Bourbon whiskey

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A selection of Bourbons and Tennessee whiskeys offered at a liquor store in Decatur, Georgia
Evan Williams bourbon whiskey

Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey – a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn. The name of the spirit derives from its historical association with an area known as Old Bourbon, around what is now Bourbon County, Kentucky (which, in turn, was named after the French House of Bourbon royal family). It has been produced since the 18th century.[1] While it may be made anywhere in the United States, it is strongly associated with the American South in general, and Kentucky in particular.

Contents

Uses[edit]

Bourbon is served straight, diluted with water, over ice cubes, or mixed with soda and into cocktails, including the Manhattan, the Old Fashioned, and the mint julep. It is also used in cooking.[1]

Legal requirements[edit]

Bourbon's legal definition varies somewhat from country to country, but many trade agreements require the name bourbon to be reserved for products made in the United States. The U.S. regulations for labeling and advertising bourbon apply only to products made for consumption within the United States; they do not apply to distilled spirits made for export.[2] Canadian law requires products labeled bourbon to be made in the United States and to also conform to the requirements that apply within the United States. But in countries other than the United States and Canada, products labeled bourbon may not adhere to the same standards. European Union regulations require bourbon-labeled products to be made in the United States, but do not require them to conform to all of the requirements that apply within the United States.

The Federal Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits (27 C.F.R. 5) state that bourbon made for U.S. consumption[2] must be:

Bourbon has no minimum specified duration for its aging period.[5] Products aged for as little as three months are sold as bourbon.[6]

Bourbon that meets the above requirements, has been aged for a minimum of two years, and does not have added coloring, flavoring, or other spirits may (but is not required to) be called straight bourbon.[7]

Bourbon that is labeled blended (or as 'a blend') may contain added coloring, flavoring, and other spirits (such as un-aged neutral grain spirits); but at least 51% of the product must be straight bourbon.[10][11]

Bourbon bottle, 19th century.

Whiskey sold as Tennessee whiskey is also defined as bourbon under NAFTA[12] and at least one other international trade agreement,[13] and is required to meet the legal definition of bourbon under Canadian law,[14] but some Tennessee whiskey makers do not label their product as bourbon and insist that it is a different type of whiskey when marketing their product.

Production process[edit]

The typical grain mixture for bourbon, known as the mash bill, is a minimum of 51% corn, with the remainder being wheat, rye, and/or malted barley.[1] A mash bill that contains wheat instead of rye produces what is known as a wheated bourbon. The grain is ground and mixed with water. Usually, though not always, mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure a consistent pH across batches, and a mash produced in that manner is referred to as a sour mash. Finally, yeast is added and the mash is fermented. The fermented mash, referred to as the wash, is then distilled to (typically) between 65% and 80% alcohol. Distillation was historically performed using an alembic or pot still, although in modern production, the use of a continuous still is much more common.

The resulting clear spirit is placed in newly charred American oak barrels for aging, during which it gains color and flavor from the caramelized sugars in the charred wood. Changes to the spirit also occur due to evaporation and chemical processes such as oxidation. Bourbons gain more color and flavor the longer they mature. Maturity, not a particular age, is the goal. Bourbon can age too long and become woody and unbalanced.

After maturing, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel, usually diluted with water, and bottled to at least 80 US proof (40% abv).[4] Most bourbon whiskey is sold at 80 US proof. Other common proofs are 86, 90, 94, 100, and 107, and whiskeys of up to 125 proof can be sold. Some higher-proof bottlings are marketed as "barrel proof", meaning that they have not been diluted or have been only lightly diluted after removal from the barrels. Bourbon whiskey may be sold at less than 80 proof but must be labeled as "diluted bourbon".

Barrels still contain 20 pounds of bourbon within the wood.[15] They cannot be re-used for bourbon, and are sometimes sold to the Scotch whiskey industry.

