From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Bomis, Inc.
Logo bomis.gif
TypePrivate company
Foundation date1996
HeadquartersSt. Petersburg, Florida, United States
Founder(s)Jimmy Wales
Tim Shell
Michael Davis
ProductsBomis Premium[1][2]
Bomis Babes[3][4]
Bomis Babe Report[5][6]
The Babe Engine[1][7]
Bomis Browser[8]
SubsidiariesNupedia (2000–2003)[9][10]
Wikipedia (2001–2003)[6][11], archived at the Internet Archive
Type of siteInternet portal
Advertising space
Available inEnglish
Current statusDefunct[12][13][14]
Jump to: navigation, search
Bomis, Inc.
Logo bomis.gif
TypePrivate company
Foundation date1996
HeadquartersSt. Petersburg, Florida, United States
Founder(s)Jimmy Wales
Tim Shell
Michael Davis
ProductsBomis Premium[1][2]
Bomis Babes[3][4]
Bomis Babe Report[5][6]
The Babe Engine[1][7]
Bomis Browser[8]
SubsidiariesNupedia (2000–2003)[9][10]
Wikipedia (2001–2003)[6][11], archived at the Internet Archive
Type of siteInternet portal
Advertising space
Available inEnglish
Current statusDefunct[12][13][14]

Bomis (/ˈbɒmɨs/ to rhyme with "promise")[15] was a dot-com company best known for having supported the creation of the free-content online encyclopedia projects Nupedia and subsequently Wikipedia.[7] It was founded in 1996 by Jimmy Wales, Tim Shell, and Michael Davis.[16][17][18] Davis had become acquainted with Wales after hiring him at Chicago Options Associates in 1994.[18] Wales became friends with Shell through mailing lists discussing philosophy.[18][19] The primary business of Bomis was the sale of advertising on the search portal.[20]

The company initially tried different ideas for content, including serving as a directory of information about Chicago.[21] The site subsequently focused on content geared for a male audience, including information on sporting activities, automobiles, and females.[22][23][24] Bomis became successful after focusing on X-rated media.[25] It included "Bomis Babes", which was a segment devoted to erotic images.[3] Within this section the site featured the Bomis Babe Report which documented adult pictures.[6][11] Bomis Premium was a section of the site available for an additional fee to subscribers which provided explicit material.[2][26][25] "The Babe Engine" was a feature on the site which helped users find erotic content through a web search engine.[1][7][27] The advertising director for Bomis noted 99% of queries on the site were for nude women.[28]

Bomis started Nupedia as a free online encyclopedia with content submitted by experts; it suffered from a tedious and slow review process.[29][30] Bomis launched Wikipedia initially to help provide content for Nupedia.[19][31][10] Wikipedia remained a for-profit venture operating under the auspices of Bomis throughout the end of 2002.[32] As the costs of Wikipedia rose with its popularity, Bomis' revenues declined as result of the dot-com crash.[33] Since Wikipedia became a drain on Bomis' resources, Wales and philosophy graduate student Larry Sanger decided to fund the project through charity.[33] Sanger was laid off from Bomis in 2002.[34] Nupedia content was merged into Wikipedia,[35] and subsequently closed in 2003.[9]

The non-profit organization the Wikimedia Foundation was started in 2003 with a Board of Trustees composed of the three founders of Bomis: Jimmy Wales, Michael Davis, and Tim Shell.[18] The Wikimedia Foundation was first headquartered in St. Petersburg, Florida,[36] where Bomis was located.[37] Wales utilized approximately US$100,000 of revenues from Bomis to assist Wikipedia prior to the decision to shift the encyclopedia to a non-profit status.[38] Wales stepped down from his role as CEO of Bomis in 2004.[39] Tim Shell served as CEO of the company in 2005 while simultaneously serving on the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation.[5] Wales edited Wikipedia in 2005 to remove characterizations of Bomis as soft-core pornography.[19][40] The incident drew attention towards Wales' actions from the media.[26][41][42] Wales stated his regret for his actions.[19][40] The Atlantic gave Bomis the nickname "Playboy of the Internet";[43] this term caught on in the media.[44][33][45] Academics and scholars have characterized Bomis as a form of soft-core pornography.[31][46]



