Braintree, Essex

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Braintree
Bocking mill.jpg
Bocking Windmill
Braintree is located in Essex
Braintree

 Braintree shown within Essex
Population53,477 [1]
OS grid referenceTL7522
DistrictBraintree
Shire countyEssex
RegionEast
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townBRAINTREE
Postcode districtCM7, CM77
Dialling code01376
PoliceEssex
FireEssex
AmbulanceEast of England
EU ParliamentEast of England
UK ParliamentBraintree
List of places
UK
England
Essex
 
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Coordinates: 51°52′41″N 0°33′00″E / 51.878°N 0.550°E / 51.878; 0.550

Braintree
Bocking mill.jpg
Bocking Windmill
Braintree is located in Essex
Braintree

 Braintree shown within Essex
Population53,477 [1]
OS grid referenceTL7522
DistrictBraintree
Shire countyEssex
RegionEast
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townBRAINTREE
Postcode districtCM7, CM77
Dialling code01376
PoliceEssex
FireEssex
AmbulanceEast of England
EU ParliamentEast of England
UK ParliamentBraintree
List of places
UK
England
Essex

Braintree is a town with a population consisting of about 41,634 people or 53,477 for urban area including Gt.Notley, Rayne and High Garrett(2011 census). Braintree is also the principal settlement of the Braintree District Council area of Essex in the East of England. It is 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Chelmsford and 15 miles (24 km) west of Colchester on the River Blackwater, A120 road and a branch of the Great Eastern Main Line.

Braintree has grown contiguous with several surrounding settlements: Braintree proper lies to the south of Stane Street, and Bocking lies to the north. The two together can be referred to as Braintree and Bocking, although many people refer to them together as "Braintree"[citation needed].

Braintree is twinned with the French town of Pierrefitte-sur-Seine.[2]

Braintree, Massachusetts, United States, was named after the town in 1640.[2]

Origin of Braintree[edit]

The origin of the name Braintree is obscure. One theory is that Braintree was originally Branoc's tree, Branoc apparently being an old personal name. Another theory is that the name is derived from that of Rayne, which was actually a more important settlement in Norman times. Braintree, Essex was also called Brantry and Branchetreu[citation needed] in the Domesday Book and this means "town by the river". The River Braint is another possible origin. "Tree" comes from the Saxon suffix, more usually spelt "try", denoting a big village. In many early American Colonial documents, it is referred to as Branktry. The name "Braint" is well attested as a river name in Britain; there is a river of that name in Anglesey, and it may be conjectured that it was the name of the Blackwater in pre Saxon times, although the Celtic name "Bran" is also used widely for rivers (derived from the British word for a crow and thought to refer to the dark or crow-black appearance of such a river, making it a good fit for a river now called "Blackwater"). Here again, the reference to a river would indicate that Braintree literally means "town (or village) by the river". The suffix to either Braint or Bran is the common Britonnic "Tre" widely found in Wales and Cornwall, but also noted in towns such as Daventree, with the meaning of initially a farm or settlement and later a town. Another variation can be seen in various Medieval Latin legal records, where it appears as "Branktre"[3]

History of Braintree[edit]

Braintree Town Hall (1926, architect: Vincent Harris)

Braintree dates back over 4,000 years when it was just a small village. When the Romans invaded, they built two roads; a settlement developed at the junction of these two roads but was later abandoned when the Romans left Britain.[2] The town was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1085 when it was called Branchetreu and consisted of 30 acres (120,000 m2) in the possession of Richard, son of Count Gilbert.[4] Pilgrims used the town as a stop-over, the size of the town increased and the Bishop of London obtained a market charter for the town in 1190.[2] The town prospered from the 17th century when Flemish immigrants made the town famous for its wool cloth trade.[2] In 1665, the Great Plague killed 865 of the population of just 2,300 people.[2] The wool trade died out in the early 19th century and Braintree became a centre for silk manufacturing when George Courtauld opened a silk mill in the town.[2] By the mid 19th century, Braintree was a thriving agricultural and textile town, and benefited from a railway connection to London.[2] The wealthy Courtauld family had a strong influence on the town, supporting plans for many of the town's public buildings such as the town hall[5] and public gardens established in 1888.[2]

Geography of Braintree[edit]

Braintree lies in north Essex, about 40 miles (64 km) from London, with factories and housing to the south and rural areas to the north, where arable crops are grown.[2] It lies about 150 feet (46 m) above sea level.[6] Essex is rather flat on the whole, and the Braintree area is no exception; however, there is a general downward trend in the height of the ground from the northwest towards the coast to the southeast. Two rivers flow through Braintree in this direction. Pod's Brook approaches the western side of the town, forming a natural boundary between Braintree and the neighbouring village of Rayne about two miles (3 km) to the west. Pod's Brook becomes the River Brain as it passes under the Roman road, before running through the southern part of Braintree. The River Pant (or Blackwater) runs roughly parallel to it, through the north of Bocking, Essex and away to the east of the town. The Brain eventually flows into the Blackwater several miles away, near Witham.

