Puerto Rican people

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Puerto Rican
Puertorriqueño · Boricua
Lola Rodriguez de Tio.jpgRRsolo.jpgSchomburg.jpg
Luis Munoz Rivera.jpgAngelRiveroMendez.gifRickyMartin.jpg
Benicio del Toro2.jpgGiannina Braschi.jpg
Notable Puerto Ricans:
First row

Lola Rodríguez · Ramon Rivero · Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
Second row

Luis Munoz Rivera · Angel Rivero Mendez · Ricky Martin
Third row

Benicio del Toro · Giannina Braschi
Total population
Puerto Rican
3,638,484
(92% Born in Puerto Rico) [1]
3,846,054
(97.3% identified as native)
Regions with significant populations
 Puerto Rico (2010)3,554,642[2]
 United States (2010)4,623,716[3]
 U.S. Virgin Islands (2000)8,558[4]
 Dominican Republic (2002)2,897[5]
 Canada (2006)2,020[6]
 Mexico (2000)1,970[7]
 Brazil800[8]
 Venezuela (2001)528[9]
 United Kingdom (2001)306[8]
 Costa Rica (2000)268[10]
 Argentina (2001)179[11]
 Cuba (2001)121[12]
 Australia (2006)78[13]
Languages

Spanish, English

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholic
Large minority Protestantism

Related ethnic groups

Africans · Amerindians · Chinese · Corsican · Criollos · French · German · Irish · Italian · Jewish · Maltese · Mestizos · Mulattos · Spanish · Zambos

 
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Puerto Rican
Puertorriqueño · Boricua
Lola Rodriguez de Tio.jpgRRsolo.jpgSchomburg.jpg
Luis Munoz Rivera.jpgAngelRiveroMendez.gifRickyMartin.jpg
Benicio del Toro2.jpgGiannina Braschi.jpg
Notable Puerto Ricans:
First row

Lola Rodríguez · Ramon Rivero · Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
Second row

Luis Munoz Rivera · Angel Rivero Mendez · Ricky Martin
Third row

Benicio del Toro · Giannina Braschi
Total population
Puerto Rican
3,638,484
(92% Born in Puerto Rico) [1]
3,846,054
(97.3% identified as native)
Regions with significant populations
 Puerto Rico (2010)3,554,642[2]
 United States (2010)4,623,716[3]
 U.S. Virgin Islands (2000)8,558[4]
 Dominican Republic (2002)2,897[5]
 Canada (2006)2,020[6]
 Mexico (2000)1,970[7]
 Brazil800[8]
 Venezuela (2001)528[9]
 United Kingdom (2001)306[8]
 Costa Rica (2000)268[10]
 Argentina (2001)179[11]
 Cuba (2001)121[12]
 Australia (2006)78[13]
Languages

Spanish, English

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholic
Large minority Protestantism

Related ethnic groups

Africans · Amerindians · Chinese · Corsican · Criollos · French · German · Irish · Italian · Jewish · Maltese · Mestizos · Mulattos · Spanish · Zambos

A Puerto Rican (Spanish: puertorriqueño) (Taíno term: boricua) is a person who was born in Puerto Rico.

People born and raised in other parts of the world, most notably in the continental United States, of Puerto Rican parents are also sometimes referred to as Puerto Ricans, even though they were not born in Puerto Rico themselves. Since 2007, the government of Puerto Rico has been granting Certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship to any person born on the island as well as to those born outside of the island that have at least one parent who was born on the island.[14]

Puerto Ricans, who also commonly refer to themselves as "boricuas", are largely the descendants of Europeans, Taíno, Africans or a blend of these groups which has produced a very diversified population. The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 to 10 million worldwide, with most living within the islands of Puerto Rico, Central Florida, Chicago Metropolitan Area and in New York City, where there is a large Nuyorican community.

For 2009,[15] the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans. It also gives a total of 3,644,515 (91.9%) of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 (5.1%) born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773 (8.1%).

