The Schwarzenau Brethren originated in 1708 in Schwarzenau, Bad Berleburg, Germany, with Alexander Mack. Their roots are in the Radical Pietism movement but they were strongly influenced by Anabaptist theology. They have also been called "Dunkers" or "German Baptist Brethren". The group split into three wings in 1881–1883:
The Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America is neither Anabaptist nor Pietistic, but is the result of a late 19th-century spiritual awakening among Lutheran congregations in the upper Midwestern United States. They formed a separate synod in 1900.
The Moravian Brethren (also known as United Brethren or Unitas Fratrum and Bohemian Brethren) descend from the followers of Jan Hus, a Czech reformer burned at the stake in 1415 and mainly Bohemian 15th century nobleman and theologian Peter Chelcicky.
The Polish Brethren—also known as Socinians—were an Antitrinitarian group, forerunners for the Unitarians.
The Social Brethren originated in Saline County, Illinois in 1867, the result of an attempt to put the slavery issue away in favor of uniting on a common belief in the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.