Bowman's capsule

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Bowman's capsule
Gray1130.svg
Glomerulus. (Bowman's capsule not labeled, but visible at top.)
Latincapsula glomeruli
Gray'sp.1222
PrecursorMetanephric blastema
MeSHBowman+Capsule
 
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Bowman's capsule
Gray1130.svg
Glomerulus. (Bowman's capsule not labeled, but visible at top.)
Latincapsula glomeruli
Gray'sp.1222
PrecursorMetanephric blastema
MeSHBowman+Capsule

Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule (i.e., glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine. This process is known as ultrafiltration.[citation needed] The Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman, who identified it in 1842.

Anatomy[edit]

Outside the capsule, there are two "poles":

Inside the capsule, the layers are as follows, from outside to inside:[citation needed]

Renal corpuscle.svg

A - Renal corpuscle
B - Proximal tubule
C - Distal convoluted tubule
D - Juxtaglomerular apparatus
1. Basement membrane (Basal lamina)
2. Bowman's capsule - parietal layer
3. Bowman's capsule - visceral layer
3a. Pedicels (podocytes)
3b. Podocyte or sometimes called Bowman's cells
4. Bowman's space (urinary space)
5a. Mesangium - Intraglomerular cell
5b. Mesangium - Extraglomerular cell
6. Granular cells (Juxtaglomerular cells)
7. Macula densa
8. Myocytes (smooth muscle)
9. Afferent arteriole
10. Glomerulus Capillaries
11. Efferent arteriole

Physiology[edit]

The process of filtration of the blood in the Bowman's capsule is ultrafiltration (or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to 80 times the daily blood volume.[citation needed]

Any proteins under roughly 30 kilodaltons can pass freely through the membrane, although there is some extra hindrance for negatively charged molecules due to the negative charge of the basement membrane and the podocytes.[citation needed]

Any small molecules such as water, glucose, salt (NaCl), amino acids, and urea pass freely into Bowman's space, but cells, platelets and large proteins do not.[citation needed]

As a result, the filtrate leaving the Bowman's capsule is very similar to blood plasma in composition as it passes into the proximal convoluted tubule.[citation needed]

Clinical significance[edit]

Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function.[citation needed]

A decreased GFR may be a sign of renal failure.[citation needed]

A number of diseases can result in various problems within the glomerulus. Examples include acute proliferative (endocapillary) glomerulonephritis, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangiocapillary (membranoproliferative) glomerulonephritis, acute crescentic glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulonephritis, and diabetic glomerulosclerosis.[citation needed]

Eponym[edit]

Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist.[citation needed]

Together with the glomerulus it is known as a renal corpuscle, or a Malpighian corpuscle, named after Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), an Italian physician and biologist. This name is not used widely anymore, probably to avoid confusion with Malpighian bodies of the spleen.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Histology image:22401lba from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). A Learning System in Histology: CD-ROM and Guide. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195151732. 

External links[edit]