Of the 108,262 who were foreign born outside the United States (2.7% of Puerto Rico), 3.8% were born in Europe, 92.9% in Latin America, 2.7% in Asia, 0.2% in Northern America, and 0.1% in Africa and Oceania each.[1]

Contents

Ancestry

The original inhabitants of Puerto Rico are the Taíno, who called the island Borikén; however, as in other parts of the Americas, the native people soon diminished in number after the arrival of European settlers. The negative impact on the numbers of indigenous people was almost entirely the result of Old World diseases that the Amerindians had no natural/bodily defenses against, including measles, chicken pox, mumps, influenza, and even the common cold. In fact, it was estimated that the majority of all the indigenous inhabitants of the New World perished due to contact and contamination with those Old World diseases, while those that survived were killed by warfare with each other and with Europeans.

Both run-away and freed African slaves (the Spanish, upon establishing a foothold, quickly began to import Sub-Saharan African slaves to work in expanding their colonies in the Caribbean) were in Puerto Rico. This interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the oft-romanticized male conquistadors (e.g. Hernán Cortés). Aside from the presence of slaves, some indication for why the native population was so diluted was the tendency for conquistadors to bring with them scores of single men hoping to serve God, country, or their own interests. All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands.

Royal Decree of Graces, 1815

In the 16th century, a significant depth of Puerto Rican culture began to develop with the import of Sub-Saharan African slaves by the Spanish, as well as by the French, the British, the Dutch and the Portuguese. Thousands of Spanish settlers also immigrated to Puerto Rico from the Canary Islands during the 18th and 19th centuries, so many so that whole Puerto Rican villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants, and their descendants would later form a majority of the Spanish population on the island.

In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue (Haiti), revolted against their French masters. Many of the French escaped to Puerto Rico via what is now the Dominican Republic and settled in the west coast of the island, especially in Mayagüez. Puerto Rico has some British ancestry, notably Scots and English came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries.

When Spain revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 with the intention of attracting non-Hispanics to settle in the island hundreds of French (especially Corsicans), Germans and Irish immigrants who were affected by Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s immigrated to Puerto Rico. They were followed by smaller waves from other European countries and China.

During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The second influx of Jews to the island came in the 1950s, when thousands of Cuban Jews fled after Fidel Castro came to power. Today Puerto Rico has the largest and most prosperous Jewish community in the Caribbean.[16] Recent trends in immigration indicate Puerto Rico has been attracting immigrants from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and other Caribbean islands.[citation needed]

Race

Racial groups - Puerto Rico [17][18][19][20][21]
YearWhite %Non-White
180242.058.0
181240.859.2
182039.460.6
183045.154.9
187752.347.7
188753.546.5
189759.340.7
189961.838.2
191064.535.5
192072.028.0
193073.326.7
193575.224.8
194076.024.0
195079.720.3
200080.519.5
201075.824.2
Racial composition of the Puerto Rican
population, by the census, 1802-2010.

Whites

In 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% of people were identified as White. In the 2010 United States Census the total of Puerto Ricans that identified as White was 75.8%.[17][20] The European heritage of Puerto Ricans comes primarily from one source: Spaniards (including Canarians, Catalans, Castilians, Galicians, Asturians, Andalusians, and Basques).

The Canarian cultural influence in Puerto Rico is one of the most important components in which many villages were founded from these immigrants, which started from 1493 to 1890 and beyond. Many Spaniards, especially Canarians, chose Puerto Rico because of its Hispanic ties and relative proximity in comparison with other former Spanish colonies. They searched for security and stability in an environment similar to that of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico was the most suitable. This began as a temporary exile which became a permanent relocation and the last significant wave of Spanish or European migration to Puerto Rico.[22][23] Other sources of European populations are Corsicans, French, Germans, Irish, Portuguese (especially Azoreans), Scots, Maltese, Italians, Dutch, English, Greeks, Danes and Jews, with many[citation needed] Arab Christians such as the Lebanese and Palestinians.[citation needed]

Whites constitute the majority of the 3,725,789 people living in Puerto Rico, with 2,825,100 or 75.8% of the population in the 2010 United States Census,[24] down from 76.2%[25] in the 2000 Census.[20]

Sub-Saharan Africans/Blacks

In the 2010 United States Census, 12.4% of people self-identified as Black.[20] African immigrants were brought by Spanish Conquistadors. The vast majority of the Africans who were brought to Puerto Rico did so as a result of the slave trade taking place from many groups in the African continent, but particularly the West Africans, the Kongo, the Yoruba[26] and the Igbo people.[26]

Amerindians

Amerindians and Mestizos are those who have a pure Amerindian descent or mixed ancestry between Europeans and Amerindians within the Puerto Rican context discarding the other definitions that this term may be used for under other settings. Amerindians make up the third largest racial identity among Puerto Ricans comprising 0.5% of the population.[20]

Asians

For its 2010 census, the U.S. Census Bureau defined the following 17 groups to constitute "Asian" race[27]: Asian Indian, Bangladeshi, Cambodian, Chinese (except Taiwanese), Filipino, Hmong, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Malaysian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Asian. Asians represent 0.2% of the population.

