Bowl Championship Series

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Bowl Championship Series

BCS Logo (2010–present)
In operation1998–present (Scheduled to be terminated at conclusion of 2013-2014 season)
Preceded byBowl Alliance (199597)
Bowl Coalition (199294)
Succeeded byCollege Football Playoff (2014)
Number of BCS games5 per season
(4 from 1998–2006)
Championship trophyAFCA National Championship Trophy
Television partner(s)ABC (1999–2010)
FOX (2007–2010)
ESPN (2011–2014)[1]
Most BCS bowl appearancesOhio State (10)
Most BCS bowl winsOhio State (6)
Most BCS bowl championshipsAlabama (3)
Conference with most appearancesBig Ten (26)
Conference with most game winsSEC (17)
Conference with most championshipsSEC (9)
Last championship game2013 BCS National Championship Game
Current championAlabama Crimson Tide
Executive directorBill Hancock
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Bowl Championship Series

BCS Logo (2010–present)
In operation1998–present (Scheduled to be terminated at conclusion of 2013-2014 season)
Preceded byBowl Alliance (199597)
Bowl Coalition (199294)
Succeeded byCollege Football Playoff (2014)
Number of BCS games5 per season
(4 from 1998–2006)
Championship trophyAFCA National Championship Trophy
Television partner(s)ABC (1999–2010)
FOX (2007–2010)
ESPN (2011–2014)[1]
Most BCS bowl appearancesOhio State (10)
Most BCS bowl winsOhio State (6)
Most BCS bowl championshipsAlabama (3)
Conference with most appearancesBig Ten (26)
Conference with most game winsSEC (17)
Conference with most championshipsSEC (9)
Last championship game2013 BCS National Championship Game
Current championAlabama Crimson Tide
Executive directorBill Hancock

The Bowl Championship Series (BCS), in American football, is a selection system that creates five bowl match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), including an opportunity for the top two to compete in the BCS National Championship Game.

The BCS relies on a combination of polls and computer selection methods to determine relative team rankings, and to narrow the field to two teams to play in the BCS National Championship Game held after the other college bowl games. The American Football Coaches Association is contractually bound to vote the winner of this game as the BCS National Champion and the contract signed by each conference requires them to recognize the winner of the BCS National Championship game as the official and only Champion. The BCS was created to end split championships and for the Champion to win the title on the field between the two teams selected by the BCS. Despite this objective on one occasion it failed to produce a consensus champion, as the 2003 NCAA Division I-A football season ended with a split title.

The system also selects match-ups for the other prestigious BCS bowl games. The ten teams selected include the conference champion from each of the six Automatic Qualifying conferences plus four others. The BCS was created by formal agreement by those six conferences (the Atlantic Coast, Big East [now the American Athletic], Big Ten, Big 12, Pacific-10 [now Pacific-12], and Southeastern conferences) and the three FBS independent schools, and has evolved to allow other conferences to participate to a lesser degree.

It has been in place since the 1998 season. Prior to the 2006 season eight teams competed in four BCS Bowls. The BCS replaced the Bowl Alliance, in place from 1995–1997, which had followed the Bowl Coalition, in place from 1992–1994. Prior to the Bowl Coalition's creation in 1992, the AP Poll's number one and two teams had met in a bowl game only 8 times in 56 seasons. Since the creation of the BCS in 1998 the AP's #1 and #2 teams have met 12 out of 15 seasons.

On June 26, 2012, it was announced that the Bowl Championship Series will be replaced by a four-team playoff, effective for the 2014–15 season, to be called the College Football Playoff.[2]

History leading to the creation of the BCS[edit]

The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) is the only NCAA-sponsored sport without an organized tournament to determine its champion.[3] Instead, the postseason has historically consisted of individual bowl games.

The bowl system began in 1902 with the first ever East-West game in Pasadena, California, held at Tournament Park on New Year's Day in conjunction with the Tournament of Roses parade. This game was an exhibition game pitting a highly rated team from the west coast against a team from east of the Mississippi River. This was an ideal time for a postseason game, as fans could take off work or school during this holiday period to travel to the game. In the first game, the University of Michigan Wolverines represented the east. Ranked No. 1 and undefeated (having not been scored upon all season), they easily defeated the West's Stanford University Indians (later renamed Cardinal) by a score of 49–0. Stanford called for an end to the game during the third quarter and due to the lopsided victory the games did not resume until 1916.

The game was renamed the Rose Bowl in the 1920s when play shifted to the Rose Bowl stadium, built by the city of Pasadena in conjunction with the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association. By the 1930s, the Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl, and the Sugar Bowl were also held on January 1 to showcase teams from other regions of the country.

By the 1940s, college football conferences began signing contracts that tied their championship team to a particular bowl. In 1947, the Big Ten Conference and the Pacific Coast Conference, a forerunner of today's Pacific-12 Conference, agreed to commit their champions to play in the Rose Bowl every year, an agreement that continued under the BCS. This system raised the possibility that the two top-ranked teams in the final poll would not play each other in a bowl game. Indeed, since the AP began releasing its final poll after the bowl games in 1968 the two top-ranked teams in the final regular-season AP Poll had only played each other in a bowl six times until special bowl arrangements began in 1992. Under the circumstances, it was somewhat routine to have the Coaches Poll crown a different national champion than the AP Poll, resulting in a split championship. This occurred six times (1970, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1990, 1991) after both outlets began releasing their final polls after the bowl games

For example in 1991, the University of Miami Hurricanes and the University of Washington Huskies were considered the strongest teams in the nation. Since the Huskies were locked into the Rose Bowl as the Pac-10 Conference champion against Big Ten champion Michigan, they could not play then-independent Miami, who played in the Orange Bowl. Both teams won their bowl games convincingly and shared the national championship, Miami winning the Associated Press poll and Washington earning the top spot in the Coaches Poll. A split national championship has happened on several occasions since then as well (1997, 2003). (See: NCAA Division I FBS National Football Championship for a compilation of past "national champions" since 1869.)

Other teams have won the national championship despite playing presumably weaker schedules than other championship contenders. The BYU Cougars ended the 1984 season as the only undefeated and untied team in the nation, and the nine-time defending champions of the Western Athletic Conference. The Cougars opened the season with a 20–14 victory over No. 3 Pittsburgh, and won the Holiday Bowl against a 6–5 Michigan team that had been ranked as high as No. 2 that season. As the No. 4 ranked team at the end of the regular season, Washington were offered a slot against BYU in the Holiday Bowl; Washington declined, preferring instead to play in the more lucrative Orange Bowl where they beat No. 2 Oklahoma to complete a Pac-10 sweep of New Year's Day bowls (USC Rose and UCLA Fiesta). Washington (11–1) was voted No. 2 following the bowl season with their only blemish a late season loss at Pac-10 champ USC. Coupled with winning its last 11 games in 1983, BYU finished the 1984 season with a 24-game winning streak. Several coaches and reporters claimed that BYU had not played a legitimate schedule and should not be recognized as national champion. Not only was Pittsburgh the only ranked team the Cougars faced all season, but at the time BYU played in the mid-major Western Athletic Conference. Nonetheless, BYU was a near-unanimous choice as national champion in final polls.

