Brandeis University

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Brandeis University
BrandeisUnivSeal.png
Mottoאמת ("Emet", Hebrew)
Motto in EnglishTruth even unto its innermost parts[1]
Established1948
TypePrivate
Endowment$766.2 million (2013)[2]
PresidentFrederick M. Lawrence
ProvostSteve A.N. Goldstein
Academic staff361 full-time, 150 part-time[3]
Admin. staff961 full-time, 216 part-time
Undergraduates3,588[3]
Postgraduates2,220[3]
LocationWaltham, Massachusetts, USA
CampusSuburban, 235 acres (0.95 km2)
Colors     Blue      White
AthleticsNCAA Division III
UAA, ECAC
NicknameJudges
MascotOllie the Owl (named for Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.)
Websitewww.brandeis.edu
 
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Brandeis University
BrandeisUnivSeal.png
Mottoאמת ("Emet", Hebrew)
Motto in EnglishTruth even unto its innermost parts[1]
Established1948
TypePrivate
Endowment$766.2 million (2013)[2]
PresidentFrederick M. Lawrence
ProvostSteve A.N. Goldstein
Academic staff361 full-time, 150 part-time[3]
Admin. staff961 full-time, 216 part-time
Undergraduates3,588[3]
Postgraduates2,220[3]
LocationWaltham, Massachusetts, USA
CampusSuburban, 235 acres (0.95 km2)
Colors     Blue      White
AthleticsNCAA Division III
UAA, ECAC
NicknameJudges
MascotOllie the Owl (named for Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.)
Websitewww.brandeis.edu

Brandeis University /ˈbrænds/ is an American private research university with a liberal arts focus.[4] It is located in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston. The university has an enrollment of approximately 3,600 undergraduate and 2,200 graduate students.[3] It was tied for 32nd among national universities in the United States in U.S. News & World Report 's 2014 rankings.[5] Forbes listed Brandeis University as number 51 among all national universities and liberal arts colleges combined in 2013.[6]

Brandeis was founded in 1948 as a nonsectarian Jewish community-sponsored coeducational institution on the site of the former Middlesex University. The university is named for Louis Brandeis (1856–1941), the first Jewish Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

History[edit]

Founders[edit]

Names associated with the founding of Brandeis include Israel Goldstein, George Alpert, C. Ruggles Smith, Albert Einstein, and Abram L. Sachar.

Usen Castle, an iconic building on campus

C. Ruggles Smith was the son of Dr. John Hall Smith, founder of Middlesex University, who had died in 1944. In 1946, the university was on the brink of financial collapse. At the time, it was one of the few medical schools in the U. S. that did not impose a Jewish quota; but it had never been able to secure AMA accreditation—in part, its founder believed, due to institutional antisemitism in the AMA[7]—and, as a result, Massachusetts had all but shut it down.

Israel Goldstein was a prominent rabbi in New York from 1918 until 1960 (when he immigrated to Israel), and an influential Zionist. Before 1946, he had headed the New York Board of Rabbis, the Jewish National Fund, and the Zionist Organization of America, and helped found the National Conference of Christians and Jews. On his eightieth birthday, in Israel, Yitzhak Rabin and other leaders of the government, the parliament, and the Zionist movement assembled at his house to pay him tribute.[8] But among all his accomplishments, the one chosen by the New York Times to headline his obituary was: "Rabbi Israel Goldstein, A Founder of Brandeis."[9]

C. Ruggles Smith, desperate for a way to save something of Middlesex University, learned of a New York committee headed by Goldstein that was seeking a campus to establish a Jewish-sponsored secular university, and approached Goldstein with a proposal to give the Middlesex campus and charter to Goldstein's committee, in the hope that his committee might "possess the apparent ability to reestablish the School of Medicine on an approved basis." Goldstein was concerned about being saddled with a failing medical school, but excited about the opportunity to secure a 100-acre (0.40 km2) "campus not far from New York, the premier Jewish community in the world, and only 9 miles (14 km) from Boston, one of the important Jewish population centers."[7] Goldstein agreed to accept Smith's offer and then proceeded to recruit George Alpert, a Boston lawyer with fund-raising experience as national vice president of the United Jewish Appeal.