Others

Peoples other than Amerindians, Blacks, Asians or Whites constituted (mixed and other) 11.1% in the 2010 United States 2010 Census.

Modern identity

Until 1950 the U.S. Bureau of the Census attempted to quantify the racial composition of the island's population, while experimenting with various racial taxonomies.[citation needed] In 1960 the census dropped the racial identification question for Puerto Rico but included it again in the year 2000.[citation needed] The only category that remained constant over time was white, even as other racial labels shifted greatly—from "colored" to "Black", "mulatto", and "other".[citation needed]

The Puerto Rico of today has come to form some of its own social customs, cultural matrix, historically-rooted traditions, and its own unique pronunciation, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions within the Spanish language. Even after the attempted assimilation of Puerto Rico into the United States in the early 20th century, the majority of the people of Puerto Rico feel pride in their nationality as "Puerto Ricans", regardless of the individual's particular racial, ethnic, political, or economic background. Many Puerto Ricans are consciously aware of the rich contribution of all cultures represented on the island. This diversity can be seen in the everyday lifestyle of many Puerto Ricans such as the profound African, Taino, and Spanish influences regarding food, music, dance, and architecture.

Stateside Puerto Ricans

U.S. residents have also migrated from the U.S. mainland to different parts of Puerto Rico, especially to the San Juan metro area and the southern portion of the island, mainly for tourism purposes and for business ventures, including in the financial, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical industries.

Language

Spanish is the predominant language among Puerto Ricans residing in the island; however, its vocabulary has expanded with many words and phrases coming from the Taíno and African influences of the island. Since 1901, the English language is taught and spoken throughout the island.

As of 2007, the American Community Survey states that 95.1% of island residents speak Spanish and 81.5% of Puerto Ricans speak English less than "very well". 4.7% of people on the island speak English only.[28]

Religion

The great majority of Puerto Ricans are Christians, though there are present certain Jewish and Islamic sectors in the island. Roman Catholicism has been the main religion among Puerto Ricans since the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century, but the increasing presence of Protestant, Latter-day Saint (Mormon), Pentecostal and Jehovah's Witnesses denominations has increased under U.S. sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico an inter-denominational, multireligious community. The island is also home to small Pagan (mainly adherents of santeria) communities and irreligious persons.

Boricua

Puerto Ricans often proudly identify themselves as Boricua (formerly also spelled Boriquén, Borinquén, or Borinqueño), derived from the Taíno word Boriken, to illustrate their recognition of the island's original Taíno heritage. The word Boriken, translates to "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord." Borikén was used by the original Taíno population to refer to the island of Puerto Rico before the arrival of the Spanish.[29] The use of the word Boricua has been popularized in the island and abroad by descendants of Puerto Rico heritage, commonly using the phrase, "Yo soy Boricua" ("I am Boricua", or "I am Puerto Rican") to identify themselves as Puerto Ricans. Other variations which are also widely used are Borinqueño and Borincano which translated means "from Borinquen." The first recorded use of the word Boricua comes from Christopher Columbus in his Letter to the Sovereigns from 4 March 1493.[30]

Political and international status

The federal Naturalization Act, signed into law on March 26, 1790 by George Washington, explicitly barred anyone not of the White "race" from applying for U.S. citizenship. This law remained in effect until the 1950s, although its enforcement was tightened in the late nineteenth century regarding Asian immigrants, and by the Johnson-Reed act of 1924 imposing immigration quotas. In short, until late in the twentieth century, only immigrants of the White "race" could hope to become naturalized citizens. The people of Puerto Rico were declared U.S citizens in 1917.[31][32]

Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States as a result of the passage of the Jones-Shafroth Act of 1917. Since this law was the result of Congressional legislation, and not the result of an amendment to the United States Constitution, the current U.S. citizenship of Puerto Ricans can be revoked by Congress,[33] as they are statutory citizens, not 14th Amendment citizens.[34] The Jones Act established that Puerto Ricans born prior to 1899 were considered naturalized citizens of Puerto Rico, and anyone born after 1898 were U.S. citizens, unless the Puerto Rican expressed his/her intentions to remain a Spanish Subject. Since 1948, it was decided by Congress that all Puerto Ricans, whether born within the United States or in Puerto Rico, were naturally born United States citizens.