Bocking[edit]

St Marys Church, Bocking Churchstreet

The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales gave the following description of Bocking in 1870-1872:

Bocking: a village, a parish and a sub-district, in Braintree, Essex. The village stands on the left bank of the Blackwater river, and on the Braintree railway, adjacent to Braintree; forms a suburb of that town; consists chiefly of one long street; and is a seat of petty sessions.

A trade in baizes, called 'bockings', was at one time prominent; and a manufacture of silk and crape is now carried on.

The parish includes also Bocking-street and Bocking-Church-street, 3/4 and 2 miles distant from Braintree, both with post offices under that town, and the former situated on the branch Roman road from Chelmsford. Acres: 4, 607. Real property: £15, 156. Pop.: 3, 555. Houses: 768. The property is much sub-divided.

The Manor was given by Ethelred to the See of Canterbury; and belongs now to the corporation of the sons of the clergy. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Rochester. Value: £923. Patron: the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church is early English, had anciently 3 altars and 5 chantries, and contains some monuments and 2 brasses. There are: an Independent chapel, much improved in 1869; a charity school, with £50; and other charities, with £172.

Dr. Dale, the author of 'Pharmacologia', was a native.

The sub-district contains 5 parishes. Acres: 11, 507. Pop.: 5,281. Houses: 1, 171.

Culture, media and sport[edit]

Braintree Town Football Club, known as " Iron", have made much progress in recent years and were promoted to the Conference South as champions of the Isthmian League in 2006. The 2006–2007 season saw them just miss out on a second successive promotion to the Conference National. Having finished in third place, they went down 1-0 in the Conference South play-off final. Braintree continued their good form during season 2007-2008. After a slow start and a change of first team manager, they took 60 points from their last 30 games to finally secure fifth place and another tilt at the play-offs. This fine form continued in the 2010/2011 when they were promoted to the Conference Premier as champions. The Iron are now in their third season in the Football Conference - a national competition and most senior level of non-league football. The Iron are in the planning stages to move to a new stadium in the West of the town. The club have played at the Cressing Road Stadium (off Clockhouse Way) also known as the Amlin Stadium since 1926.

Braintree Rugby Union Football Club was formed in 1963 by a group of old boys from Margaret Tabor Secondary School and will celebrate its 50th anniversary in May 2013. The club is run on a community basis and has a policy of not paying first team players as well as bringing through its own new players from the Minis and Colts Section.

Braintree has its own museum, which contains displays relating to the history of the town. It is named after John Ray and has a number of relatively famous patrons, including the Essex-born artist, Jennifer Walter and Lesley Killin, an influential member of Essex Council of Education (the ECE).

There is a multiplex cinema - Cineworld located at Freeport designer centre on the outskirts of the town. Opposite the cinema, there's also a bowling alley and various restaurants and shops. The Town also has numerous public houses and bars both in and around the town centre.

The Braintree Arts Theatre opened in 2009 on the Notley High School campus

The Bocking Arts Theatre based at The Literary and Mechanical Institute at 15 Bocking End Braintree CM7 9AE promotes pantomimes, drama and a range of live entertainment events. It is also used extensively for local Community activities including regular NHS Blood Donor Sessions, Record and Stamp/Coin Collectors Fairs, and Charity Fundraising Events. The management of the building is now reliant on unpaid volunteers under the auspices of the Bocking Arts Theatre Charitable Trust. Built in 1863 this Grade II listed building was bequeathed to the citizens of Braintree by George Courtald and his family and will celebrate its 150 year anniversary in 2013.

Braintree's local newspapers are the Braintree and Witham Times, Essex Chronicle and Evening Gazette. The East Anglian daily times is a regional daily newspaper.

The Braintree and Bocking Carnival takes place each June. The event starts with a procession of floats through the town centre, finishing at Meadowside. Events, including a fair and sideshows, continue throughout the afternoon at Meadowside until around 10pm.

Braintree Musical Society perform two shows a year (in April and October). For 61 years these were performed at The Institute at Bocking End, but in 2012 they moved to a new venue at the Braintree Arts Theatre, part of Notley High School.

