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The title "Bread of Life" (Greek: ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς, artos tēs zōēs) for Jesus is based on this Biblical episode which takes place in the Gospel of John shortly after the Feeding the multitude episode (in which Jesus feeds the crowds with five loaves of bread and two fish) after which the crowds watch as Jesus walks to the other side of lake on the water after Jesus' walk on water.
In the Gospel of John:
Jesus said to them, “Very truly, I tell you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” They said to him, “Sir, give us this bread always.” Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never be hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty." (John 6:32-35, New Revised Standard Version) 
The Gospel of John does not include an account of the blessing of the bread during the Last Supper, e.g. as in the Gospel of Luke 22:19. However, this discourse does communicate teachings regarding the Eucharist that have been very influential in the Christian tradition.
In the Christological context, the use of the Bread of Life title is similar to the Light of the World title in John 8:12 where Jesus states: "I am the light of the world: he who follows me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life." These assertions build on the Christological theme of John 5:26 where Jesus claims to possess life Just as the Father does and provide it to those who follow him.