Puerto Ricans and other U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico cannot vote in presidential elections as that is a right reserved by the U.S. Constitution to admitted states and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College system. Nevertheless, both the Democratic Party and Republican Party, while not fielding candidates for public office in Puerto Rico, provide the islands with state-sized voting delegations at their presidential nominating conventions. Delegate selection processes frequently have resulted in presidential primaries being held in Puerto Rico. U.S. Citizens residing in Puerto Rico do not elect U.S. Representatives or Senators, however, Puerto Rico is represented in the House of Representatives by an elected representative commonly known as the Resident Commissioner, who has the same duties and obligations as a representative, with the exception of being able to cast votes on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor. The Resident Commissioner is elected by Puerto Ricans to a four-year term and does serve on congressional committee. Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. states have all rights and privileges of other U.S. citizens living in the states.

As statutory U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico may enlist in the U.S. military and have been included in the compulsory draft when it has been in effect. Puerto Ricans have fully participated in all U.S. wars and military conflicts since 1898, such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b U.S ACS Puerto Rico 2008
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Multiculturalism Mexico: United States Virgin Islands statistics
  5. ^ Multiculturalism Mexico: Dominican Republic statistics
  6. ^ Census Canada 2006
  7. ^ Los Extranjeros en Mexico
  8. ^ a b OECD Data Sheet
  9. ^ Estadisticas Venezuela
  10. ^ Estadisticas Costa Rica
  11. ^ Censo Argentina 2001
  12. ^ Métodos estadísticos aplicados a la migración internacional desde y dentre de Cuba
  13. ^ Australia Census 2006
  14. ^ (Spanish) Terra.com Departamento de Estado expedirá certificados de ciudadanía puertorriqueña
  15. ^ Census.gov
  16. ^ The Virtual Jewish History Tour Puerto Rico
  17. ^ a b Puerto Rico's History on race
  18. ^ Representation of racial identity among Puerto Ricans and in the u.s. mainland
  19. ^ CIA World Factbook Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  20. ^ a b c d e 2010.census.gov
  21. ^ Puerto Rico's Historical Demographics Retrieved November 10, 2011.
  22. ^ Canarian immigration: canarios en Puerto Rico (Islas Canarias)
  23. ^ Canarian Settlement in the Americas
  24. ^ 2010 Census Interactive Population Search: Puerto Rico. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  25. ^ CIA Fact Book: Puerto Rico:People and Society: Ethnic Groups. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  26. ^ a b Lipski, John M. (2005). A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. middle of second paragraph under 'Africans in Puerto Rico': by Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-521-82265-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=U0xyRU7QoK4C&pg=PA115. 
  27. ^ [3] Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  28. ^ U.S. Census Annual Population Estimates 2007
  29. ^ H. B. Grose, Advance in the Antilles: the new era in Cuba and Porto Rico, Presbyterian Home Missions, 1910
  30. ^ "Between the islands of Cardo and Española there is another island they call Borinque, all of it is short distance form the other region of the island of Juana that they call Cuba" (Letter to the Sovereigns, trans. Margarita Zamora, New World Encounters, University of California Press, 1993). Another early reference can be found in Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés' 1535 Historia general y natural de las Indias. The full text of Gonzalo's book, including references to Boriquen, may be read in Spanish online at a page maintained by University College London. Ems.kcl.ac.uk
  31. ^ Vision of America
  32. ^ History: The Racialisation of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans
  33. ^ Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status. The White House. Washington, D.C. Appendix E. December 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  34. ^ Latino/a Thought: Culture, Politics, and Society. Francisco H. Vazquez. Page 372. Lanham, Md: Rowman Littlefield Publishers. 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2012.

Further reading