The world famous recording artists, The Prodigy, originated in Braintree.

A local radio station for the Braintree area - Leisure FM 107.4 commenced broadcasting on 10 July 2009.

Education and schools[edit]

Braintree has four secondary schools: Gosfield School Independent Co-Educational, Alec Hunter Academy, Notley High School Technology College (which is also the location of the Braintree Sixth Form) and Tabor Academy. Post 16 education is provided by Gosfield School, The College at Braintree and Braintree Sixth Form

Economy, industry and commerce[edit]

Freeport is a shopping area on the outskirts of Braintree, described as a "designer outlet village". It has approximately 90 departments where designer brands sell surplus stock for lower than the recommended retail price. Freeport also has its own railway station, namely Braintree Freeport railway station, which is the first stop on the journey from Braintree to London Liverpool Street via Witham.

Transport[edit]

Braintree has two railway stations, Braintree and Braintree Freeport next to the Freeport shopping area. Trains depart from Braintree station to Witham, where the Braintree branch line joins the Great Eastern Main Line to London Liverpool Street. Service frequency is approximately once an hour during the daytime. Nowadays the track terminates at Braintree. However, it used to continue westwards, as the Bishop's Stortford-Braintree Branch Line, through the village of Rayne, to Great Dunmow, but this section of the route was closed and has been disused for decades (it has now become part of a country walk and cycle route, known as Flitch Way).

Neighbouring villages[edit]

Villages in the Braintree area include Black Notley, White Notley, Great Notley Garden Village (a recent construction), Cressing, Felsted, Rayne and Panfield.

Notable residents[edit]

Source materials on Bocking[edit]

Hoffman, Ann. (1976) Bocking Deanery: The Story of an Essex Peculiar.

H. G. Wells, in his What Is Coming? A European Forecast (1916), in the fourth chapter, "Braintree, Bocking, and the Future of the World," uses the differences between Bocking and Braintree, divided, he says, by a single road, to explain the difficulties he expects in establishing World Peace through a World State.

If the curious enquirer will take pick and shovel he will find at any rate one corresponding dualism below the surface. He will find a Bocking water main supplying the houses on the north side and a Braintree water main supplying the south. I rather suspect that the drains are also in duplicate. The total population of Bocking and Braintree is probably little more than thirteen thousand souls altogether, but for that there are two water supplies, two sets of schools, two administrations. To the passing observer the rurality of the Bocking side is indistinguishable from the urbanity of the Braintree side; it is just a little muddier.

Efficiency, perhaps the supreme virtue for Wells (and others in the Fabian Society), meant someone in authority preventing waste and inefficiency at every level from water mains to wars. The difficulty of establishing it at the local level was a reflection of the difficulty of establishing it at the global level. In that same chapter he mentions his friend but ideological foe, G. K. Chesterton, who would have been delighted by those same local differences (particularly if it included the beer in the pubs) and whose 1904 novel, The Napoleon of Notting Hill, praises them. Wells wanted to end war by establishing an authority that could ban any difference between people that might lead to disagreements and perhaps war. Chesterton wanted to reduce the likelihood of war by reminding people that a healthy love for your country meant respecting the love others have for their country. In the December 31, 1910 issue of Illustrated London News he wrote:

You cannot make men enthusiastic for the mere negative idea of peace; it is not an inspiring thing. You might make them enthusiastic for some positive bond or quality that bound them to others and made their enemies their friends. You may get Tommy to love Jimmy; you cannot get Tommy to love the mere fact that he is not quarrelling with Jimmy. So it would be far easier to make an Englishman love Germany than to make him love peace with Germany. Germany is a lovable thing; peace is not. Germany is a positive thing; one can like its beer, admire its music, love its children, with their charming elf-tales and elf-customs, appreciate the beaming ceremony of its manners, and even (with a brave effort), tolerate the sound of its language. But in the mere image of a still and weaponless Europe there is nothing that men will ever love, either as they can love another country or as they can love their own.

Further reading[edit]

Published histories of Braintree & Bocking include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jarvis, Joanne (January 2009). "Braintree is reborn". Essex Life (Archant). 
  3. ^ Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40/837; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT2/E4/CP40no837/bCP40no837dorses/IMG_0440.htm ; third entry, where William Clarke, a chapman, lived
  4. ^ Dr Ann Williams, Professor G H Martin, ed. (2003). The Domesday Book: A Complete Translation. London: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-143994-7. 
  5. ^ Town hall history
  6. ^ http://www.daysoff.co.uk/essex/braintree/braintree-history.html

External links[edit]