Brigham Young

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Brigham Young
Brigham Young by Charles William Carter.jpg
Brigham Young c. 1870
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
PredecessorJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorJohn Taylor
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
End reasonBecame President of the Church
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
Called byThree Witnesses
End reasonBecame President of the Church
LDS Church Apostle
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
Called byThree Witnesses
ReasonInitial organization of Quorum of the Twelve
Reorganization
at end of term
No apostles immediately ordained[1]
Governor of Utah Territory
In office
February 3, 1851 – April 12, 1858
SuccessorAlfred Cumming
Personal details
Born(1801-06-01)June 1, 1801
Whitingham, Vermont, United States
DiedAugust 29, 1877(1877-08-29) (aged 76)
Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, United States
Cause of deathRuptured appendix
Resting placeBrigham Young Cemetery
40°46′13″N 111°53′08″W / 40.7703°N 111.8856°W / 40.7703; -111.8856 (Brigham Young Cemetery)
SpouseSee List of Brigham Young's wives
Children56[2]
ParentsJohn and Abigail Young
Websitebrighamyoung.org
Signature 
Signature of Brigham Young
 
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Brigham Young
Brigham Young by Charles William Carter.jpg
Brigham Young c. 1870
edit data
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
PredecessorJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorJohn Taylor
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
End reasonBecame President of the Church
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
Called byThree Witnesses
End reasonBecame President of the Church
LDS Church Apostle
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
Called byThree Witnesses
ReasonInitial organization of Quorum of the Twelve
Reorganization
at end of term
No apostles immediately ordained[1]
Governor of Utah Territory
In office
February 3, 1851 – April 12, 1858
SuccessorAlfred Cumming
Personal details
Born(1801-06-01)June 1, 1801
Whitingham, Vermont, United States
DiedAugust 29, 1877(1877-08-29) (aged 76)
Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, United States
Cause of deathRuptured appendix
Resting placeBrigham Young Cemetery
40°46′13″N 111°53′08″W / 40.7703°N 111.8856°W / 40.7703; -111.8856 (Brigham Young Cemetery)
SpouseSee List of Brigham Young's wives
Children56[2]
ParentsJohn and Abigail Young
Websitebrighamyoung.org
Signature 
Signature of Brigham Young

Brigham Young (/ˈbrɪɡəm/; June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.

Young had a variety of nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses"[3] (alternatively, the "Modern Moses" or the "Mormon Moses"),[4][5] because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land.[6] Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality, and was also commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. Young was a polygamist and was involved in controversies regarding black people and the Priesthood, the Utah War, and the Mountain Meadows massacre.

Early life and succession to Joseph Smith[edit]

The five sons of John and Nabby Young
From left to right: Lorenzo Dow, Brigham, Phineas H., Joseph, and John.

Young was born to John and Abigail "Nabby" Young (née Howe), a farming family in Whitingham, Vermont, and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades.[7] Young first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his first wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, and he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838.

While in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob in 1844. Several claimants to the role of church President emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Illinois, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church.[8] Young opposed this reasoning and motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles were "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency,[9] so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles.[10] The majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's President. Many of Young's followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Joseph Smith, to which they attributed the power of God.[11][12][13][14] Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, more than two and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement.

Governor of Utah Territory[edit]

As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore. During his time as governor, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Under his direction the pioneers built roads and bridges, forts, irrigation projects, and established public welfare, organized a militia, and pacified the Native Americans. Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territory's first capital.

Young organized a Board of Regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley.[15] The university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret, the precursor to the University of Utah.

In 1856 he organized an efficient mail service. In 1858 he stepped down to his successor Alfred Cumming.

Church Presidency[edit]

Young was the longest serving President of the LDS Church in history, having served for 29 years.

Migration west[edit]

After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve, in 1847 Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to a territory in what is now Utah, then part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the faithful to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir just 29 days after arriving for a conference of the church on August 22, 1847.[16]

Educational endeavors[edit]

Having previously established the University of Deseret (the precursor to the University of Utah) during his tenure as governor, on October 16, 1875, Young personally purchased land in Provo, Utah, to possibly extend the reach of the University of Deseret.[17] Young said, "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."[18] The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy,[18] the precursor to Brigham Young University.

Within the church, Young reorganized the Relief Society for women (1867), and he created organizations for young women (1869) and young men (1875).

