, the British and French turned on each other and St Kitts changed hands between the two several times before the Treaty of Paris (1783) gave the island to Britain. It became independent as Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1983.
Barbuda - The island was settled about 1632. It became independent as Antigua and Barbuda in 1981.
Montserrat - The island was settled in 1632. It was occupied by the French in 1664-68 and 1782-84. It remains a British territory.
Bahamas - The islands were settled from 1647. They became independent in 1973.
Anguilla - The island was settled in 1650. Its government was united with St. Christopher from 1882 until 1967, when it declared its separation. It was brought back under British administration in 1969. It remains a British territory.
Jamaica - The island was conquered from Spain in 1655. It became independent in 1962.
Dominica - The island was captured from the French in 1761. The French occupied it again from 1778 to 1783. Dominica became independent in 1978.
Trinidad and Tobago - The island of Tobago was captured in 1762. The island of Trinidad was captured from the Spanish in 1797. The two governments were joined in 1888. They became independent in 1962.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Saint Vincent was colonized in 1762. France captured it in 1779 but returned it to Britain in 1783. The islands were formerly part of the British colony of the British Windward Islands from 1871 to 1958. The nation gained full independence in 1979.
Grenada - The island was conquered from France in 1762. The French reoccupied it from 1779 to 1783. It became independent in 1974.
Saint Lucia - The island was captured from the French in 1778, but returned in 1783. In 1796 and in 1803 it was captured again, and permanently annexed by Britain in 1814. Saint Lucia became independent in 1979.
English and later British Central and South American colonies
Belize - English adventurers starting in 1638, used Belize as a source for logwood, a tree used to make a wooldye. The area was claimed by Spain but they had not settled it or been able to control the natives. The Spanish destroyed the British colony in 1717, 1730, 1754 and 1779. The Spanish attacked a final time in 1798, but were defeated. The colony was known as 'British Honduras' from the 19th century until 1973, whereupon its name changed to 'Belize'. Although Guatemalan claims to Belize delayed independence, full independence was granted in 1981.
Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast) - This area was first settled by the English in 1630. It was briefly assigned to Honduras in 1859, along with the Bay Islands north of the country, then ceded to Nicaragua in 1860 and the area was disputed until a treaty of 1965 divided the Mosquito coast for each country.