Jimmy Wales left a studies track at Indiana University as a PhD candidate to begin work in finance, before completing his doctoral dissertation.[44][47][30] In 1994 Wales was hired by Michael Davis, CEO of the finance company Chicago Options Associates, to work there as a trader.[18][48][49] He focused in trading futures contracts and options.[48][49] Wales was adept at determining future movements of foreign currency and interest rates.[44][30] He was quite successful working as a trader in Chicago and became independently wealthy.[44][48][30] Wales served in the position of director of research at Chicago Options Associates, from 1994 to 2000.[50][51][52] He became acquainted with Tim Shell from email lists discussing philosophy.[18][19]

Wales wanted to participate in the online-based entrepreneurial ventures which were gaining popularity and success during the middle of the 1990s.[45] He had previous experience from gaming in his youth which impressed upon him the influence of networking in society.[45] Wales had a fascination with computer science, and tooled with source code on the Internet.[29] He maintained a hobby increasing his skills at computer programming.[53] During his spare time after getting home from Chicago Options Associates, Wales constructed his own form of web browser.[19] While employed at Chicago Options Associates he observed the initial public offering of Netscape Communications in 1995, which was quite successful.[5][29]


Bomis founders
Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
Tim Shell
Tim Shell
Michael Davis
Michael Davis

Bomis was founded by Jimmy Wales, Tim Shell, and Michael Davis.[16][17][18]

Wales co-founded Bomis in 1996 with his business associates Tim Shell,[25][32][2] and his then-manager Michael Davis.[16][17][18] The three started the organization as a for-profit corporation.[54][55] Together they held joint-ownership over the corporation.[17] Wales was the chief manager behind the company.[56] In 1998 Wales moved from Chicago, Illinois, to San Diego, California to work for Bomis.[57][58][27] He moved to St. Petersburg, Florida where the company was subsequently located.[37]

Staff for Bomis started out at approximately five employees.[17][28] In 2000 staff included Toan Vo as programmer, and Jason Richey as system administrator.[17] Wales employed his friend from high school, Terry Foote, as a business associate at Bomis.[48][49] Foote served as the advertising director at Bomis.[28] In June 2000, Bomis was one of five network partners of Ask Jeeves.[59]

Formally BOMIS is not an abbreviation; the motivation for the name stemmed from an acronym for "Bitter Old Men in Suits" that Wales and Shell had used to refer to themselves during the time period when they were working in Chicago.[18][32][60] The site started as a form of web portal.[25][36] Bomis initially experimented with multiple ideas, including serving as an access point for information about Chicago.[21] It subsequently focused on content geared for a male audience, including information on sporting activities, automobiles, and females.[22][23][24]

Hosted content[edit]

Silvia Saint in a Bomis T-Shirt[61][62][63]

Bomis created and maintained hundreds of webrings on topics related to lad culture.[43] In 1999, the company made available the Bomis Browser, which helped users block pop-up ads online.[8] Its webring on Star Wars was cited as a useful resource for information on The Phantom Menace.[64] Additional webrings included a section helping users find information on the film Casablanca,[65] Hunter S. Thompson,[66] Farah Fawcett,[67] Geri Haliwell of the Spice Girls,[68] and one about the film Snake Eyes.[69] "Bomis: The Buffy the Vampire Slayer Ring" devoted to the television program Buffy the Vampire Slayer organized over 50 relevant sites related to the program.[70] Sheila Jeffreys noted in her book Beauty and Misogyny that in 2004 Bomis maintained "The Lipstick Fetish Ring" which assisted users with finding information for those with a particular attraction towards women wearing makeup.[71]

Bomis became successful after focusing on X-rated media.[25] Advertising garnered monetary earnings which enabled the company to provide funding for other websites.[20][2][72] The site published suggestive pictures of women who were professional models.[73] In addition to Bomis the company also maintained the web site,[41] and;[1] these sites displayed pictures of nude females.[1] Approximately ten percent of revenues for Bomis were derived from pornographic films and blogs.[57][1]

Bomis included a segment devoted to erotic images titled, "Bomis Babes".[3][4] There was a feature on the site where users could submit recommended links to other sites on topics which appealed to a male audience.[47] Peer-to-peer services provided by the site assisted users in finding other websites about female celebrities including Anna Kournikova and Pamela Anderson.[45] Within the Bomis Babes section, the site featured the Bomis Babe Report which documented adult pictures.[6][11][60] The Bomis Babe Report was started in 2000.[14] It functioned as a form of blog which put forth images of porn stars.[14][48][49] Additionally, the Bomis Babe Report produced its own original erotic material.[5][14] Such material included reports on pornographic film actors and celebrities that had removed their attire in pictures.[14] It was referred to as The Babe Report for short.[41]