Temple building[edit]

Young was involved in temple building throughout his membership in the LDS Church and made temple building a priority of his presidency. Under Joseph Smith's leadership, Young participated in the building of the Kirtland (Ohio) and Nauvoo (Illinois) Temples. Just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young, who was now church president, designated the location for the Salt Lake Temple and presided over its groundbreaking on April 6, 1853.[19] During his tenure, Young oversaw construction of the Salt Lake Tabernacle, and he announced plans to build the St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan Temples (1877) — all in Utah. He also provisioned the building of a "temporary temple" called the Endowment House, which began use in 1855 to provide temple ordinances to church members while the Salt Lake Temple was under construction.

Controversial teachings[edit]

Mormonism and polygamy
The Family of Joseph F. Smith
A Mormon Polygamist Family in 1888.

Though polygamy was practiced by Young's predecessor Joseph Smith, the practice is often associated with Brigham Young. Some denominations, such as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, consider Young the "Father of Mormon Polygamy".[20] In 1853, Young made the church's first official statement on the subject after the church had arrived in Utah. He spoke about the issue nine years after the purported original revelation of Joseph Smith, and five years after the Mormon Exodus to Utah following Smith's death in Illinois.

One of the more controversial teachings of Brigham Young was the Adam–God doctrine. A doctrine that has since been rejected by the Church. According to Young, he was taught by Joseph Smith that: Adam is "our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do". According to the doctrine, Adam was once a mortal man who became resurrected and exalted. From another planet Adam brought Eve, one of his wives, with him to the earth, where they became mortal by eating the fruit of the Garden of Eden. After bearing mortal children and establishing the human race, they returned to their heavenly thrones where Adam serves as the god of this world. Later, as Young is generally understood to have taught, Adam returned to the earth to become the literal father of Jesus.

Brigham Young is generally credited with having instituted a church policy against ordaining men of African-descent to the priesthood (see black members of the LDS Church), who had been treated equally in this respect under Joseph Smith's presidency.[21] However in announcing this policy in 1852 he seems to have indicated it was a temporary policy and that at some future time those of African descent could be ordained to the priesthood.[22] In 1863, Young reported that he said, "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so."[23] After settling in Utah in 1848, Brigham Young announced a priesthood ban which prohibited all men of black African descent from holding the priesthood.[21] In connection, Mormons of African descent could not participate in Mormon temple rites such as the Endowment or sealing. These racial restrictions remained in place until 1978, when the policy was rescinded by President of the Church Spencer W. Kimball.[24]

Over time, Church leaders and members advanced many theories to explain the priesthood and temple restrictions first enacted by Young.[25] On December 6, 2013, the LDS Church issued an official statement about past racist practices and theories,[25] stating: "[t]oday, the Church disavows the theories advanced in the past that black skin is a sign of divine disfavor or curse, or that it reflects actions in a premortal life; that mixed-race marriages are a sin; or that blacks or people of any other race or ethnicity are inferior in any way to anyone else. Church leaders today unequivocally condemn all racism, past and present, in any form."[22]

Conflicts[edit]

Shortly after the arrival of Young's pioneers, the new Mormon colonies were incorporated into the United States through Mexican Cession, Young petitioned the U.S. Congress to create the State of Deseret. The Compromise of 1850 instead carved out Utah Territory, and Young was installed as governor. As governor and church president, Young directed both religious and economic matters. He encouraged independence and self-sufficiency. Many cities and towns in Utah, and some in neighboring states, were founded under Young's direction. Young's leadership style has been viewed as autocratic.[26] When federal officials received reports of widespread and systematic obstruction of federal officials in Utah (most notably judges), U.S. President James Buchanan decided to install a non-Mormon governor. Buchanan accepted the reports of the judges without any further investigation, and the new non-sectarian governor was accompanied by troops sent to garrison forts in the new territory. The troops passed by the bloody Kansas–Missouri war without intervening in it, as it was not open warfare and only isolated sporadic incidents. When Young received word that federal troops were headed to Utah with his replacement, he called out his militia to ambush the federal column. During the defense of Deseret, now called the Utah War, Young held the U.S. Army at bay for a winter by taking their cattle and burning supply wagons. The Mormon forces were largely successful thanks to Lot Smith. Young made plans to burn Salt Lake City and move his followers to Mexico, but at the last minute he relented and agreed to step down as governor. He later received a pardon from Buchanan. Relations between Young and future governors and U.S. Presidents were mixed.