To address these problems, five conferences, six bowl games, and leading independent Notre Dame joined forces to create the Bowl Coalition, which was intended to force a de facto "national championship game" between the top two teams. By entirely excluding all the other conferences, the Bowl Coalition also made it impossible for a non-Bowl Coalition team to win a national championship. This system was in place from the 1992 season through the 1994 season. While traditional tie-ins between conferences and bowls remained, a team would be released to play in another bowl if it was necessary to force a championship game. However, this system did not include the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions, as both were obligated to play in the Rose Bowl. The Coalition made several attempts to get the Tournament of Roses Association, which operates the Rose Bowl, to release the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions if necessary to force a championship game. However, those negotiations came to nothing, in part because the Tournament of Roses Association feared jeopardizing its long-standing contract with ABC if one or both teams were needed to force a title game. In 1994--the last year of the Bowl Coalition--undefeated Penn State, from the Big Ten, played Oregon in the Rose Bowl while undefeated Nebraska played Miami in the Orange Bowl. In a system that paired top-ranked teams, Penn State would have played Nebraska for the national championship.

The Bowl Coalition was restructured into the Bowl Alliance for the 1995 season, involving five conferences (reduced to four for the 1996 season) and three bowls (Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange). The championship game rotated among these three bowls. It still did not, however, include the Pac-10 or Big Ten champions, the Rose Bowl, or any non-Bowl Alliance teams.

After a protracted round of negotiations, the Bowl Alliance was reformed into the Bowl Championship Series for the 1998 season; former Southeastern Conference commissioner Roy Kramer is considered to be the "father" of the BCS.[4] The Tournament of Roses Association agreed to release the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions if it was necessary to force a national championship game. In return, the Rose Bowl was added to the yearly national championship rotation, and the game was able to keep its coveted exclusive TV time slot on the afternoon of New Year's Day. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a separate event played at the same site as a host bowl a week following New Year's Day. The new Bowl Championship Series not only included the Big Ten and the Pac-10 conferences but also teams from mid-major conferences, based on performance.

No mid-major team, however, or team from any conference outside of the 6 aligned conferences, has ever played in the BCS Championship Game, causing increasing controversy. This controversy has become even more intense in light of the 4–1 record that mid-major teams have against teams from the 6 automatic qualifying conferences in the BCS Bowl games they have been allowed to play in. The performances and perfect record of Texas Christian University in the 2010 season, and Boise State University in the season prior to that has also fueled the controversy surrounding the perceived inequalities that the BCS seems to perpetuate (see BCS Controversies below or in this more detailed separate article). However, little headway was made to institute an alternative system like a playoff tournament, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls, until after the 2011 season, which saw LSU and Alabama, both members of the SEC West division, play each other in the 2012 BCS Championship game, where Alabama defeated LSU in a shutout win. Thereafter, acknowledging the many game, polling, and other related controversies, fans' complaints, and declining game viewership, among other factors, the NCAA decided to institute the College Football Playoff, which is to begin after the 2014 regular season.

Succession by College Football Playoff[edit]

The College Football Playoff will replace the BCS as the system used to choose the FBS college football champion beginning in the 2014–2015 season. The four-team playoff will begin with two semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the national championship game, which will be bid on by different cities each year, akin to the Super Bowl or the Final Four. Cowboys Stadium will host the first national championship game under the new system in 2015.[5] This system will be in place through at least the 2025–2026 season per a contract with ESPN, which owns the rights to broadcast all games in the playoffs.[6] Unlike the BCS, the new system will not use polls or computer rankings to select participants. A 13-member committee will choose the teams for the playoff and the other four top-tier bowl games, using a balloting procedure similar to the NCAA basketball tournament selection process.

Bowl games[edit]

Bowl Championship Series is located in United States
Locations of the BCS Bowl games

In the current BCS format, four regular bowl games and the National Championship Game are considered "BCS bowl games." The four bowl games are the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, California, the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans, the Fiesta Bowl in Glendale, Arizona and the Orange Bowl in Miami Gardens, Florida.

In the first eight seasons of the BCS contract, the championship game was rotated among the four bowls, with each bowl game hosting the national championship once every four years. Starting with the 2007 BCS, the National Championship Games became a separate game played on January 8 at the site of the BCS bowl game that served as the final game on January 1, or January 2 if January 1 was a Sunday.

The University of Oklahoma and Ohio State are the only schools to appear in all five BCS Bowls. Oklahoma played in the 2007, 2008, and 2011 Fiesta Bowl, the 2004 and 2014 Sugar Bowl, the 2001 and 2005 Orange Bowl, the 2003 Rose Bowl, and the 2009 BCS National Championship Game. Oklahoma’s record stands at 3–5 with a 1–3 record in National Title games. Ohio State played in the 1999 and 2011 Sugar Bowl*, the 2010 Rose Bowl, the 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2009 Fiesta Bowl, the 2014 Orange Bowl, and the 2007 and 2008 BCS National Championship Game. Ohio State's record stands at 6-3*, with a 1-2 record in National Title Games. The University of Miami has appeared in every BCS bowl except for the standalone National Championship Game, although Miami did appear in the national championship when that designation was assigned to the original four bowls in rotation. Miami played in the 2001 Sugar Bowl, 2002 Rose Bowl (national championship), 2003 Fiesta Bowl (national championship), and 2004 Orange Bowl.

* Ohio State won the 2011 Sugar Bowl, but vacated their appearance and victory due to NCAA penalty and sanctions, for impermissible acceptance of monetary gifts.


Initially, ABC held the rights to all four original BCS games, picking up the Fiesta and Orange Bowls from their former homes at CBS, and continuing their lengthy relationships with the Rose and Sugar Bowls. This relationship continued through the bowl games of January 2006.

Beginning with the 2006–07 season through the 2009–10 season, any BCS game (including the National Championship Game) hosted by the Fiesta, Orange or Sugar Bowls aired on the Fox Network while games hosted by the Pasadena Tournament of Roses were shown on ABC. Starting with the 2010–2011 season, ESPN has aired all BCS games, including the Rose Bowl. The TV deal expires with the January 2014 games; however, ESPN will maintain broadcast rights to the Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl through 2026 as a part of separate deals with their organizers.[1][7]

Selection of teams[edit]

A set of rules is used to determine which teams compete in the BCS bowl games.[8]

Certain teams are given automatic berths depending on their BCS ranking and conference, as follows:

After the automatic berths have been granted, the remaining berths, known as "at-large" berths, are filled from a pool of teams who are ranked in the top 14 and have at least nine wins. The actual teams that are chosen for the at-large berths are determined by the individual bowl committees.