George Alpert had worked his way through Boston University School of Law and co-founded the firm of Alpert and Alpert. His firm had a long association with the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, of which he was to become president from 1956 to 1961[10][11] He is best known today as the father of Richard Alpert (Baba Ram Dass).[12] He was influential in Boston's Jewish community. His Judaism "tended to be social rather than spiritual."[13] He was involved in assisting children displaced from Germany.[14] Alpert was to be chairman of Brandeis from 1946 to 1954, and a trustee from 1946 until his death.[10]

Goldstein also recruited Albert Einstein, whose involvement, while stormy and short-lived, was extremely important, as it drew national attention to the nascent university. The founding organization was named "The Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc." and early press accounts emphasized his involvement.

Einstein incident[edit]

Chapels Pond

The origin of what was to become Brandeis was closely associated with the name of Albert Einstein from February 5, 1946,[15] when he agreed to the establishment of the Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc., until June 22, 1947, when he withdrew his support.[16]

The trustees offered to name the university after Einstein in the summer of 1946, but Einstein declined, and on July 16, 1946 the board decided the university would be named after Louis Brandeis.[17]

On August 19, the plans for the new university were announced by prominent rabbi and Zionist Israel Goldstein, president of the Albert Einstein Foundation. Goldstein said that the planned university was to be supported by contributions from Jewish organizations and individuals, and stressed the point that the institution was to be without quotas and open to all "regardless of race, color, or creed." The institution was to be "deeply conscious both of the Hebraic tradition of Torah looking upon culture as a birthright, and of the American ideal of an educated democracy."[18] In later stories the New York Times' capsule characterization of Brandeis was "a Jewish-supported non-quota university."[16]

Einstein and Goldstein clashed almost immediately. Einstein objected to what he thought was excessively expansive promotion, and to Goldstein's sounding out Abram L. Sachar as a possible president without consulting Einstein. Einstein took great offense at Goldstein's having invited Cardinal Francis Spellman to participate in a fundraising event. Einstein resigned on September 2, 1946. Believing the venture could not succeed without Einstein, Goldstein quickly agreed to resign himself, and Einstein returned; his brief departure was publicly denied.[16][19]

The Foundation acquired the campus of the Middlesex University in Waltham, which was almost defunct except for the Middlesex Veterinary and Medical College. The charter of this operation was transferred to the Foundation along with the campus. The Foundation had pledged to continue operating it, but began to feel that it would never be more than third-rate, while its operating costs were burdensome at a time when the Foundation was trying to raise funds. Disputes arose whether to try to improve it—as Einstein wished[20]—or to terminate it.[19] Einstein also became alarmed by press announcements that exaggerated the school's success at fundraising, and on June 22, 1947 he made a final break with the enterprise. The veterinary school was closed, despite "indignant and well-publicized protests and demonstrations by the disappointed students and their parents".[19] George Alpert, a lawyer responsible for much of the organizational effort, gave another reason for the break: Einstein's desire to offer the presidency of the school to left-wing scholar Harold Laski. Alpert characterized Laski as "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush."[15] He said, "I can compromise on any subject but one: that one is Americanism."[19]

Six years later, Einstein would decline the offer of an honorary degree from Brandeis, writing to Brandeis president Abram L. Sachar that "what happened in the stage of preparation of Brandeis University was not at all caused by a misunderstanding and cannot be made good any more."[15]

Historians Slater and Slater commented that "plagued by infighting, Brandeis in early 1948 seemed a project in serious trouble. Nonetheless, the school opened in the fall with 107 students." The historians list the opening of Brandeis as one of their "Great Moments in Jewish History."[21]

In 1954 Brandeis inaugurated a graduate program and became fully accredited.[21] In 1985, Brandeis was elected to membership in the Association of American Universities, an association that focuses on graduate education and research.[22]

Student takeover of Ford Hall[edit]

From January 8–18, 1969 about 70 students captured and held then-student-center, Ford Hall.[23] The student protesters renamed the school "Malcolm X University" for the duration of the siege (distributing buttons with the new name and logo) and issued a list of ten demands for better minority representation on campus.[24] Most of these demands were subsequently met. Ford Hall was demolished in August 2000 to make way for the Shapiro Campus Center, which was opened and dedicated October 3, 2002.