Brigham Young (seated near the middle, wearing a tall beaver hat) and an exploring party camped at the Colorado River in 1870

A controversial issue is the extent of Young's involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre,[27] which took place in Washington County in 1857. Leonard J. Arrington reports that Brigham Young received a rider at his office on the same day. When he learned what was contemplated by the members of the LDS Church in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter that the Fancher party be allowed to pass through the territory unmolested.[28] Young's letter supposedly arrived two days too late, on September 13, 1857. As governor, Young had promised the federal government he would protect immigrants passing through Utah Territory, but over 120 men, women and children were killed in this incident. There is still debate concerning the involvement of Mormons by scholars. Only children under the age of seven survived, the murdered members of the wagon train (known as the Fancher Party) were left unburied, and the surviving children were cared for by local Mormon families. The remains of about forty people were found and buried and Carleton had a large cross made from local trees, the transverse beam bearing the engraving, "Vengeance Is Mine, Saith The Lord: I Will Repay" and erected a cairn of rocks at the site. A large slab of granite was put up on which he had the following words engraved: "HERE 120 MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE MASSACRED IN COLD BLOOD EARLY IN SEPTEMBER, 1857. THEY WERE FROM ARKANSAS." For two years the monument stood as a warning to those travelling the Spanish Trail through Mountain Meadow. Some claim that, In 1861, Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows and had the cairn and cross destroyed, while exclaiming, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little".[29]

Death[edit]

Young is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in Salt Lake City.

Before his death in Salt Lake City at 4:00 p.m. on August 29, 1877,[30] Young was suffering from cholera morbus and inflammation of the bowels.[31] It is believed that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix.[2] His last words were "Joseph! Joseph! Joseph!", invoking the name of the late Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon faith.[32] On September 2, 1877, Young's funeral was held in the Tabernacle with an estimated 12,000 to 15,000 people in attendance.[33] He is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in the heart of Salt Lake City. A bronze marker was placed at the grave site June 10, 1938, by members of the Young Men and Young Women organizations, which he founded.[34]

Legacy[edit]

Impact[edit]

A century after his death, one writer stated that

[Joseph Smith] was succeeded by one of the outstanding organizers of the 19th century, Brigham Young. If the circumstances of his life had worked out differently [he] might have become a captain of industry—an Andrew Carnegie or John D. Rockefeller or a railroad builder. Instead, this able, energetic, earthy man became the absolute ruler and the revered, genuinely loved father figure of all Mormons everywhere.[35]

He credited Young's leadership with helping to settle much of the American West:

During the 30 years between the Mormons' arrival in Utah in 1847 and [his death in] 1877, Young directed the founding of 350 towns in the Southwest. Thereby the Mormons became the most important single agency in colonizing that vast arid West between the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada.[35]

Memorials to Young include: a bronze statue in front of the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building, Brigham Young University; a marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol, donated by the State of Utah in 1950;[36] and a statue atop the This is the Place Monument in Salt Lake City.

Family and descendants[edit]

Young was a polygamist, marrying a total of 55 wives, 54 of them after he converted to become a Latter Day Saint.[37] The policy was difficult for many in the church. Young stated that upon being taught about plural marriage, "It was the first time in my life that I desired the grave."[38] By the time of his death, Young had 56 children by 16 of his wives; 46 of his children reached adulthood.[2]

Sources have varied on the number of Young's wives, due to differences in what scholars have considered to be a "wife".[37] There were 55 women that Young was sealed to during his lifetime. While the majority of the sealings were "for eternity", some were "for time only". Researchers believe that not all of the 55 marriages were conjugal.[37] Young did not live with a number of his wives or publicly hold them out as wives, which has led to confusion on the number and identities.[37] This is in part due to the complexity of how wives were identified in the Mormon society at the time.

