The British Aerospace 125 (Originally the de Havilland DH125 Jet Dragon) is a twin-engine mid-size corporate jet, with newer variants now marketed as the Hawker 800. It was known as the Hawker Siddeley HS.125 until 1977. It was also used by the Royal Air Force as a navigation trainer (as the Hawker Siddeley Dominie T1) until January 2011, and was used by the United States Air Force as a calibration aircraft (as the C-29).
In 1961, de Havilland began working on a revolutionary small business jet, the DH.125 Jet Dragon, intended to replace the piston enginedde Havilland Dove business aircraft and light transport. The DH.125 design was for a low-winged monoplane with a pressurised fuselage accommodating two pilots and six passengers. It was powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viperturbojets mounted on the rear fuselage. The slightly swept wing employed large slotted flaps and airbrakes to allow operation from small airfields. The first of two prototypes flew on 13 August 1962, with the second following on 12 December that year. The first production aircraft, longer and with a greater wingspan than the two prototypes, flew on 12 February 1963, with the first delivery to a customer on 10 September 1964.
The aircraft went through many designation changes during its service life. Hawker Siddeley had bought de Havilland the year before project start, but the old legacy brand and the "DH" designation was used throughout development. After the jet achieved full production, the name was finally changed to "HS.125". When Hawker Siddeley Aircraft merged with the British Aircraft Corporation to form British Aerospace in 1977, the name changed to BAe 125. Then, when British Aerospace sold its Business Jets Division to Raytheon in 1993, the jet acquired the name Raytheon Hawker. The fuselage, wings and tail-fin are to this day fully assembled and partially equipped (primary and secondary flight controls) in Airbus UK's Broughton plant, on the outskirts of Chester, sub-assemblies are produced in Airbus UK's Buckley site. All these assembled components are then shipped to Wichita, Kansas in the United States, to where final assembly was transferred in 1996.
Over 1,000 aircraft have been built. On the 18th October 2012 the negotiations for the sale of Hawker beechcraft had failed and the company decided to cease jet production and exited bankruptcy on its own on 19 February 2013, under a new name, Beechcraft Corporation
In 2013, the FAA modified 14 CFR part 91 rules to prohibit the operation of jets weighing 75,000 pounds or less that are not stage 3 noise compliant after December 31, 2015. The HS.125-1/2/3, -400 and -600 are listed explicitly in Federal Register 78 FR 39576. Any HS.125s that have not been modified by installing Stage 3 noise compliant engines or have not had "hushkits" installed for non-compliant engines will not be permitted to fly in the contiguous 48 states after December 31, 2015. 14 CFR §91.883 Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less - lists special flight authorizations that may be granted for operation after December 31, 2015.
DH.125 Series 1 - first version, powered by 3,000 lbf (13 kN) Viper 20 or 520 engines. Nine built, including two prototypes (43 ft 6 in (13.26 m) long, 44 ft (13.41 m) span) and seven production aircraft (47 ft 5 in (14.56 m) long, 47 ft (14.33 m) long.
DH.125 Series 1A/1B - upgraded Bristol Siddeley Viper 521 or 522 engines with 3,100 lbf (14 kN) of thrust each, and five cabin windows instead of six. Series 1A for US FAA certification (62 built), Series 1B for sale elsewhere (13 built).
U-125 - Series 800-based flight inspection aircraft for Japan (similar to C-29A)
U-125A - Series 800-based search and rescue aircraft for Japan, equipped with the APS-134LW radar system.
BAe 125 Series 1000 - intercontinental version of the Series 800, 2 ft 9 in (0.84 m) fuselage stretch to increase capacity to 15, increased fuel capacity, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW-305turbofans with 5,200 lbf (23 kN) thrust each, first flight 16 June 1990, 52 built
Hawker 1000 - BAe 125-1000 after 1993
Handley Page HP.130 - A 1965 proposal with boundary layer control wings (not built). It was to be powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viper 520s of 3,000 lbf (13 kN) thrust with a projected Maximum speed of Mach 0.8. This conversion was for laminar-flow research purposes.
Private operators, air taxi, shared ownership and corporate charter operators worldwide. Between 1965 and 1972 Qantas used two Series 3s for crew training.
In July 1967, Air Hanson HS.125 (G-ASNU) carrying former Congolese president Moise Tshombe was hijacked and taken to Algeria.
On 23 December 1967 a Hawker Siddeley HS.125 (registration: G-AVGW) of Court Line crashed shortly after taking off from Luton Airport, killing both pilots. The aircraft had been on a training flight. The crash occurred when the crew simulated an engine failure on takeoff. The HS 125 lost height rapidly and hit the roof of the nearby Vauxhall Motors factory. This resulted in a post-crash fire.
On 20 November 1975, a British Aerospace BAe 125 overran the runway at Dunsfold Aerodrome after a bird strike on take off. The aircraft hit a car that was travelling along the A281 at the time and stopped in a nearby field, killing six people in the car and injuring one crew member out of nine passengers and crew.
On 8 September 1987: a Brazilian Air Force Hawker Siddeley HS.125 registration FAB-2129 crashed upon take-off from Carajás. All nine occupants died.
On 7 August 1988, a BAe-125 owned by the Botswana Government was carrying the President of Botswana, Quett Masire, and his staff to a meeting in Luanda. An Angolan MiG-23 pilot fired two R-60 (AA-8) missiles at the plane. One missile hit the no. 2 engine, causing it to fall off the aircraft. The second missile then hit the falling engine. The crew was able to make a successful emergency landing on a bush strip at Cutio Bie.
On 16 March 1991, a Hawker Siddeley charter aircraft carrying band members for Reba McEntire crashed into the side of Otay Mountain. The accident occurred shortly after take off from a municipal airport outside of San Diego, California. All eight band members aboard plus two pilots were killed in the crash believed to have been caused by poor visibility.