Geographic origin[edit]

On May 4, 1964, the United States Congress recognized bourbon whiskey as a "distinctive product of the United States". Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits. But most brands are produced in Kentucky, where bourbon production has a strong historical association.[16] Iron-free water that has been filtered through the high concentrations of limestone, unique to the area, is often touted by bourbon distillers in Kentucky as a signature step in the bourbon-making process.[17]

As of 2013, approximately 95% of all bourbon is produced in Kentucky, and the state has 4.9 million barrels of bourbon that are currently aging – a figure that exceeds the state population.[18][19]

Bardstown, Kentucky is home to the annual Bourbon Festival held each September, and has been called the "Bourbon Capital of the World" by the Bardstown Tourism Commission[20] and the Kentucky Bourbon Festival organizers[21] who have registered the phrase as a trademark. The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is the name of a tourism promotion intended to attract visitors to the distilleries in Kentucky, primarily including Four Roses (Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill (Bardstown), Jim Beam (Clermont), Maker's Mark (Loretto), Town Branch (Lexington), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg), and Woodford Reserve (Versailles).[22]

Tennessee is home to other major bourbon producers, though most of its producers don't call their finished product bourbon – Jack Daniel's being the most well-known example. The methods for producing Tennessee whiskey fit the characteristics of bourbon production, and "Tennessee whiskey" is legally defined under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and some other laws (such as the law of Canada[14]) as the recognized name for a straight bourbon whiskey produced in Tennessee.[12] However, some Tennessee whiskey producers point to their use of the Lincoln County Process, a charcoal-filtering process, to draw a distinction between Tennessee whiskey and bourbon. But many bourbons are charcoal-filtered (for example, Ezra Brooks Kentucky Bourbon Whiskey and Old Heaven Hill), and not all Tennessee whiskey producers use the Lincoln County process (for example, Benjamin Prichard's Tennessee Whiskey). The U.S. regulations defining bourbon do not prohibit the Lincoln County process, even if the process is used, and the legal definition under NAFTA requires Tennessee whiskey to be bourbon.[5][12][23][24]

Bourbon also has been made in California, Colorado, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington and West Virginia, and most likely in other U.S. states as well.[25][26][27]

History[edit]

White oak barrels filled with new bourbon whiskey and resting in a rack house for a period of 4 to 9 years, giving bourbon its well-known copper color.

The origin of bourbon is not well documented. Instead, there are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is often attributed to a pioneering Baptist minister and distiller named Elijah Craig. Rev. Craig (credited with many Kentucky firsts, e.g., fulling mill, paper mill, ropewalk, etc.) is said to also be the first to age the distillation in charred oak casks, "a process that gives the bourbon its reddish color and unique taste".[28] Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product "Bourbon whiskey". Spears' home, Stone Castle, warehouse and spring house survive; one can drive by the Spears home on Clay-Kiser Road.

Although still popular and often repeated, the Craig legend has little actual credibility. Similarly, the Spears story is a local favorite, rarely repeated outside the county. There likely was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form only in the late 19th century.[29] Essentially any type of grain can be used to make whiskey, and the practice of aging whiskey (and even charring the barrels) for better flavor had also been known in Europe for centuries, so the use of the local American corn for the mash and oak for the barrels was simply a logical combination of the materials at hand for the European settlers in America.

Distilling probably arrived in what would later become known as Kentucky when Scottish, Scots-Irish, and other settlers (including, English, Irish, Welsh, German and French) began to farm the area in earnest in the late 18th century. The spirit they made evolved, and became known as bourbon in the early 19th century due to its historical association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon (consisting of the original Bourbon County of Virginia as created in 1785, which was a region that included much of today's Eastern Kentucky – including 34 of today's counties in Kentucky,[30] one of which is the current Bourbon County of Kentucky).[31][32]

When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal Ohio River port from which whiskey and other products were shipped. "Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey.[32]

A refinement variously credited to either James C. Crow or Jason S. Amburgey[citation needed] was the sour mash process, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (the wet solids strained from a previous batch of fermented mash, which still contain live yeast). Spent mash is also known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain, stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed. The acid introduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work.

As of 2005, all straight bourbons use a sour mash process.[33] Crow or Amburgey developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the Woodford Reserve Distillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky.[citation needed] As of today, there are no operating distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County — due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County over time.[34]

A resolution of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States."[35][36] That resolution asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey.'"[35] Federal regulation now defines "bourbon whisky" to only include "bourbon" produced in the United States.[37]

Government declarations[edit]

Barrels that once contained Clermont Springs Bourbon Whiskey awaiting fresh contents