Wales agreed with the colloquial expression "glamour photography" to refer to content on the site.[74][75] Bomis included softcore pornography among its erotic material offerings.[46][44][37] Bomis became familiar to Internet users for its erotic images.[76][77][78] During this time period, Wales was photographed steering a yacht with a peaked cap posing as a sea captain with one professional female model on either side of him.[79][14][80] In the photograph, these women were clothed in panties along with t-shirts which advertised the Bomis brand.[79][14][80]

Users were able to pay for a subscription to a section of the site titled Bomis Premium,[1] which provided access to premium adult content and erotic material.[25][26][2] For US$2.95, the site offered a 3-day trial for access to Bomis Premium.[80] Bomis Babes provided naked images of females to the subscribers of its services.[26] Bomis Premium displayed lesbian sexual practices, and showed viewers female anatomy.[14] Bomis created "The Babe Engine",[1] which helped users find erotic material online through a web search engine.[7][27] According to Bomis advertising director Terry Foote, 99% of searches on the site were related to queries for nude women.[28]

Nupedia and Wikipedia[edit]

The Bomis staff, summer 2000
Bomis, Inc. staff (Summer 2000)

Bomis is best known for having supported the creation of the free-content online encyclopedia projects Nupedia and subsequently Wikipedia.[20][7] Tim Shell and Michael David continued their partnership with Wales during the Nupedia venture in 2000.[16] Larry Sanger met Jimmy Wales through an e-mail communication group about philosophy and objectivism.[58][21][10] Sanger joined the staff of Bomis in February 2000.[81] At the time of his hiring by Bomis, Sanger was a graduate student working towards a PhD degree in philosophy with a research focus on epistemology.[24][21][82] Sanger ultimately received his Doctor of Philosophy degree from Ohio State University.[83] He moved to San Diego, California in order to help Bomis with its encyclopedia venture.[81]

Sanger and Jimmy Wales started Nupedia while utilizing resources from Bomis.[7] In the beginning of 2000, Bomis agreed to provide early financing for Nupedia through some of the company's profits.[24][46][84] Nupedia first went live in March 2000.[6][11][11] Jimmy Wales was CEO of Bomis, Inc. in March 2000.[85] Sanger served as editor-in-chief of Nupedia.[29][86] The reading comprehension for Nupedia was intended to be applicable for high-school graduates.[87] Bomis set as its goal for Nupedia: "To set a new standard for breadth, depth, timeliness and lack of bias, and in the fullness of time to become the most comprehensive encyclopedia in the history of humankind."[87][88]

Bomis began a search for experts to vet articles on Nupedia; these steps proved tedious in nature.[31] In August 2000, Nupedia included over 60 academics contributing to the peer review process on the site; a majority of them held doctor of philosophy or doctor of medicine degrees.[89] Scholars intending to contribute to Nupedia were required to submit their credentials via fax to verify their degrees were legitimate.[90] At that time Bomis was in the process of obtaining advertising revenue for Nupedia.[89] Bomis was optimistic that it could fund the project through ad space strategically placed on[88]

Wikipedia began as a feature of on January 15, 2001.[53][91] This date would subsequently be referred to as Wikipedia Day.[48][85] Originally Wikipedia was only intended as a method to create additional articles for Nupedia.[19][31][10] Wikipedia was to be used as a draft process, with the intention to subsequently move finished articles over to Nupedia.[92] Wikipedia became its own separate site in the following days after the Nupedia advisory board opposed the combination of the two.[85][91] In September 2001, Wales functioned in dual-roles simultaneously as both CEO of Bomis and co-founder of Wikipedia.[93] Sanger functioned simultaneously as chief organizer of Wikipedia and editor-in-chief of Nupedia.[34][94]