If fewer than 10 teams are eligible for selection, then an at-large team will be any Football Bowl Subdivision team that is bowl-eligible, has won at least nine regular-season games, and is among the top 18 teams in the final BCS Standings, though any at-large team ranked in the top 14 will be guaranteed a bid over at-large teams ranked lower than 14th. If fewer than 10 teams are eligible after expanding the at-large pool to the top 18 BCS-ranked teams, then the at-large pool will continue to be expanded by four additional positions in the BCS Standings until 10 or more teams are eligible. No team ranked lower than 14 has used this rule to earn an at-large bid, although several teams ranked lower than 14 have received a bid for winning their conference, as the rule was not in place in the early years of the BCS.

All AQ conferences except the AAC have contracts for their champions to participate in specific BCS bowl games. Unless their champion is involved in the BCS National Championship game, the conference tie-ins are:

The American Athletic Conference champion takes one of the remaining spots.

If the Pac-12 or Big Ten champion is picked for the BCS National Championship Game, then the Rose Bowl must choose the highest-ranked school from a non-AQ conference instead of the respective conference's #2 team if there is a non-AQ school ranked at least #4 in the final BCS standings. This was the case in 2010, when the #2 Oregon Ducks made it to the national championship, permitting the #3 TCU Horned Frogs to attend, and win, the 2011 Rose Bowl. The Rose Bowl is permitted to override this provision if it has been taken within the previous four seasons.

All 11 conferences compete for an opportunity to earn AQ status. As agreed by all 11 conferences, the results of the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 regular seasons were evaluated to determine which conferences earned automatic qualification. Three criteria were used: Rank of the highest-ranked team, rank of all conference teams, and number of teams in the top 25. The six conferences which met that standard are the current AQ conferences.

The 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 seasons will be used to determine if another conference achieves automatic qualification, or a conference that currently has AQ status loses it, for the BCS games that will conclude the 2012 and 2013 seasons.


For the portions of the ranking that are determined by polls and computer-generated rankings, the BCS uses a series of Borda counts to arrive at its overall rankings. This is an example of using a voting system to generate a complete ordered list of winners from both human and computer-constructed votes. Obtaining a fair ranking system is a difficult mathematical problem and numerous algorithms have been proposed for ranking college football teams in particular. One example is the "random-walker rankings" studied by statisticians. Thomas Callaghan, Peter Mucha, and Mason Porter that employs the science of complex networks.


The BCS formula calculated the top 25 teams in poll format. After combining a number of factors, a final point total was created and the teams that received the 25 lowest scores were ranked in descending order. The factors were:

Margin of victory was a key component in the decision of the computer rankings to determine the BCS standings.

Before the 1999–2000 season, five more computer rankings were added to the system: Richard Billingsley, Richard Dunkel, Kenneth Massey, Herman Matthews/Scripps Howard, and David Rothman. The lowest ranking was dropped and the remainder averaged.

Beginning in 2001, The Peter Wolfe and Wes Colley/Atlanta Journal-Constitution computer rankings were used in place of the NYT and Dunkel rankings. The change was made because the BCS wanted computer rankings that did not depend heavily on margin of victory.[11] The highest and lowest rankings were discarded, and the remainder averaged. A team's poll average, computer average, strength of schedule points, and losses were added to create a subtotal.

Also in 2001, a quality win component was added. If a team beat a team which was in the top 15 in the BCS standings, a range of 1.5 to .1 points was subtracted from their total. Beating the No. 1 ranked team resulted in a subtraction of 1.5-point, beating the No. 2 team resulted in a deduction of 1.4 points, and so on. Beating the No. 15 ranked team would have resulted in a deduction of .1 points. A team would only be awarded for a quality win once if it beat a Top 10 team more than once (such as in the regular season and a conference championship game), and quality wins were determined using a team's current subtotal, not the ranking when the game was played. The subtotal ranks were used to determine quality win deductions to create a team's final score.

The BCS continued to purge ranking systems which included margin of victory, causing the removal of the Matthews and Rothman ratings before the 2002 season. Sagarin provided a BCS-specific formula that did not include margin of victory, and the New York Times index returned in a form without margin of victory considerations. In addition, a new computer ranking, the Wesley Colley Matrix, was added.[12] The lowest ranking was dropped and the remaining six averaged. Also in 2002, the quality win component was modified such that the deduction for beating the No. 1 team in the BCS would be 1.0, declining by 0.1 increments until beating the 10th ranked team at 0.1. Teams on probation were not included in the BCS standings, but quality win points were given to teams who beat teams on probation as if they were ranked accordingly in the BCS.


LSU vs. Ohio State in the 2008 BCS National Championship Game

In response to the controversy created by the voters in the AP poll naming USC as the No. 1 ranked team at the end of the year when the BCS system had selected LSU and Oklahoma to play for the title,[13] the formula was rewritten. Supporters of USC and the media in general criticized the fact that polls were not weighted more heavily than computer rankings and this criticism led to the new algorithm.

All three components – The Harris Interactive Poll, the USA Today Coaches Poll and the computer rankings – shall be added together and averaged for a team's ranking in the BCS standings. The team with the highest average shall rank first in the BCS standings.

This system places twice as much emphasis on polls than computer rankings (since there were two polls and an average of six computer rankings) and makes it highly unlikely that the top team in both polls would be denied a place in the title game, as it happened in the 2003–04 season.

The BCS formula for the 2005–06 season was the same as 2004–05, except that the Harris Interactive College Football Poll replaced the AP poll. [2] [3] The Harris Interactive College Football Poll's maximum point value was 2,825[16] and for the Coaches' Poll, it was 1,550. The Harris Interactive College Football Poll was created expressly to replace the AP Poll after the Associated Press refused the use of its poll as a component of the BCS formula following the 2004 season. Before the 2006–07 season, the maximum point value of the Harris Poll was increased to 2,850 and the USA Today/Coaches' Poll was increased to 1,575.

In the week of April 20, 2009, Bowl Championship Series commissioners were meeting for its annual spring meetings in Pasadena, California in conjunction with the Rose Bowl's staging the 2010 BCS title game. The commissioners considered a proposal from the Mountain West Conference, which would establish an eight-team playoff and provide better accesses to the four BCS bowl games for the five conferences that do not have automatic bids. The proposal also included a motion to replace the BCS rankings with a selection and a motion to change the automatic qualifier criteria to better reflect inter-conference performance. The BCS rejected the proposal in June 2009, citing a "lack of overall support" among the member conferences.[17][18][19] Additionally, the proposal was scrutinized by the U.S. Congress, which determined that the BCS was not in violation of any laws or constitutional amendments, although this has since been reconsidered and the BCS is currently under renewed federal anti-trust scrutiny from the Justice Department.[20]

In June 2012, the BCS conference commissioners made the announcement that "we have developed a consensus behind a four-team, seeded playoff."[21] This will take effect in 2014, as the BCS Presidential Oversight Committee in Washington, D.C. gave its final approval a few days later.[2]

History and schedule[edit]

The games are listed in chronological order, the rankings reflect the final BCS standings, and the win-loss data is prior to the BCS Bowls.