Ayaan Hirsi Ali Commencement Controversy[edit]

In 2014, Brandeis courted controversy when it announced it would offer an honorary doctorate to Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "a staunch supporter of women's rights",[25] and an outspoken campaigner against female genital mutilation, honor killing and Islam in general. After internal consultation with faculty and students, Brandeis publicly withdrew the offer, citing that Ali's statements condemning Islam[26] were "inconsistent with the University's core values".[27] 87 out of 511 faculty members at Brandeis signed a letter to the university president, while an online petition by students at the school received 6,000 worldwide signatures.[28]

The university announced that the decision to withdraw the invitation was made after a discussion between Ayaan Ali and President Frederick Lawrence, stating that "She is a compelling public figure and advocate for women's rights ... but we cannot overlook certain of her past statements".[29] According to Brandeis, Ali was never invited to speak at commencement, she was only invited to receive an honorary degree. [30] However, Ali said that after having spent many months of planning for her to speak at the commencement she was surprised Brandeis used some of her past statements as an excuse to withdraw the invitation, especially since her views have always been public on Google. [31] Ali stated that the university's decision was motivated in part by fear of offending Muslims. [32] She argued that the “spirit of free expression” referred to in the Brandeis statement has been betrayed and stifled. [33]

While some commentators such as Abullah Antepli, the Muslim chaplain and adjunct faculty of Islamic Studies at Duke University, applauded the decision and warned against "making renegades into heroes",[34] other academic commentators such as the University of Chicago's Jerry Coyne[35] and the George Mason University Foundation Professor David Bernstein (law professor)[36] criticised the decision as an attack on academic values such as freedom of inquiry and intellectual independence from religious pressure groups.

Presidents[edit]

The presidents of Brandeis University have been:

Campus[edit]

The Heller School[edit]

As a top-10 school of social policy[38] (U.S. News & World Report ranking), the Heller School drives positive social change through interdisciplinary research, education and public engagement. Researchers at the graduate school and research institution have pioneered policy in health; mental health; substance abuse; children, youth, and families; aging; international and community development; developmental disabilities; philanthropy; and work and inequalities.

Heller offers graduate degree programs:

In addition, the school offers a wide variety of dual and joint degrees with other Heller programs, other Brandeis programs, and other universities’ programs.

With Heller Programs

With Brandeis Programs

With Other Universities

International Business School[edit]

The Brandeis International Business School is a professional school dedicated to teaching and research in global finance, management, economic policy, international banking, microcredit lending, business and the environment, and related fields. With a worldwide reputation for academic excellence, it has been ranked #1 in the US by the Financial Times[39] for pre-experience finance master’s programs for two years.

The School offers four graduate programs, a 5-year BA/MA and BA/MBA, and undergraduate business programs specializing in international economic policy, corporate finance, asset management, marketing, real estate, and sustainability.

Brandeis IBS offers four graduate programs: Master of Arts in International Economics and Finance (MA), Master of Science in Finance (MSF), MBA, and PhD. In addition, business major and minor programs are available to undergraduate students, along with five-year dual-degree BA/MA and BA/MBA programs, which allow Brandeis University undergraduates to complete a master’s degree at Brandeis IBS in conjunction with their studies at the university.

The Rabb School of Continuing Studies[edit]

With more than 4,000 enrollments a year,[40] The Rabb School of Continuing Studies develops educational offerings across four distinct divisions. It provides professional development opportunities through degree programs, personal enrichment and lifelong learning.

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS)[edit]

One of four graduate schools on campus, GSAS offers over 40 programs, 18 of which are doctoral programs. The GSAS invites 900-plus graduate students and more than 6,500 alumni worldwide to develop innovative methodologies and scholarship through pioneering courses and cross-disciplinary collaborations between programs both at Brandeis and in the Boston area. Brandeis graduate students are eligible to cross-register for courses at Boston College, Boston University, Tufts University, and the Graduate Consortium in Women’s Studies at MIT. Brandeis is also a member of the Boston Library Consortium,[41] composed of 12 academic and research institutions in the Boston area.

Rose Art Museum[edit]

Main article: Rose Art Museum

Established in 1961, the Rose Art Museum is among the nation’s premier university museums dedicated to 20th and 21st century art. A center of cultural and intellectual life on campus, the museum serves as a living textbook for object-based learning, a home and resource for artists, and a catalyst for artistic expression, scholarly innovation, and the production of new knowledge through art.