Nupedia was encumbered due to its laborious peer review system.[29][30] The peer review method on Nupedia consisted of a seven-step-process.[85][92] Articles were required to go through multiple stages of both review and copy editing.[10] Wikipedia grew at a faster rate than Nupedia.[36][95] In November 2000, Nupedia had 115 potential articles awaiting entrance into its peer review process.[88][92] By September 2001, after a total investment of US$250,000 from Bomis, Nupedia had produced 12 articles.[5][90][92] From the period of 2000 through 2003, Nupedia contributors produced a total of 24 finalized articles.[19][36][85] Wikipedia had about 20,000 articles and functioned in 18 languages by the tail end of 2001.[96]

Originally, Bomis was planning to make Wikipedia a profitable business.[97] Bomis provided all of the staffing needs and technical hardware capabilities for Wikipedia's initial structure.[36] Wikipedia would not have survived without this early support from Bomis.[6][11] For a while, Bomis provided web servers and bandwidth for these projects, and owned key items such as the associated domain names.[33] Wales personally handed over cheques from Bomis to maintain the Wikipedia servers which were located in Tampa, Florida.[48][49][1]

As the costs of Wikipedia rose with its popularity, Bomis' revenues declined as result of the dot-com crash.[33][53] Towards the conclusion of 2000 Bomis had a staff of approximately 11 employees; by the start of 2002 the company had to lay off workers due to financial difficulties and had decreased to their initial size of about five employees.[17] Sanger was laid off in February 2002.[34][60] From January 15, 2001 through March 1, 2002, Sanger was the sole paid editor of Wikipedia.[34] He stepped down from his dual roles as Chief Organizer of Wikipedia and Editor-in-Chief of Nupedia on March 1, 2002, because he felt he would be unable to significantly commit to these arenas as a volunteer in a non-full-time capacity.[34] Sanger felt there was a dearth of "the habit or tradition of respect for expertise" from the high-ranking members of Wikipedia.[9] He continued to contribute to community discussions and felt optimistic about the potential for the future success of Wikipedia.[60][98]

After Sanger's departure Wikipedia was managed by Wales along with the burgeoning online community.[83] Wales thought advertising was a possibility, but the Wikipedia community was against any business development.[17][43][97] Additionally the market towards the end of 2002 was a difficult one for successful Internet marketing.[17] Wikipedia remained a for-profit venture operating under the auspices of Bomis throughout the end of 2002.[32] By the end of 2002, Wikipedia had moved from a .com domain name to .org.[58][96] Wales declared that the site would not accept advertising on the web site.[96] The material from Nupedia was folded into Wikipedia.[35] By 2003, Nupedia was closed in favor of Wikipedia.[9][10]

Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees[edit]

In 2004 community elections added two Wikipedia contributors to the Board; the three founders of Bomis retained their seats.[18]

Since Wikipedia became a drain on Bomis' resources, Wales and Sanger decided to fund the project through charity.[33] Bomis was placed into a position where it needed to lay off the majority of its employees in order to continue operating, as Wikipedia was not producing revenues for the company.[32] Bomis effectively owned the assets of Wikipedia from its creation through 2003.[6][11] Wales utilized approximately US$100,000 of revenues from Bomis to assist Wikipedia prior to the decision to shift the encyclopedia to a non-profit status.[38]

In June 2003, the property of Wikipedia was formally given over to the nascent non-profit organization, the Wikimedia Foundation.[6][11] The Wikimedia Foundation was formed to serve as a charitable institution with a mission of supervising Wikipedia and multiple other associated wiki-based sites.[99][100] Once the Wikimedia Foundation was set up, its staff began to solicit sources of public funding.[99] Bomis turned over its associated ownership rights regarding Wikipedia to the new non-profit.[60] All hardware owned by Bomis used to run Wikipedia associated web sites was given to the Wikimedia Foundation.[36] Wales swapped the copyright ownerships related to Wikipedia from Bomis to the Wikimedia Foundation.[36] The Wikimedia Foundation was first headquartered in St. Petersburg, Florida,[36] where Bomis was located.[37]

The Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation was initially composed of the three founders of Bomis: Jimmy Wales, and his two business partners from Bomis, Michael Davis and Tim Shell.[18] Members of the Wikipedia community complained that the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation was composed mainly of appointed individuals.[18] Subsequently the first elections were held, in 2004.[36] Two people from the Wikipedia community itself were then elected to the Board of Trustees: Florence Devouard and Angela Beesley.[18]