1998–99 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 1998 regular season:

1999–2000 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 1999 regular season:

2000–01 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2000 regular season:

2001–02 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2001 regular season:

2002–03 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2002 regular season:

2003–04 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2003 regular season:

‡ Though winning the BCS National Championship, the LSU Tigers were not consensus national champions. The USC Trojans ended the regular season ranked No. 3 in the final BCS standings, with three Coaches Poll voting coaches defecting from their agreement with the BCS to vote its designated game winner as champion, instead voting for USC.[23] USC was voted No. 1 in the Associated Press poll, and the AP awarded USC their National Championship. So, the 2003 Season ended with split champions which is what the BCS was organized to prevent. Because of this split championship, significant changes were made to the BCS formula for the 2004–05 season.

2004–05 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2004 regular season:

* USC would later vacate the win

2005–06 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2005 regular season:

* Penn State would later vacate the win.

2006–07 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2006 regular season:

2007–08 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2007 regular season:

2008–09 season[edit]

These BCS bowl games were played following the 2008 regular season:

2009–10 season[edit]

These BCS games were played following the 2009 regular season:

2010–11 season[edit]

The following BCS games were played following the 2010 regular season:


* Ohio State won, but vacated their appearance and victory due to NCAA penalty and sanctions, for impermissible acceptance of monetary gifts

2011–12 season[edit]

The following BCS games were played following the 2011 regular season:

2012–13 season[edit]

The following BCS games were played following the 2012 season:

2013–14 season[edit]

The following BCS games are scheduled following the 2013 season:

BCS Bowl appearances by team[edit]

10*Ohio State6*3.667Won 1999 Sugar Bowl
Won 2003 Fiesta Bowl+
Won 2004 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2006 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2007 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2008 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2009 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2010 Rose Bowl
Won* 2011 Sugar Bowl (Vacated)
TBD 2014 Orange Bowl
9Oklahoma45.444Won 2001 Orange Bowl+
Won 2003 Rose Bowl
Lost 2004 Sugar Bowl+
Lost 2005 Orange Bowl+
Lost 2007 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2008 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2009 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2011 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2014 Sugar Bowl
8Florida State25.286Lost 1999 Fiesta Bowl+
Won 2000 Sugar Bowl+
Lost 2001 Orange Bowl+
Lost 2003 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2004 Orange Bowl
Lost 2006 Orange Bowl
Won 2013 Orange Bowl
TBD 2014 BCS National Championship Game
7*USC6*1.857Won 2003 Orange Bowl
Won 2004 Rose Bowl
Won* 2005 Orange Bowl+ (Vacated)
Lost 2006 Rose Bowl+
Won 2007 Rose Bowl
Won 2008 Rose Bowl
Won 2009 Rose Bowl
7Florida52.714Won 1999 Orange Bowl
Lost 2001 Sugar Bowl
Won 2002 Orange Bowl
Won 2007 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2009 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2010 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2013 Sugar Bowl
6Alabama33.500Lost 2000 Orange Bowl
Lost 2009 Sugar Bowl
Won 2010 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2012 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2013 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2014 Sugar Bowl
6Virginia Tech15.167Lost 2000 Sugar Bowl+
Lost 2005 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2008 Orange Bowl
Won 2009 Orange Bowl
Lost 2011 Orange Bowl
Lost 2012 Sugar Bowl
5LSU41.800Won 2002 Sugar Bowl
Won 2004 Sugar Bowl+
Won 2007 Sugar Bowl
Won 2008 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2012 BCS National Championship Game
5Oregon32.600Won 2002 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2010 Rose Bowl
Lost 2011 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2012 Rose Bowl
Won 2013 Fiesta Bowl
5Michigan23.400Won 2000 Orange Bowl
Lost 2004 Rose Bowl
Lost 2005 Rose Bowl
Lost 2007 Rose Bowl
Won 2012 Sugar Bowl
5Stanford23.400Lost 2000 Rose Bowl
Won 2011 Orange Bowl
Lost 2012 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2013 Rose Bowl
Lost 2014 Rose Bowl
5Wisconsin23.400Won 1999 Rose Bowl
Won 2000 Rose Bowl
Lost 2011 Rose Bowl
Lost 2012 Rose Bowl
Lost 2013 Rose Bowl
4Miami (FL)31.750Won 2001 Sugar Bowl
Won 2002 Rose Bowl+
Lost 2003 Fiesta Bowl+
Won 2004 Orange Bowl
4Texas31.750Won 2005 Rose Bowl
Won 2006 Rose Bowl+
Won 2009 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2010 BCS National Championship Game
4Notre Dame04.000Lost 2001 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2006 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2007 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2013 BCS National Championship Game
3Auburn201.000Won 2005 Sugar Bowl
Won 2011 BCS National Championship Game
TBD 2014 BCS National Championship Game
3West Virginia301.000Won 2006 Sugar Bowl
Won 2008 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2012 Orange Bowl
3Georgia21.667Won 2003 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2006 Sugar Bowl
Won 2008 Sugar Bowl
2Boise State201.000Won 2007 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2010 Fiesta Bowl
2Louisville201.000Won 2007 Orange Bowl
Won 2013 Sugar Bowl
2Utah201.000Won 2005 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2009 Sugar Bowl
2Iowa11.500Lost 2003 Orange Bowl
Won 2010 Orange Bowl
2Nebraska11.500Won 2000 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2002 Rose Bowl+
2Tennessee11.500Won 1999 Fiesta Bowl+
Lost 2000 Fiesta Bowl
2TCU11.500Lost 2010 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2011 Rose Bowl
2*Penn State1*1.500Won* 2006 Orange Bowl (Vacated)
Lost 2009 Rose Bowl
2Cincinnati02.000Lost 2009 Orange Bowl
Lost 2010 Sugar Bowl
2Illinois02.000Lost 2002 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2008 Rose Bowl
2Kansas State02.000Lost 2004 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2013 Fiesta Bowl
2Clemson01.000Lost 2012 Orange Bowl
TBD 2014 Orange Bowl
1Kansas101.000Won 2008 Orange Bowl
1Michigan State101.000Won 2014 Rose Bowl
1Oklahoma State101.000Won 2012 Fiesta Bowl
1Oregon State101.000Won 2001 Fiesta Bowl
1Washington101.000Won 2001 Rose Bowl
1UCF101.000Won 2014 Fiesta Bowl
1Arkansas01.000Lost 2011 Sugar Bowl
1Baylor01.000Lost 2014 Fiesta Bowl
1Colorado01.000Lost 2002 Fiesta Bowl
1Connecticut01.000Lost 2011 Fiesta Bowl
1Georgia Tech01.000Lost 2010 Orange Bowl
1Hawaiʻi01.000Lost 2008 Sugar Bowl
1Maryland01.000Lost 2002 Orange Bowl
1Northern Illinois01.000Lost 2013 Orange Bowl
1Pittsburgh01.000Lost 2005 Fiesta Bowl
1Purdue01.000Lost 2001 Rose Bowl
1Syracuse01.000Lost 1999 Orange Bowl
1Texas A&M01.000Lost 1999 Sugar Bowl
1UCLA01.000Lost 1999 Rose Bowl
1Wake Forest01.000Lost 2007 Orange Bowl
1Washington State01.000Lost 2003 Rose Bowl