On August 2, 2007, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 "National Bourbon Heritage Month", marking the history of bourbon whiskey.[38] Notably, the resolution claimed that Congress had declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution.[38] However, the 1964 resolution had not actually contained such a statement; it had only declared bourbon to be a distinctive product identifiable with the United States (in a similar way that Scotch is considered identifiable with Scotland).[35][39] The resolution was passed again in 2008.[39]

Present day[edit]

Since 2003, high-end bourbons have seen revenue grow from $450 million to over $500 million, some 2.2 million cases, in the United States. High-end bourbon sales accounted for eight percent of total spirits growth in 2006. Most high-end bourbons are aged for six years or longer.[40]

In 2007, United States spirits exports, virtually all of which are American whiskey, exceeded $1 billion for the first time. This represents a 15 percent increase over 2006. American whiskey is now sold in more than 100 countries. The leading markets are the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, and Japan. Key emerging markets for American whiskey are China, Vietnam, Brazil, Chile, Romania, and Bulgaria.[41][clarification needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Zeldes, Leah A. (2011-02-23). "Eat this! Bourbon, America's native spirits". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  2. ^ a b "27 C.F.R. sec 5.1". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d "27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(i)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  4. ^ a b "27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  5. ^ a b Favorite whiskey myths debunked, The Chuck Cowdery Blog, December 16, 2009. (Accessed January 2011.)
  6. ^ "Hudson Baby Bourbon Whiskey review at Spirits Review". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  7. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(iii)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  8. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.40(a)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  9. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.40". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  10. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(4)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  11. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.23". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  12. ^ a b c "North American Free Trade Agreement Annex 313: Distinctive products". Sice.oas.org. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  13. ^ SICE - Free Trade Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Chile, Section E, Article 3.15 "Distinctive products".
  14. ^ a b "Canada Food and Drug regulations, C.R.C. C.870, provision B.02.022.1". Laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  15. ^ "Distilleries". Modern Marvels. Season 11. 14 July 2004.
  16. ^ "Kentucky Bourbon History". Kentucky Bourbon Trail. Kentucky Distillers' Association. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  17. ^ "About Kentucky Bourbon". Waters of Life. Kentucky Barrels LLC. Retrieved 2011-11-23. 
  18. ^ Maker's Mark to restore alcohol content of whiskey, USA Today, February 17, 2013.
  19. ^ Schreiner, Bruce, "Kentucky Bourbon Trail Expands to Include Stop in Downtown Louisville", Associated Press, May 9, 2013.
  20. ^ Bardstown Tourism Commission
  21. ^ Kentucky Bourbon Festival
  22. ^ kybourbontrail.org
  23. ^ Charles K. Cowdery, Tennessee Whiskey Versus Bourbon Whiskey, The Chuck Cowdery Blog, February 21, 2009. (Accessed January 2011.)
  24. ^ Filtration and the Lincoln County Process, The Bourbon Observer, June 13, 2009.
  25. ^ "Whisky Regions". Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  26. ^ "Handmade Texas bourbon hits HillCo". Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  27. ^ "Smooth Ambler Spirits debuts new Yearling Bourbon". Retrieved 2012-04-11. 
  28. ^ John E. Kleber, ed., The Kentucky Encyclopedia (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992), 103
  29. ^ Cowdery, Charles K., "Who Invented Bourbon?" Malt Advocate Magazine (4th Quarter 2002), pp. 72-75
  30. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, John T. Edge, volume editor, Volume 7: Foodways, p. 128.
  31. ^ Charles K. Cowdery, How Bourbon Whiskey Really Got Its Famous Name, The Bourbon Country Reader, Volume 3, Number 1, July 1996.
  32. ^ a b Cowdery, Charles K., Bourbon, Straight: The Uncut and Unfiltered Story of American Whiskey, p. 25
  33. ^ "The Straightbourbon FAQ". Straight Bourbon.com. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  34. ^ "Bourbon County Kentucky". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  35. ^ a b c 78 Stat. 1208 (1964).
  36. ^ Defining "Bourbon". The State (Columbia, SC), 5-1-02, p. D1.
  37. ^ "27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(2)". Ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  38. ^ a b S. Res. No. 110-294 (2007).
  39. ^ a b Is Bourbon Officially America’s Native Spirit?, The Chuck Cowdery Blog, April 27, 2009.
  40. ^ "Celebrate "National Bourbon Heritage Month" With the Classic Bourbon Cocktails". Distilled Spirits Council of the United States. 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. [dead link]
  41. ^ Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, January, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

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