In August 2004, Wales was the chief executive officer of Bomis.[101] On September 20, 2004, Wikipedia reached a total of one million articles having expended US$500,000; the majority of this funding came directly from Wales.[58][90] In November 2004, Wales informed the St. Petersburg Times he was no longer in control of the day-to-day functions of Bomis but retained his ownership status over the company as one of its shareholders.[39] In 2005, Tim Shell was simultaneously CEO of Bomis and one of five board members overseeing Wikipedia.[5] Wales told The Sydney Morning Herald in 2007 that kept partial ownership in Bomis, but stated: "It's pretty much dead."[14] According to the Internet Archive, the Bomis website was last accessible with content in 2010.[12] When it was next accessed in 2013 by the Archive it gave a welcome message for PetaBox.[13]


Wikipedia edits about Bomis by Jimmy Wales
September 4, 2005
September 4, 2005
October 20, 2005
October 20, 2005
October 28, 2005
October 28, 2005

Modifications to Wikipedia about Bomis made by Jimmy Wales were publicized by author Rogers Cadenhead.[3][102]

In 2005, Wales made changes to his own Wikipedia biography a total of 18 times.[102][26][57] He removed references to Bomis Babes as softcore pornography and erotica.[26] Wales excised mention of Larry Sanger as co-founder of Wikipedia.[19][40] The actions by Wales were publicized by author Rogers Cadenhead.[3][102] The incident drew attention from the media, including reports in The Times,[26] Wired,[3] New Statesman,[40] Time,[102] the Herald Sun,[75] The New Yorker,[41] and The New York Times.[42] In 2011, Time identified the 2005 edits by Wales as among the "Top 10 Wikipedia Moments".[102]

Wikipedia's policies warned users not to edit their own biography pages.[3][42] Wikipedia's rules on autobiographical editing quoted from Wales: "It is a social faux pas to write about yourself."[6] Larry Sanger opined: "It does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history."[3][26] Sanger started a discussion on the talk page of the biography of Wales about the practice of historical revisionism.[3]

Wales characterized his actions as fixing mistakes on the site.[19] After Cadenhead had made public the Wikipedia co-founder's edits to his biography, Wales stated his regret for his actions.[7][103] In comments to The Times, Wales stated individuals shouldn't edit their own biographies on Wikipedia.[26] He told The New Yorker that this standard applied to himself as well.[57] Wales warned that this activity should be discouraged because of the potential for bias.[26] He said: "I wish I hadn't done it. It's in poor taste."[19][40]

Bomis earned the nickname "Playboy of the Internet" from The Atlantic.[43] This term subsequently gained currency in media, including The Sunday Times,[44] The Daily Telegraph,[33] MSN Money,[104] Wired,[105] The Torch Magazine,[92] and the book The Cult of the Amateur by Andrew Keen.[45] Wales commented about the term "Playboy of the Internet" and asserted that the characterization was inappropriate.[105]

During interviews with the media Wales had to take queries about his time at Bomis and whether this classifies him as a "porn king".[27][106][107] The 2010 documentary film about Wikipedia, Truth in Numbers?, discussed this characterization of Wales as a "porn king" by journalists.[106][108] Wales stated in Truth in Numbers?: "You know the press has this idea that I am a porn king. I really wasn't a king of anything, frankly, you know? Because at the time, when we looked at it, we were just like, 'Okay, well, this is what our customers will want, let's follow this.'"[108] In later media interviews he responded to questions about the "porn king" characterization by directing journalists to look at a page on the search engine Yahoo! about pornography related to dwarfism.[27] According to Reason he then asserted, "If he was a porn king, he suggests, so is the head of the biggest Web portal in the world."[27]