+ Denotes BCS National Championship Game prior to 2007

* Win(s) vacated

BCS National Championship Game appearances by team[edit]

4Oklahoma13.250Won 2001 Orange Bowl
Lost 2004 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2005 Orange Bowl
Lost 2009 BCS National Championship Game
4Florida State12.333Lost 1999 Fiesta Bowl
Won 2000 Sugar Bowl
Lost 2001 Orange Bowl
TBD 2014 BCS National Championship Game
3Alabama301.000Won 2010 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2012 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2013 BCS National Championship Game
3LSU21.666Won 2004 Sugar Bowl
Won 2008 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2012 BCS National Championship Game
3Ohio State12.333Won 2003 Fiesta Bowl
Lost 2007 BCS National Championship Game
Lost 2008 BCS National Championship Game
2Florida201.000Won 2007 BCS National Championship Game
Won 2009 BCS National Championship Game
2Auburn101.000Won 2011 BCS National Championship Game
TBD 2014 BCS National Championship Game
2Miami (FL)11.500Won 2002 Rose Bowl
Lost 2003 Fiesta Bowl
2Texas11.500Won 2006 Rose Bowl
Lost 2010 BCS National Championship Game
2*USC1*1.500Won* 2005 Orange Bowl (Vacated)
Lost 2006 Rose Bowl
1Tennessee101.000Won 1999 Fiesta Bowl
1Nebraska01.000Lost 2002 Rose Bowl
1Notre Dame01.000Lost 2013 BCS National Championship Game
1Oregon01.000Lost 2011 BCS National Championship Game
1Virginia Tech01.000Lost 2000 Sugar Bowl

BCS Bowl appearances by conference[edit]

ConferenceAppearancesWLPct# SchoolsSchool(s)
Big Ten28*13*14.4817Ohio State (6*–3)
Michigan (2–3)
Wisconsin (2–3)
Penn State (1*–1)
Iowa (1–1)
Michigan State (1–0)
Illinois (0–2)
Purdue (0–1)
SEC27179.6547Florida (5–2)
LSU (4–1)
Alabama (3–3)
Georgia (2–1)
Auburn (2–0)
Tennessee (1–1)
Arkansas (0–1)
Pac-1221*13*8.6197USC (6*–1)
Oregon (3–2)
Stanford (2–3)
Oregon State (1–0)
Washington (1–0)
UCLA (0–1)
Washington State (0–1)
Big 12221012.4568Oklahoma (4–5)
Texas (3–1)
Nebraska^ (1–1)
Kansas State (0–2)
Kansas (1–0)
Oklahoma State (1–0)
Baylor (0–1)
Colorado^ (0–1)
Texas A&M^ (0–1)
ACC18313.1336Florida State (2–5)
Virginia Tech† (1–4)
Clemson (0–1)
Georgia Tech (0–1)
Maryland (0–1)
Wake Forest (0–1)
Big East1587.5338Miami (FL)^ (3–1)
West Virginia^ (3–0)
Virginia Tech† (0–1)
Louisville (2–0)
Cincinnati (0–2)
Connecticut (0–1)
Pittsburgh (0–1)
Syracuse (0–1)
MWC431.7502Utah^ (2–0)
TCU (1–1)
Independent404.0001Notre Dame (0–4)
WAC321.6672Boise State (2–0)
Hawaiʻi (0–1)
American1101.0001UCF (1–0)
MAC101.0001NIU (0–1)

^While Nebraska has been a member of both the Big 12 and Big Ten, it has only been to a BCS Bowl as a member of the Big 12.
^While Colorado has been a member of both the Big 12 and Pac-12, it has only been to a BCS Bowl as a member of the Big 12.
^While Miami has been a member of both the Big East and ACC, it has only been to a BCS Bowl as a member of the Big East.
^While Utah has been a member of both the Mountain West and Pac-12, it has only been to a BCS Bowl as a member of the Mountain West.
^While Texas A&M has been a member of both the Big 12 and SEC, it has only been to a BCS bowl as a member of the Big 12.
^While West Virginia has been a member of the Big East and Big 12, it has only been to a BCS bowl as a member of the Big East.

†Virginia Tech has been a member of both the Big East and ACC, and played in BCS bowl games for both conferences.

BCS National Championship Game appearances by conference[edit]

ConferenceAppearancesWLPct# SchoolsSchool(s)
SEC1191.9005Alabama (3–0)
Auburn (1–0)
Florida (2–0)
LSU (2–1)
Tennessee (1–0)
Big 12725.2863Oklahoma (1–3)
Texas (1–1)
Nebraska (0–1)
ACC412.3331Florida State (1–2)
Big East312.3332Miami, FL (1–1)
Virginia Tech (0–1)
Big Ten312.3331Ohio State (1–2)
Pac-123*1*2.3332USC (1*–1)
Oregon (0–1)
Independent101.0001Notre Dame (0–1)

† Both teams in the 2012 BCS National Championship Game were from the SEC.
* USC's victory in the 2005 Orange Bowl has been vacated.