Comprising more than 8,000 works of art in all media, the Rose is an active participant in the academic, cultural and social life of the university and seeks to stimulate public awareness and disseminate knowledge of modern and contemporary art regionally, nationally and internationally. With its international collections, changing exhibitions, and diverse public programs, the Rose affirms and advances the values of freedom of expression, global diversity, and social justice that are the hallmarks of Brandeis University.

Building on a strong base of American Social Realism (Max Weber, George Bellows, Thomas Hart Benton, Reginald Marsh, Hyman Bloom, George Grosz), the Rose collection regularly exhibits socially conscious work by a wide range of artists, including Judy Chicago, Yayoi Kusama, Nan Goldin, Barry McGee, Anri Sala, Christian Boltanski, Mona Hatoum, Zhang Huan, Alfredo Jaar, William Kentridge, Isaac Julien, Tracey Moffatt, Kiki Smith, Dominic McGill, Nathalie Frank and many others.

Library & Technology Services (LTS)[edit]

LTS[42] is composed of approximately 100 librarians and technology specialists who support research, scholarship, teaching and learning at Brandeis. The varied services of LTS undergird learning and teaching; scholarly information, support services, business systems, technology infrastructure and information and data security. In addition to managing more than 1,500,000 physical volumes, and more than 600,000 electronic books, as well as electronic journals and online databases, LTS runs the campus network and phone system, administrative computing, academic computing (including the learning management system), information security, high performance computing and research data storage and backup. As part of the library, the Robert D. Farber University Archives & Special Collections Department houses Brandeis University’s unique and rare primary sources, which support teaching, research and scholarship at the university and beyond. The department comprises University Archives, containing materials related to Brandeis University, and Special Collections, including rare books, original manuscripts dating from the 13th to 21st centuries, unique primary source material, and a wide variety of visual material.

Subject strengths include the Holocaust and Jewish resistance to persecution; Jewish-American and émigré writers, composers and performing artists; left- and right-wing movements in the United States and Europe; and American and European political leaders and social reformers. Major collections include material on the Spanish Civil War, novelist Joseph Heller, caricaturist Honoré Daumier, and Justice Louis Dembitz Brandeis.

Academics[edit]

The schools of the University include:

The College of Arts and Sciences comprises 24 departments and 22 interdepartmental programs, which, in total, offer 43 majors and 47 minors.

The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, founded in 1959, is noteworthy for its graduate programs in healthcare administration, social policy, social work, and international development.[43][44]

Internships, research assistantships and other hands-on experiences are available throughout the curriculum. The global and experiential dimensions of education at Brandeis are carried out through international centers and institutes, which sponsor lectures and colloquia and add to the ranks of distinguished scholars on campus.

The Brandeis University Press, a member of the University Press of New England, publishes books in a variety of scholarly and general interest fields.

The Goldfarb Library at Brandeis has more than 1.6 million volumes and 300,000 e-journals. The library also houses a large United States Government archive. Brandeis University is a part of the Boston Library Consortium, which allows its students, faculty, and staff to access and borrow books and other materials from other BLC institutions including, Brown University, Tufts University, and Williams College.

Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies[edit]

In 1980, Brandeis University established the Maurice and Marilyn Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies,[45] the first academic center devoted to the study of Jewish life in the United States.

The Cohen Center’s work spans basic research on Jewish identity to applied educational evaluation studies. The center’s recent signature studies include research with participants in Taglit-Birthright Israel, investigations of synagogue transformation, and analyses of Jewish summer camping. CMJS research has altered the understanding of contemporary Jewish life and the role of Jewish institutions in the United States.

Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism[edit]

The Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism was launched in September 2004 as the first investigative reporting center based at a United States university. It was named for founding benefactors Elaine Schuster and Gerald Schuster.

The Institute's major projects are:

Steinhardt Social Research Institute[edit]

The Steinhardt Social Research Institute[47] was created in 2005 from a gift from Michael Steinhardt as a forum to collect, analyze, and disseminate data about the Jewish community and about religion and ethnicity in the United States. The first mission of SSRI was to interpret the inherent problems with the National Jewish Population Survey of 2000 (NJPS). SSRI has done a Jewish Population Survey of the Greater Boston area, the results of which were released on November 9, 2006.[48]

The Institute collects and organizes existing socio-demographic data from private, communal, and government sources and will conduct local and national studies of the character of American Jewry and Jewish organizations.