The Chronicle of Philanthropy characterized Bomis as: "... an Internet marketing firm ... which also traded in erotic photographs for a while."[31] Author Jeff Howe wrote in his book Crowdsourcing that the company was, "one of Wales's less altruistic ventures, a Web portal called that featured, among other items, soft-core pornography."[46] In his book The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It, legal academic Jonathan Zittrain noted, "Bomis helped people find 'erotic photography', and earned money through advertising as well as subscription fees for premium content."[2] The Guardian classed the site as among "the fringes of the adult entertainment industry".[74] The Edge called the site an "explicit-content search engine".[99] Business 2.0 Magazine described it as: "a search portal ... which created and hosted Web rings around popular search terms - including, not surprisingly, a lot of adult themes."[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Wikipedia Was Started With Revenue From Soft-Core Porn". Business Insider ( June 28, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Zittrain, Jonathan (2008). The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It. Yale University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-300-14534-9. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio". Wired News. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Miller, Nick (April 25, 2007). "The wisdom of one". The Age (Fairfax Media Publications Pty Limited). p. 17. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Barnett, Cynthia (September 2005). "Wiki mania". Florida Trend (Trend Magazines, Inc.) 48 (5): 62. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rosenzweig, Roy (2013). Clio Wired: The Future of the Past in the Digital Age. Columbia University Press. pp. 54, 81, 258–261. ISBN 0-231-52171-5. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Henderson, Harry (2008). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. Facts on File. p. 500. ISBN 1-4381-1003-0. 
  8. ^ a b Wright, Robert (April 8, 1999). "'Webbies' honour best of the Internet". Toronto Star (Toronto Star Newspapers, Ltd.). 
  9. ^ a b c d Mahadevan, Jeremy (March 5, 2006). "Not everything on Wikipedia is fact". New Straits Times (Malaysia: New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad). p. 15. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Hasan, Heather (2011). Wikipedia, 3.5 Million Articles & Counting. Rosen Central. pp. 5–11. ISBN 978-1-4488-5557-5. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Rosenzweig, Roy (June 2006). "Can History Be Open Source?". The Journal of American History 93 (1): 117–146. doi:10.2307/4486062. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Bomis.Com Home Page". 2010. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b "Welcome to the US Petabox". 2013. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hutcheon, Stephen (April 22, 2007). "Facts and friction". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  15. ^ Conway, Paul (Fall 2010). "Week 5b: Lessons of Wikipedia". SI 410: Ethics and Information Technology. University of Michigan. p. 7. 
  16. ^ a b c d Seybold, Patricia B. (2006). Outside Innovation: How Your Customers Will Co-Design Your Company's Future. HarperBusiness. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-06-113590-3. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i DiBona, Chris; Mark Stone, Danese Cooper (2005). Open Sources 2.0: The Continuing Evolution. O'Reilly Media. pp. 7, 310–334. ISBN 978-0-596-00802-4. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. Hyperion. pp. 6, 18–20, 28–32, 38–42, 63, 69, 76, 78–79. ISBN 1-4013-0371-4. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, Elise (April 2013). "The Encyclopedic Mind of Jimmy Wales". Wired 21 (4): 84. 
  20. ^ a b c Stöcker, Christian (August 31, 2010). "Eine Weltmacht im Netz". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c d Anderson, Paul (2012). Web 2.0 and Beyond: Principles and Technologies. Chapman and Hall/CRC. pp. 136–138. ISBN 978-1-4398-2867-0. 
  22. ^ a b The Globe and Mail (2012). The Lunch. Booktango. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-1-4689-0835-0. 
  23. ^ a b Weinberger, David (2008). Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder. Holt. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8050-8811-3. 
  24. ^ a b c d Shirky, Clay (2009). "Chapter 5: Personal Motivation Meets Collaborative Production". Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311494-9. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Kuchinskas, Susan (March 26, 2009). "Jimmy Wales: Why the recession will not kill digital media". iMedia Connection. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Blakely, Rhys (December 20, 2005). "Wikipedia founder edits himself". The Times. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f Mangu-Ward, Katherine (June 2007). "Wikipedia and Beyond: Jimmy Wales' sprawling vision". Reason (Reason Foundation). Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Brain scan: The free-knowledge fundamentalist". The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Limited; Technology Quarterly). June 5, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Seitz, Patrick (June 15, 2011). "The Wizard of Wikipedia Click: Jimmy Wales sparked the go-to information site". Investor's Business Daily (Investor's Business Daily, Inc.). p. A3. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Edemariam, Aida (February 19, 2011). "Saturday: The Saturday interview: Master of the know-alls". The Guardian (Guardian Newspapers Limited). p. 27. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Jensen, Brennen (June 29, 2006). "Access for All". The Chronicle of Philanthropy (Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.) 18 (18). 