The primary criticism of the BCS centers around the validity of the annual BCS national championship pairings and its designated National Champions. Many critics focus on the BCS methodology itself, which employs subjective voting assessments, while others note the ability for undefeated teams to finish seasons without an opportunity to play in the national championship game. In fact, in the last 6 seasons of Division I FBS football, there have been more undefeated non-BCS champions than undefeated BCS champions. Other criticisms involve discrepancies in the allocation of monetary resources from BCS games, as well as the determination of non-championship BCS game participants, which need not comply with the BCS rankings themselves.[31] In the 2010–2011 bowl season, for example, the six automatic-qualifier (AQ) conferences were given $145.2 million in revenue from the BCS while the five non-AQ conferences received only $24.7 million.[32]

A recent survey conducted at the Quinnipiac University Polling Institute found that 63% of individuals interested in college football preferred a playoff system to the BCS, while only 26% favored the status quo.[33] President Barack Obama has been vocal about his opposition to the BCS. During an appearance on Monday Night Football during the 2008 presidential campaign season, ESPN's Chris Berman asked Obama to name one thing about sports he would like to change.[34] Obama responded that he did not like using computer rankings to determine bowl games, and he supported having a college football playoff for the top eight teams.[34] When Steve Kroft asked then-President-elect Obama about the subject during an interview on 60 Minutes, Obama reiterated his support of eight-team playoff; although he has said it is not a legislative priority.[35][36]

Longtime college football announcer Brent Musburger also voiced his support for a playoff in an interview with the Chicago Sun-Times. "My dream scenario – and it's not going to happen – would be to take eight conference champions, and only conference champions, and play the quarterfinals of a tournament on campuses in mid-December," Musburger said. "The four losers would remain bowl-eligible. The four winners would advance to semifinals on New Year's Day with exclusive TV windows. Then, like now, one week later, there would be the national championship game."[37]

Antitrust lawsuits[edit]

In 2008, a lawsuit was threatened due to the exclusion of teams from the non-automatic qualifying conferences in the BCS system.[38][39] Following Utah's win over Alabama in the 2009 Sugar Bowl, Utah Attorney General Mark Shurtleff announced an inquiry into whether the BCS system violates federal anti-trust laws.[40][41] In 2009, senior Utah senator Orrin Hatch announced that he was exploring the possibility of a lawsuit against the BCS as an anti-competitive trust under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. On November 27, 2009 the Fort Worth Star-Telegram ran a story that said that Rep. Joe Barton (R-TX), ranking member of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, announced that he would hold anti-trust hearings on the BCS, again based on the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and its provisions outlawing non-competitive trusts, beginning in May 2010.[42] Meanwhile, various organizations, including the BCS, are spending hundreds of thousands of dollars to lobby the federal government both in support and in opposition to a college football playoff system.[43]

According to wire reports and information obtained by the Associated Press, Senator Orin Hatch received a letter from the justice department concerning the possibility of a legal review of the BCS. The letter, received on January 29, 2010, states that the Obama administration will explore options to establish a college football playoff including (a) an anti-trust lawsuit against the BCS, (b) legal action under Federal Trade Commission consumer protection laws, (c) encouragement of the NCAA to take control of the college football postseason, (d) the establishment of an agency to review the costs and benefits of adopting a playoff system, and (e) continued legislation in favor of a playoff system. Assistant Attorney General Ronald Weich writes, "The administration shares your belief that the lack of a college football national championship playoff ...raises important questions affecting millions...." BCS Executive Director Bill Hancock responded to the letter that the BCS complies with all laws and is supported by the participating Division I universities.[44]

In April 2011, Utah attorney general Mark Shurtleff announced he would file an antitrust lawsuit against the BCS for, "serious antitrust violations that are harming taxpayer-funded institutions to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars." The announcement followed the April 12, 2011 delivery of a letter to the US Department of Justice signed by 21 "high-profile" economists and antitrust experts asking for an investigation into the BCS' anticompetitive practices.[32]

Allegations of corruption and financial impropriety[edit]

The BCS bowls have been accused of promoting the BCS system because they and their executive officers greatly benefit financially from the system. Bowl executives, such as John Junker of the Fiesta Bowl, are often paid unusually high salaries for employees of non-profit organizations. To promote support for their bowls and the BCS system, these highly-paid executives allegedly give lavish gifts to politicians, collegiate sports executives, and university athletic directors.[45]

In response, a pro-playoff organization, called Playoff PAC, in September 2010 filed a complaint with the Internal Revenue Service. The complaint alleges that the top BCS bowls, with the exception of the Rose Bowl, routinely abuse favorable tax status by using charitable donations to give gifts and compensation to college athletic officials. In one example detailed in the complaint, the Orange Bowl treated its executive staff and invited college athletic directors to a four-day Royal Caribbean cruise in which no business meetings were held.[45]

Vacated wins[edit]

There have been several occasions where a team's victory in a BCS bowl game was subsequently vacated by NCAA sanctions.


While there is substantial criticism aimed at the BCS system from coaches, media, and fans alike, there is also support for the system. Tim Cowlishaw of The Dallas Morning News cites several advantages that the BCS has over a playoff system. Under the BCS, a single defeat is extremely detrimental to a team's prospects for a national championship,[49] although critics point out regularly that history shows non-AQ conference teams are hurt far more than AQ conference teams when they lose a game. Supporters contend that this creates a substantial incentive for teams to do their best to win every game. Under a playoff system, front-running teams could be in a position of safety at the end of the regular season and could pull or greatly reduce their use of top players in order to protect them from injuries or give them recovery time (this happens frequently in the NFL).[50] This may be less likely to happen under the BCS system where a team in the running for a No. 1 or No. 2 ranking at the end of the year would likely be punished in the polls for a loss, potentially eliminating them from contention.

While the BCS routinely involves controversy about which two teams are the top teams, in rare instances there is a clear-cut top two; the BCS ensures these top two will play each other for the championship. For example, USC and Texas in 2005 were the only undefeated teams; both teams were only tested a couple of times all season and mauled every other opponent they faced by large margins. Had this scenario occurred before the inception of the BCS, the teams would have been unable to play each other due to contractual obligations with the major bowls and there either would have been dual national champions. Under the BCS system however, these two teams got to play for the championship.[51]

The NCAA, the governing organization of most collegiate sports, has no official process for determining its FBS (Div. 1-A) champion. Instead, FBS champions are chosen by what the NCAA calls in its official list of champions "selecting organizations".[52]

According to its website, the BCS: " managed by the commissioners of the 11 NCAA Division I-A conferences, the director of athletics at the University of Notre Dame, and representatives of the bowl organizations. " a five-game arrangement for post-season college football that is designed to match the two top-rated teams in a national championship game and to create exciting and competitive match-ups between eight other highly regarded teams in four other games".[53]

BCS Buster[edit]

Utah Utes fans rush the field and carry the goalpost after defeating rival BYU, completing a perfect regular season, and becoming the first BCS Buster by clinching a spot in the 2005 Fiesta Bowl (hence the sombrero).

The term "BCS Buster" refers to any team other than Notre Dame not from an AQ conference that manages to earn a spot in a BCS bowl game.[54] These teams are often referred to as non-BCS when discussed outside of the post-season structure. Three teams have been BCS Busters twice: the University of Utah, Boise State University and Texas Christian University. As of the 2013 season two have joined Conferences with an automatic bid to a BCS Bowl (Utah to the Pacific-12 Conference and Texas Christian to the Big 12 Conference).