The work of the Institute is done by a multidisciplinary staff of faculty and scholars, working with undergraduate and graduate students, and augmented by visiting scholars and consultants.

The Institute works in close collaboration with the Maurice and Marilyn Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies.

Women's Studies Research Center[edit]

The Women's Studies Research Center, founded and directed by sociology professor Shulamit Reinharz is located at the Epstein Building on the Brandeis campus.

Rankings[edit]

University rankings
National
Forbes[49]51
U.S. News & World Report[50]32
Washington Monthly[51]40
Global
ARWU[52]201-300
QS[53]318
Times[54]150

Notable faculty and graduates[edit]

Brandeis, which is one of America's smallest and youngest research universities, has produced a body of unusually accomplished alumni, especially in academia, the professions, and literature, and can boast a distinguished faculty.

Among the better-known graduates are screenwriters for the television show Friends David Crane and Marta Kauffman, political activists Abbie Hoffman and Angela Davis, journalist Thomas Friedman, Congressman Stephen J. Solarz, physicist Edward Witten, novelist Ha Jin, political theorist Michael Walzer, actress Debra Messing, philosopher Michael Sandel, Olympic Silver Medalist fencer Timothy Morehouse, social and psychoanalytic theorist Nancy Chodorow, and author Mitch Albom.

Among the distinguished faculty, present and past, are mathematician Heisuke Hironaka, a Fields medalist, composers Eric Chasalow, David Rakowski Yehudi Wyner, Donald Martino, Martin Boykan, Irving Fine, Harold Shapero, Arthur Berger and Leonard Bernstein, social theorist Herbert Marcuse, psychologist Abraham Maslow, human rights activist Eleanor Roosevelt, Anita Hill, historian David Hackett Fischer, economist Thomas Sowell, diplomat Dennis Ross, children's author Margret Rey, former United States Secretary of Labor Robert Reich, sociologist Morrie Schwartz, and poet Adrienne Rich and Pulitzer Prize winning columnist Eileen McNamara.

Publications[edit]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: Brandeis Judges
Athletics logo

The Brandeis University athletic teams The Judges compete in the University Athletic Association (UAA) conference of the NCAA Division III.

Brandeis has 11 varsity teams for both men and women, and 1 co-ed varsity team. The varsity teams are:

Brandeis also has 20 club sports and numerous intramural sports, including sailing (formerly a varsity sport), rugby union, ultimate, crew, lacrosse, field hockey, squash, men's volleyball, quidditch and martial arts.[65] Staff and faculty are allowed to play on intramural teams.

Research[edit]

Archaeological work in Cyprus (at Kalavasos-Tenta) by a team from the university, went on from 1976[66] to 1984.

Student life[edit]

Shapiro Campus Center

The university has an active student government, the Brandeis Student Union,[67] as well as more than 270 student organizations.[68] Fraternities and sororities are officially prohibited by Brandeis University, as they are contrary to a central tenet of the university, namely, that student organizations be open to all students, with membership determined by competency or interest. According to an official handbook, "[e]xclusive or secret societies are inconsistent with the principles of openness to which the University is committed.".[69]

Brandeis has eleven a cappella groups, six undergraduate-run theater companies, one sketch comedy troupe, four improv-comedy groups, and many other cultural and arts clubs; as well as student activism groups that advocate for causes including environmentalism, immigration reform, LGBTQ rights, feminism, and anti-racism. Brandeis is also home to what has been cited as one of the country's few undergraduate-run law publications.[70] Of particular note is the Brandeis Academic Debate and Speech Society (B.A.D.A.S.S.), which consistently ranks as one of the top 10 debate teams in the United States, and participates across the globe in the World Universities Debating Championships each year. During the 2012-2013 school year, B.A.D.A.S.S. was the second most successful team overall on the American Parliamentary Debate Association Circuit.[71]