Young's ability to keep [dozens of] wives from quarreling and so many children from overwhelming him would in itself prove that [he] must have been a remarkable, not to say a master, diplomat.[35]

Of Young's 55 wives, 21 had never been married before; 16 were widows; six were divorced; six had living husbands; and the marital status of six others are unknown.[37] In 1856, Young built the Lion House to accommodate his sizable family. This building remains a Salt Lake City landmark, together with the Beehive House, another Brigham Young family home. A contemporary of Young wrote: "It was amusing to walk by Brigham Young's big house, a long rambling building with innumerable doors. Each wife has an establishment of her own, consisting of parlor, bedroom, and a front door, the key of which she keeps in her pocket."[39] At the time of Young's death, 19 of his wives had predeceased him, he was divorced from ten, and 23 survived him. The status of four was unknown.[37] In his will, Young shared his estate with the 16 surviving wives who had lived with him; the six surviving non-conjugal wives were not mentioned in the will.[37]

Caricature of Young's wives after his death

Three of Young's sons were ordained as LDS Church apostles by their father: Brigham Young, Jr.,[40] John Willard Young,[40] and Joseph Angell Young.[40] Other leaders in the LDS Church who were descended from Young include his children Maria Young Dougall and B. Morris Young. A daughter, Susa Young Gates, was a prominent women's rights activist in Utah.[41][42] A son, Don Carlos Young, was an LDS Church architect. A granddaughter, Leah D. Widtsoe, was wife of apostle John A. Widtsoe and herself a leading expert in home economics.[41][42] Other grandchildren include sculptor Mahonri Young;[43] Richard Whitehead Young, U.S. Army Brigadier General and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines;[44] William Hooper Young, a convicted murderer;[45][46] opera singer Emma Lucy Gates Bowen; hymnwriter Hugh W. Dougall; and sociologist Kimball Young. More distant descendants include Mormon critic Sandra Tanner, novelist Orson Scott Card,[47] and NFL Hall of Fame athlete Steve Young.[48]

In 1902, 25 years after his death, the New York Times established that Young's direct descendants numbered more than 1000.[49]

Literature references and works[edit]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle based his first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet, on Mormon history, mentioning Young by name. When asked to comment on the story, which had "provoked the animosity of the Mormon faithful", Conan Doyle noted, "all I said about the Danite Band and the murders is historical so I cannot withdraw that though it is likely that in a work of fiction it is stated more luridly than in a work of history." However, Doyle's daughter stated that "You know father would be the first to admit that his first Sherlock Holmes novel was full of errors about the Mormons."[50] Florence Claxton's graphic novel The Adventures of a Woman in Search of her Rights (1872), satirizes a would-be emancipated woman whose failure to establish an independent career results in her marriage to Brigham Young before she wakes to discover she's been dreaming. Mark Twain devoted a chapter and much of an appendix to Brigham Young in his book Roughing It.