The record of non-Automatic Qualifying conference teams in BCS Bowls is one primary statistic used by those who challenge the assumption that BCS conference teams are inherently superior to non-AQ teams, as non-AQ teams have only lost two BCS Bowl game to a BCS AQ team (Hawaii lost the 2008 Sugar Bowl 41-10 to the University of Georgia and NIU lost the 2013 Orange Bowl to Florida State University) while winning four. Boise State defeated TCU 17-10 in the highly controversial 2010 Fiesta Bowl which remains the first, and to date only, BCS Bowl pitting two non-AQ teams against each other rather than against a team from a BCS AQ Conference, making the complete record 5-3. This pairing was cited by critics as the BCS's attempt to prevent a loss (or potentially even two losses) to non-AQ teams in the same year, and as TCU defeated Wisconsin 21-19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl the next year those fears seemed to have been at least partly justified. The experience and results of the non-AQ teams in BCS bowl games has been cited as a strong objective example of a much closer parity between the AQ and non-AQ teams than most AQ teams and fans will admit.

With the exception of Notre Dame, it is generally extremely difficult for a non-AQ conference team to reach a BCS bowl, while it is much easier for an AQ conference team (see rules above) to do so due to the inherent bias built into the rules of the BCS system which guarantee a spot to the winner of each of the AQ Conferences. All AQ Conference teams must do is simply win their respective conference title and they are automatically invited to a BCS Bowl. This makes becoming a BCS Buster very noteworthy. Despite the fact that there have been a number of eligible non-AQ conference teams, only eight teams (from only five schools – Utah, TCU, Boise State, Hawaiʻi, and NIU) have succeeded in becoming BCS Busters. No team from a non-AQ conference has ever been in the BCS Championship, while a team from the SEC has been in—and won—the Championship game every year from 2006 to 2012. This consistent selection of one conference's teams (despite their success) has been one area of intense criticism of the BCS system and its exclusionary tendencies.

The University of Utah became the first BCS Buster in 2004 after an undefeated season, despite harder limits in place before the addition of a 5th bowl in 2006 made BCS Busters more commonplace. They also became the first team to repeat in 2008. The Utes played in the 2005 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl,[54] and beat their opponent, the Pittsburgh Panthers, 35–7. During the 2008 season, the Utes finished their regular season schedule undefeated (8–0 in the Mountain West Conference and 12–0 overall) and earned a berth in the Sugar Bowl against Alabama, winning 31–17. The Utes finished 2nd in the AP Poll and received 16 first place votes. In the 2011 season, the Utes began competing as members of the Pacific-12 Conference, one of the six conferences with an automatic BCS tie in.

In 2006, Boise State became the second BCS Buster after a 12–0 regular season and subsequent Fiesta Bowl berth against the Oklahoma Sooners. The Broncos won 43–42 in overtime in what many fans, pundits and others consider to be one of the best Bowl games in history.

In 2007, Hawaiʻi also finished the regular season at 12–0, but were defeated by the Georgia Bulldogs 41–10 in the Sugar Bowl. This was the first loss by a BCS Buster.

The 2009 season was the first in which two teams from non–AQ conferences earned BCS bowl berths. TCU, which finished the regular season 12–0 as champions of the Mountain West, earned the automatic BCS berth with a No. 4 finish in the final BCS rankings. Two slots behind the Horned Frogs were WAC champions Boise State, which finished at 13–0 for its second consecutive unbeaten regular season and fourth in six years. Boise State became the first and (so far) only BCS Buster to reach a BCS bowl game with an at-large selection. The Broncos defeated the Frogs 17–10 in the 2010 Fiesta Bowl, which marked the first BCS matchup between non-AQ schools, and the first time in BCS history that two unbeaten teams met in a BCS game other than the title match. This pairing created considerable controversy as the AQ conferences and the selection committees were accused of cowardice, pairing the two BCS Busters against each other so that the risk of AQ conference teams losing was eliminated.

In 2010, TCU was the only non–AQ conference team to get a BCS bowl berth. Boise State was ranked in the top five for most of the season, but a late-season overtime loss to Nevada knocked the Broncos out of serious contention for a BCS bowl bid, despite their continuing eligibility. TCU would defeat Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl, once again calling into question the claim of AQ conference superiority. There was a movement to lobby those voting in the AP poll, which is not bound to vote for the BCS Championship winner as the Coaches Poll is, to vote TCU first and split the National Championship. While TCU got a few first place votes, this effort did not change the outcome of the AP poll, and TCU ended up in the No. 2 spot in all of the final major polls. As Utah had already done, TCU soon joined a conference with an automatic BCS tie, namely the Big 12 Conference (home of several other former members of the Southwest Conference, which TCU competed in for over 70 years) beginning with the 2012 season.

In 2012, NIU became the first BCS Buster with a regular-season loss. NIU was also the first BCS Buster to qualify automatically with a ranking between 13 and 16 (and higher ranked than at least one AQ-Conference Champion); NIU was ranked higher than two AQ-Conference Champions (Big Ten and Big East). They were selected for the 2013 Orange Bowl, where they were defeated by the Florida State Seminoles, 31-10. NIU is the first BCS Buster team from a conference other than the Mountain West or Western Athletic Conferences to play in a BCS Bowl game.

BCS Busters are currently 5–3 in BCS bowls, and 4–2 in BCS bowls against opponents from AQ conferences. Utah and TCU joined AQ conferences after their repeated appearances as BCS Busters; Boise State, Hawaiʻi, and NIU have not (as of January 2013).

The following table shows all 18 teams that were eligible to become BCS Busters, including the eight that succeeded. (The entries are ordered by year and sorted according to the BCS Rank within each year.)

BCS Buster qualified automatically as a highly-ranked non-AQ Conference Champion
double-daggerBCS Buster team earned at-large selection
*Team eligible for at-large selection at the time, but would have qualified automatically as a highly-ranked non-AQ Conference Champion under the post-2005 criterion
**Team eligible for at-large selection
SeasonTeamConferenceRegular Season
BCS RankBCS BowlResultFinal Ranking
1998Tulane*C-USA11–010not chosen for a BCS bowl game77
1999Marshall*MAC12–012not chosen for a BCS bowl game1010
2003Miami (OH)*MAC11–111not chosen for a BCS bowl game1012
2004UtahMWC11–06Fiesta BowlWUtah35Pittsburgh745
2004Boise State**WAC11–09not chosen for a BCS bowl game1213
2004Louisville**C-USA10–110not chosen for a BCS bowl game67
2006Boise StateWAC12–08Fiesta BowlWBoise State43Oklahoma4256
2007Hawai'iWAC12–010Sugar BowlLHawai'i10Georgia411917
2008UtahMWC12–06Sugar BowlWUtah31Alabama1724
2008Boise State**WAC12–09not chosen for a BCS bowl game1113
2008TCU**MWC10–211not chosen for a BCS bowl game77
2009TCUMWC12–04Fiesta BowlLTCU10Boise State1766
2009Boise Statedouble-daggerWAC13–06Fiesta BowlWBoise State17TCU1044
2009BYU**MWC10–214not chosen for a BCS bowl game1212
2010TCUMWC12–03Rose BowlWTCU21Wisconsin1922
2010Boise State**WAC11–110not chosen for a BCS bowl game97
2011Boise State**MWC11–17not chosen for a BCS bowl game86
2012NIUMAC12–115Orange BowlLNIU10Florida State312224

Locations of all AQ conference teams[edit]

A map of every university in the AQ Conferences.