Cholmondeley's coffeehouse, commonly referred to as "Chums", is located in Brandeis' Usen Castle. Chums is a popular site for student performances and concerts, including Tracy Chapman, Joan Baez, Matt Pond PA, and Genesis (notable as their first American performance). Early footage of Chums appears in the short documentary film, Coffee House Rendezvous.[72] Cholmondley's is named after a notoriously ill-tempered Basset hound that was the on-campus pet for Ralph Norman, the campus photographer during the first years of Brandeis. He would roam the campus after dark, growling at students, often nipping at their cuffs and making a general nuisance of himself. After his death, the coffee house was named for him, not so much in remembrance but in celebration.[73]

Brandeis University's Campus Sustainability Initiative seeks to reduce the University's environmental and climate change impact. The University's accomplishments in the arena of sustainability include the creation of a student-organized on-campus Farmers' Market, the implementation of a single-stream recycling program, and the transition to GreenE certified wind power for 15% of the school's electricity needs.[74] Brandeis also offers a course called "Greening the Campus and Community," in which students "examine the environmental impacts of the Brandeis and Waltham community, and then design and implement projects to address those impacts."[75] Student projects have included greening campus offices, running after-school environmental education programs for children in the Waltham schools, and cleaning up local streams and ponds.[75]

Students also have the option of taking courses with a 'Community Engaged Learning' (CEL) aspect. Community-engaged learning is an aspect of the university's broad-based commitment to experiential learning.

View of the Boston Skyline from Brandeis University

Emergency medical services are provided by the Brandeis Emergency Medical Corps, a Massachusetts-certified EMT-Basic volunteer student organization[76] which does not charge a fee for any of its emergency services.[77]

Security escort services are provided around the campus and into Waltham by the student-run "Branvan," which runs on a daily schedule from 4:00 pm to 2:30 am on weekdays and from 12:00 pm to 2:30 am on weekends.

The university is 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston and is accessible through Brandeis/Roberts station on the Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line, a free shuttle that services Boston and Cambridge (Harvard Square) Thursday through Sunday,[78] the nearby Riverside subway station (above ground) on the Green Line, and the 553 MBTA Bus.[79]

Wien International Scholarship[edit]

Wien International Scholarship is a scholarship instituted by Brandeis University for international undergraduate students. The Wien International Scholarship was established in 1958 by Lawrence A. and Mae Wien. The Wien family had three objectives: to further international understanding, to provide foreign students an opportunity to study in the United States, and to enrich the intellectual and cultural life at Brandeis. The Wien Scholarship offers full or partial tuition awards; these awards are need-based and require the applicants to present outstanding academic and personal achievement. Each year, the recipients of the scholarship take a week-long tour of a destination in the United States. In previous years, the students have visited the United Nations in New York City, and did relief work in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. In April 2008, the University hosted a 3-day long celebration for the 50th anniversary of the program.[80]

Institute for Informal Jewish Education[edit]

The Institute for Informal Jewish Education aims to support Jewish educators in creating meaningful Jewish experiences through professional development opportunities including pre-service experiences, in-service experiences related to educators’ practice, practitioner research, curriculum development, and strategic organizational support.[81] The IJE is funded partially through grants, from The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies, The Legacy Heritage Fund, The Covenant Foundation, and AVI CHAI Foundation.[82]

Current IJE projects include:[83]

The IJE runs two summer programs for high school students:

The IJE has close partnerships with The North American Association of Community Hebrew High Schools and Foundation for Jewish Camp.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Academic Integrity". Brandeis.edu. Brandeis University. Retrieved March 9, 2012. 
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2013. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013". National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Jaffe, Judith. "Brandeis University Common Data Set Responses 2012-2013". Brandeis University. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Fast Facts". Brandeis University. Retrieved 2008-03-17. 
  5. ^ a b "America's Best Colleges 2014: National Universities: Top Schools". U.S. News & World Report. 
  6. ^ "America's Top Colleges List". Forbes. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  7. ^ a b Reis, Arthur H., Jr. "The Founding". Brandeis Review, 50th Anniversary Edition. Retrieved 2006-05-17. , pp. 42-3: founder's son C. Ruggles Smith quoted: "From its inception, Middlesex was ruthlessly attacked by the American Medical Association, which at that time was dedicated to restricting the production of physicians, and to maintaining an inflexible policy of discrimination in the admission of medical students. Middlesex, alone among medical schools, selected its students on the basis of merit, and refused to establish any racial quotas"
  8. ^ "Israeli Officials Honor Longtime Zionist Leader," The New York Times, June 28, 1976, p. 14
  9. ^ "Rabbi Israel Goldstein, A Founder of Brandeis", The New York Times, April 13, 1986, p. 40"
  10. ^ a b George Alpert, 90; was a Founder and First Chairman of Brandeis; The Boston Globe, September 13, 1988, p. 82
  11. ^ Lyall, Sarah (1988): "George Alpert, 90, Ex-President Of New Haven Line and a Lawyer," The New York Times, September 13, 1988, pp. D26
  12. ^ "Ram Dass". Ram Dass Tapes. Retrieved 26 April 2009. 
  13. ^ Stevens, Jay (1988). Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3587-0. p. 152
  14. ^ Lattin, Don (2004). Following Our Bliss: How the Spiritual Ideals of the Sixties Shape Our Lives Today. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-073063-3.  p. 161
  15. ^ a b c Reis, Arthur H. Jr, "The Albert Einstein Involvement". Brandeis Publications 50th review (PDF). Retrieved 2006-05-04. , pp. 60-61: Source for Einstein agreeing to establishment of the foundation Feb. 5th, 1946, foundation incorporated Feb. 25; for Alpert quotation, "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush;" for Einstein's refusal to accept an honorary degree in 1953.
  16. ^ a b c "Goldstein Quits Einstein Agency; Rabbi Resigns Presidency of Foundation that Plans to Build a University." The New York Times, September 26, 1946, p. 27. "Goldstein issued a statement to correct an erroneous item in a Jewish weekly newspaper printed on Boston. This said Dr. Einstein was withdrawing from the foundation." Goldstein cited "differences on matters of public relations and faculty selection." A foundation director is quoted as saying "Professor Einstein's devotion to and enthusiasm for our purposes are now and always have been strong and unswerving." A board member who "withheld use of his name" is reported as saying Goldstein and Einstein differed "over plans for a major fund-raising meeting for the new university to be held here in November. He indicated that differences over Zionism were also a factor." NYT characterized the university as "a Jewish-supported non-quota university."
  17. ^ Reis, Arthur H., Jr. "Naming the University". Brandeis Review, 50th Anniversary Edition. Retrieved 2006-05-03. , pp. 66-7
  18. ^ "New Jewish Unit Plans University," The New York Times, August 20, 1946, p. 10.
  19. ^ a b c d Sachar, Abram L. (1995). Brandeis University: A Host at Last. Brandeis University Press, distributed by University Press of New England. ISBN 0-87451-585-8.  pp. 18-22: Einstein-Goldstein clashes, Einstein's objections to Cardinal Spellman; conflict over veterinary school; conflict over Harold Laski; Alpert quotation, "I can compromise on any subject but one: that one is Americanism."
  20. ^ "Dr. Einstein Quits University Plan; Withdraws Support of Brandeis and Bars Use of His Name By Einstein Foundation." The New York Times, June 22, 1947: "These disputes centered mainly on the operation of the veterinarian school of Middlesex University... S. Ralph Lazrus... withdrew as president of the foundation. Dr. Lazrus said he and his associates had been critical of both the manner in which the present limited facilities of the school have been operated and of the policies contemplated for the future."
  21. ^ a b Slater, Elinor; Robert Slater (1999). Great Moments in Jewish History. Jonathan David Company, Inc. ISBN 0-8246-0408-3.  pp. 121-3, "Brandeis University Founded"
  22. ^ "UF Invited Into Prestigious Association of Universities". The Gainesville Sun (Google News). July 9, 1985. 
  23. ^ "The Student Occupation of Ford Hall, January 1969". Brandeis University Archives, Remembering Ford & Sydeman Halls. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  24. ^ "The Ten Demands". Brandeis University Archives, Remembering Ford & Sydeman Halls. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  25. ^ http://www.christianpost.com/news/brandeis-university-rescinds-honorary-degree-from-ayaan-hirsi-ali-over-criticism-of-islam-117659/
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°21′56″N 71°15′35″W / 42.365664°N 71.259742°W / 42.365664; -71.259742