Brigham Young authored several books and discourses during his lifetime.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A year after Young's death, Orson Hyde died and Moses Thatcher was ordained an apostle. The First Presidency was not reorganized until 1880-10-10, after which Francis M. Lyman and John Henry Smith were ordained. Orson Pratt died in 1881, and the Quorum of the Twelve did not have twelve members again until 1882-10-16, when George Teasdale and Heber J. Grant were ordained.
  2. ^ a b c Brigham Young Biography: Facts of Faith, "People: Brigham Young History", Y Facts (yfacts.byu.edu) (BYU) 
  3. ^ Brigham Young, "Topics and Background: Topic", Newsroom (MormonNewsroom.org) (LDS Church) 
  4. ^ Gibbons, Francis M. (1981), Brigham Young: Modern Moses, Prophet of God, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, ISBN 978-0877478584 
  5. ^ Steorts, Jason Lee (October 29, 2012), "The Mormon Moses", National Review 
  6. ^ Nelson, Russell M. (July 1999), "The Exodus Repeated"", Ensign, "Many instructive parallels exist between the exodus from Egypt of the Israelites under Moses and the exodus from the United States of the Latter-day Saint pioneers under Brigham Young. We can learn much from these stalwarts of ancient and modern Israel." 
  7. ^ Sheret, John G. (Fall 2006-Winter 2007), Brigham Young: Carpenter and Cabinet Maker (141), The Crooked Lake Review 
  8. ^ Roberts, B. H. (ed.), "XVIII", History of the Church 7 
  9. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 107:23-24
  10. ^ Roberts, B. H. (ed.), "XIX", History of the Church 7 
  11. ^ Quinn, D. Michael (1994). The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power. Signature Books. p. 166. ISBN 1-56085-056-6. ; Harper 1996; Jorgensen, Lynne Watkins (2005), "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith Passes to Brother Brigham: One Hundred Twenty-one Testimonies of a Collective Spiritual Witness", in Welch, John W., Opening the Heavens: Accounts of Divine Manifestations, 1820–1844, Provo, Utah: BYU Press, pp. 374–480 ; English, Eugene (Winter 1978), "George Laub Nauvoo Diary", BYU Studies 18: 167, "Now when President Young arose to address the congregation his voice was the voice of Bro[ther] Joseph and his face appeared as Joseph's face & should I have not seen his face but heard his voice I should have declared that it was Joseph." ; Burton, William, William Burton Diary, May 1845, LDS Church Archives, "But their [Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith's] places were filed by others much better than I once supposed they could have been, the spirit of Joseph appeared to rest upon Brigham"" ; Johnson, Benjamin F. (1928), My Life's Review, Independence, pp. 103–104, "But as soon as he spoke I jumped upon my feet, for in every possible degree it was Joseph's voice, and his person, in look, attitude, dress and appearance; [it] was Joseph himself, personified and I knew in a moment the spirit and mantle of Joseph was upon him"" ; Life Story of Mosiah Hancock, BYU Library, p. 23, "Although only a boy, I saw the mantle of the Prophet Joseph rest upon Brigham Young; and he arose lion-like to the occasion and led the people forth" ; Woodruff, Wilford (March 15, 1892), Deseret News, "If I had not seen him with my own eyes, there is no one that could have convinced me that it was not Joseph Smith" ; Cannon, George Q. (October 29, 1870), Juvenile Instructor 5 (22): 174–175, "When Brigham Young spoke it was with the voice of Joseph himself; and not only was it the voice of Joseph which was heard, but it seemed in the eyes of the people as though it was the every person of Joseph which stood before them" 
  12. ^ However, historians have come to different conclusions on whether the occurrence of such events is supported by contemporary records. Van Wagoner observed of contemporary accounts that "none of these references an explicit transfiguration, a physical metamorphosis of Brigham Young into the form and voice of Joseph Smith," and "[w]hen 8 August 1844 is stripped of emotional overlay, there is not a shred of irrefutable contemporary evidence to support the occurrence of a mystical event either in the morning or afternoon gatherings of that day.": Van Wagoner, Richard S. (Winter 1995). "The Making of a Mormon Myth: The 1844 Transfiguration of Brigham Young". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 28 (4): 1–24. 
  13. ^ Jorgenson, Lynne W. (1996–97). "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Passes to Brother Brigham: A Collective Spiritual Witness". BYU Studies 36 (4): 125–204. 
  14. ^ Arrington, Leonard J. (1986). Brigham Young: American Moses. University of Illinois Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-252-01296-8. 
  15. ^ Ison, Yvette D. (January 1995), "The Beginnings of the University of Utah", History Blazer (Utah State Historical Society) . Online reprint, with permission, at HistoryToGo.utah.gov by the Utah Division of State History, Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, State of Utah.
  16. ^ When was the Mormon Tabernacle Choir formed?, "Frequently Asked Questions", MormonTabernacleChoir.org (Mormon Tabernacle Choir), archived from the original on 2013-03-29 
  17. ^ Page, Russ (January 12, 2008), "BYU: The "almost" college of Draper, Utah", russpage.net (blog) [unreliable source?]