Former logos[edit]

Original BCS Logo 1998–2005. An alternate version of this logo (used more often on television) had the ABC logo in lieu of the middle star.
BCS Logo 2006–2009. An alternate version of this logo (used more often on television) had the Fox logo in lieu of the stars.

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ a b Dinich, Heather (June 26, 2012). "Playoff plan to run through 2025". Retrieved June 27, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Sports :NCAA Football Tournament: An Imagined Solution to a Real Problem". Meridian Magazine. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  4. ^ Carey, Jack (December 8, 2007). "Man behind creation of BCS pleased with results". USA Today. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  5. ^ Sources: Cotton favorite for finale
  6. ^ "ESPN to televise college playoff". November 21, 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-15. 
  7. ^ "ESPN Reaches 12-Year College Football Agreement With Orange Bowl". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "BCS selection procedures" Bowl Championship Series, April 26, 2010.
  9. ^ Mandel, Stewart (August 18, 2010). "Would BYU be Notre Dame as a football independent ... or Navy?". Time Inc. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  10. ^ "New Formula for Football Championship Announced :: Top bowl game to be chosen by polls, computers, formulas". June 10, 1998. Retrieved May 1, 2009. 
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  14. ^ Retrieved 2012-01-04
  15. ^ BCS computer rankings Retrieved 2011-08-11.
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^ Bowl Championship Series rejects Mountain West's playoff proposal – ESPN. (June 24, 2009). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  18. ^ BCS to reject Mountain West playoff proposal. Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  19. ^ Utah News – Salt Lake City News, Sports, Entertainment, Business – The Salt Lake Tribune. (June 24, 2009). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  20. ^ Chris Dufresne , Mountain West Conference takes a radical tack, Los Angeles Times, April 22, 2009
  21. ^ "Commissioners take significant step by reaching consensus on playoff Read more:". Retrieved June 21, 2012. 
  22. ^ The 2004 Sugar Bowl marked the first time in the history of the BCS that the top ranked team in the country did not play in its national championship game. Going into bowl week USC, the Pac-10 Champion, was top-ranked but did not earn a high enough rating to qualify for the game.
  23. ^ "2003 FINAL POLLS". 2003 FINAL POLLS. Retrieved June 8, 2011. 
  24. ^ Utah was an automatic selection as it was ranked No. 6 in the final BCS standings.
  25. ^ a b For the 2005–2006 season, Notre Dame received an automatic bid to a BCS game after finishing in the top ten of the final BCS Standings. Beginning with the 2006 season, Notre Dame must finish in the top eight to receive an automatic bid.
  26. ^ "BCS Knocks Notre Dame Off $14 Million Perch" 02 May 2005. (May 2, 2005). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  27. ^ Due to damage to the Louisiana Superdome because of Hurricane Katrina, the Sugar Bowl was played at the Georgia Dome in Atlanta, Georgia.
  28. ^ Boise State was an automatic selection as it was champion of the Western Athletic Conference and ranked No. 8 in the final BCS standings.
  29. ^ a b c d e The BCS adopted a rule after the 1998–99 season, nicknamed the "Kansas State Rule," which stated that any team ranked in the top four in the final BCS poll is ensured of an invitation to a BCS bowl game.
  30. ^ Future BCS schedules. (August 22, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  31. ^ Prospect of antitrust lawsuit from Utah increases pressure on BCS – ESPN. (March 31, 2009). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  32. ^ a b Murphy, Austin, "Under Attack", Sports Illustrated, May 2, 2011, p. 23.
  33. ^ Utah News – Salt Lake City News, Sports, Entertainment, Business – The Salt Lake Tribune. (December 29, 2009). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  34. ^ a b Pucin, Diane (November 4, 2008). "McCain, Obama are ‘Monday Night Football’ halftime show". Los Angeles Times. p. D-1. "I think it is about time we had playoffs ... I'm fed up with these computer rankings and this and that and the other. Get eight teams – the top eight teams right at the end. You got a playoff." 
  35. ^ Makowsky, Wyndam (November 18, 2008). "Between the lines: Barack to BCS: time for change". The Stanford Daily (The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation). "Kroft: As president of the United States, what can you do, or what do you plan to do, about getting a college football playoff for the national championship? Obama: Eight teams. That would be three rounds, to determine a national champion. It would add three extra weeks to the season. You could trim back on the regular season." 
  36. ^ "President-elect Obama makes another play for college football playoff". ESPN. November 15, 2008. 
  37. ^ O'Donnell, Jim (January 7, 2010). "Musburger takes Chicago roots to highlight game". Chicago Sun-Times. 
  38. ^ Glier, Ray (July 23, 2003). "University Presidents Rally Against B.C.S.". The New York Times. 
  39. ^ "BCS should reconsider 'plus-one' game – and fast". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. December 1, 2008. 
  40. ^ "Utah AG: BCS may violate antitrust laws". ESPN. Associated Press. January 7, 2009. 
  41. ^ Russo, Ralph D. (January 8, 2009). "ACC commissioner says Bowl Championship Series complies with federal antitrust laws". Star Tribune. Associated Press. 
  42. ^ T "Barton Says BCS 'Is Simply A Cartel, Much Like OPEC' And Doesn't Give TCU A Fair Shake". he Fort Worth Star Telegram, November 26, 2009
  43. ^ Dave Levinthal (December 17, 2009). "BCS Becomes Political Football as Lobbyists Blitz Congress". Center for Responsive Politics. Capital Eye. 
  44. ^ Obama administration considering action on BCS – NCAA Football. (January 29, 2010). Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  45. ^ a b Murphy, Austin, and Michael McKnight, "A Bowl Full of Trouble", Sports Illustrated, April 4, 2011, pp. 20–21.
  46. ^ "BCS Group vacates USC 2004–05 national championship following NCAA denial of appeal". June 6, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Ohio State Vacates 2011 Sugar Bowl, 2010 Football Wins". Huffington Post. 07/8/2011. 
  48. ^ Smith, Erick (Dec 20, 2011). "Ohio State hit with bowl ban, Tressel gets show-cause penalty". USA Today. 
  49. ^ Isaac Luber College Football and Feeling the Pain of a Late-Season Loss. November 11, 2008. Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
  50. ^ John Oehser Time to Shine. December 26, 2008
  51. ^ Statement Of James E. Delany. Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
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  54. ^ a b Dirk Facer (January 10, 2005). "Utes had a Fiesta in 2004". Deseret Morning News. Retrieved October 8, 2007. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]