  18. ^ a b Bills, Sarah (April 16, 2003). "Warren Dusenberry (1875–1876)". The Universe (BYU) (BYU NewsNet). Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. 
  19. ^ Hanks, Marion Duff (1992), "Salt Lake Temple", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1252–1254, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  20. ^ Richard and Pamela Price (2000), "Vol.1, Ch.4: Brigham Young: The Father of Mormon Polygamy", Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy: How Men Nearest the Prophet Attached Polygamy to His Name in Order to Justify Their Own Polygamous Crimes (self-published), Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing Company, ISBN 1891353063, LCCN 99041763, OCLC 42027453 
  21. ^ a b Bush, Lester E., Jr.; Mauss, Armand L. (1984). "Chapter 3: Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview". Neither White nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church. Midvale, Utah: Signature Books. pp. 54–65, 70. ISBN 978-0-941214-22-3. 
  22. ^ a b Race and the Priesthood, "Gospel Topics", LDS.org (LDS Church) .
  23. ^ Journal of Discourses 10, p. 110 . See also: miscegenation.
  24. ^ "Official Declaration 2", Doctrine and Covenants 
  25. ^ a b Stack, Peggy Fletcher (December 9, 2013), "Mormon church traces black priesthood ban to Brigham Young", The Salt Lake Tribune 
  26. ^ "Brigham Young", Encarta, archived from the original on 2009-10-31 .[unreliable source?]
  27. ^ Eakin, Emily (October 12, 2002). "Reopening a Mormon Murder Mystery; New Accusations That Brigham Young Himself Ordered an 1857 Massacre of Pioneers". New York Times (Late Edition-Final ed.). p. Section B, Page 9, Column 2. 
  28. ^ Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight, Sept. 10, 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church Archives
  29. ^ Sally Denton (2003). American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857 (New York: Vintage Books, ISBN 0-375-72636-5) p. 210.
  30. ^ "Death of Brigham Young", The New York Times, August 30, 1877.
  31. ^ "Brigham Young's Health", The New York Times, August 29, 1877.
  32. ^ Quinn, D. Michael (August 1977), "Brigham Young: Man of the Spirit", Ensign 
  33. ^ "Brigham Young's Funeral", The New York Times, September 3, 1877.
  34. ^ "Grave of Brigham Young". State of Utah. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c Paul, Rodman W. (December 1974-January 1975), "The Mormons of Yesterday and Today", Engineering and Science (California Institute of Technology & Alumni Association) 38 (2): 12–27, retrieved 2013-09-19 
  36. ^ Statues: Brigham Young, "Art: Sculpture", Explore Capitol Hill (Architect of the Capitol) 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g Johnson, Jeffrey Odgen (Fall 1987), "Determining and Defining ‘Wife’ — The Brigham Young Households", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 20 (3): 57–70 .
  38. ^ Polygamy and the Church: A History, "People & Events", The Mormons (PBS), April 30, 2007, retrieved 2013-09-19 
  39. ^ DeHegermann-Lindencrone, Lillie. "The Sunny Side of Diplomatic Life, 1875–1912". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved July 18, 2006. 
  40. ^ a b c Jenson, Andrew. Biographical Encyclopedia of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book and A. Jenson Historical Co., 1901–1936) 1:42, 121, & 518
  41. ^ a b Gates, Susa Young Gates; Leah D. Widtsoe (1930). Life Story of Brigham Young. New York: Macmillan. p. 388. ISBN 0-8369-5886-1. 
  42. ^ a b Cracroft, R. Paul (1951), Susa Young Gates: Her Life and Literary Work." (Master's thesis), Department of English, University of Utah, OCLC 30597464 
  43. ^ Description of Mahonri Young: His Life and Art by Thomas E. Toone, "Out of Print", SignatureBooks.com (Signature Books), retrieved 2013-09-20 
  44. ^ Reeve, W. Paul; Utah History to Go! (February 1995). "Captain Richard W. Young and Spanish-American War". History Blazer. State of Utah. Retrieved August 25, 2009.  paragraph 2
  45. ^ Tanner, Sandra; Jerald Tanner. "About Us". Utah Lighthouse Ministry. Retrieved August 25, 2009.  paragraph 3
  46. ^ "The Pulitzer Murder Case", The Virtual Dime Museum, 2008-05-29, accessed 2009-04-30 paragraph 5
  47. ^ "Who Is Orson Scott Card?". Hatrack River. Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.  paragraph 9
  48. ^ "Steve Young Profile". espn.go.com. September 27, 1999. Retrieved March 12, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Descendants of Brigham Young to Hold Annual Mass Meetings", New York Times, 1902-06-22.
  50. ^ Schindler, Harold (April 10, 1994), "The Case Of The Repentant Writer: Sherlock Homes' Creator Raises The Wrath Of Mormons", The Salt Lake Tribune: D1, Archive Article ID: 101185DCD718AD35 (NewsBank) . Online reprint, with permission, at HistoryToGo.utah.gov by the Utah Division of State History, Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, State of Utah.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
None
Governor of Utah Territory
1850–1858
Succeeded by
Alfred Cumming
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles
Preceded by
Joseph Smith, Jr.
President of the LDS Church
December 27, 1847 – August 29, 1877
Succeeded by
John Taylor
Preceded by
Thomas B. Marsh
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
March 17, 1839 – December 27, 1847
Succeeded by
Orson Hyde
Preceded by
David W. Patten
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 – December 27, 1847
Succeeded by
Heber C. Kimball