  32. ^ a b c d e Susan Meyer (2012). Jimmy Wales and Wikipedia. Rosen Pub Group. pp. 29–35, 56–58, 84–86. ISBN 978-1-4488-6912-1. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Neate, Rupert (October 7, 2008). "Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales goes bananas". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b c d e "Spotlight : Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger". The Star (Amman, Jordan: Al Bawaba (Middle East) Ltd.). April 2, 2007. 
  35. ^ a b Waters, John K. (2010). The Everything Guide to Social Media. Adams Media. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-1-4405-0631-4. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ayers, Phoebe; Charles Matthews, Ben Yates (2008). How Wikipedia Works: And How You Can Be a Part of It. No Starch Press. pp. 46–47, 448–451. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3. 
  37. ^ a b c d Mehegan, David (February 12, 2006). "Bias, Sabotage haunt Wikipedia's Free World". Boston Globe (Boston, Massachusetts). Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Hickman, Martin; GeneviAve Roberts (February 13, 2006). "Wikipedia under the microscope over accuracy". The Independent (London, England: Independent Print Ltd.). p. 12. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  39. ^ a b Krueger, Curtis (November 8, 2004). "There's no end to it". St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, Florida). p. 1E. 
  40. ^ a b c d e Bernstein, Jon (January 31, 2011). "Wikipedia's benevolent dictator". New Statesman (New Statesman, Ltd.) 140 (5038): 34. 
  41. ^ a b c d Elliott, Tim (January 6, 2007). "The world according to Wiki; Digital Living". The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney: John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd). p. 22; Section: Spectrum. "... before in 1996 starting a dot-com called Bomis, whose products included soft porn sites The Babe Report and (According to The New Yorker, Wales has repeatedly tried to edit out references to pornography in his own Wikipedia entry.)" 
  42. ^ a b c Mitchell, Dan (December 24, 2005). "What's Online: Insider Editing at Wikipedia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  43. ^ a b c d Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly (The Atlantic Monthly Group). Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f "Mr Know-It-All is giving up billions". The Sunday Times. January 16, 2011. p. 23. 
  45. ^ a b c d e Keen, Andrew (2008). The Cult of the Amateur. Random House. pp. 41–42. ISBN 0-385-52081-6. 
  46. ^ a b c d Howe, Jeff (2008). Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. Crown Business. pp. 58–60. ISBN 0-307-44932-7. 
  47. ^ a b Long, Camilla (January 22, 2012). "Hi, I'm the guy who blacked out the world". The Sunday Times (London, England). p. 5. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g Chozick, Amy (June 29, 2013). "Jimmy Wales isn't a billionaire; He hasn't capitalized on Wikipedia, but still lives a jet-setter's life". International Herald Tribune. 
  49. ^ a b c d e Chozick, Amy (June 30, 2013). "Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionaire". The New York Times Magazine. p. MM28. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  50. ^ Doran, James (December 23, 2006). "Curiosity filled the biggest textbook in the world; Factbox". The Times (London, England). p. 49. 
  51. ^ a b McNichol, Tom (March 1, 2007). "Building a Wiki World". Business 2.0 (CNN). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  52. ^ "People Who've Shaped The Internet". PC Quest (Athena Information Solutions Pvt. Ltd.). January 3, 2012. 
  53. ^ a b c Slater, Joanna (January 15, 2011). "The man with all the answers". The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada: The Globe and Mail Inc.). p. B3. 
  54. ^ Lee, Jyh-An (2013). Nonprofit Organizations and the Intellectual Commons. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-78100-157-8. 
  55. ^ "Wikipedia dilemma; Struggling free info site grapples with selling ad space". The Hamilton Spectator (Torstar Syndication Services, a division of Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd.). March 15, 2008. p. A14. 
  56. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (2007). The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. Macmillan. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-312-42507-4. 
  57. ^ a b c d Schiff, Stacy (July 31, 2006). "Annals of Information: Know It All - Can Wikipedia conquer expertise?". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 19, 2014. "Four years later, he moved to San Diego, where he used his savings to found an Internet portal. Its audience was mostly men; pornography—videos and blogs—accounted for about a tenth of its revenues." 
  58. ^ a b c d Pink, Daniel H. (March 2005). "The Book Stops Here". Wired News (Condé Nast Digital) 13 (03). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  59. ^ Du Bois, Grant (June 12, 2000). "Ask Jeeves bids banner ads adieu, welcomes new method". eWeek (QuinStreet Enterprise). p. 33. 
  60. ^ a b c d e Duval, Jared (2010). Next Generation Democracy: What the Open-Source Revolution Means for Power, Politics, and Change. Bloomsbury. pp. 74–75, 80–81. ISBN 978-1-60819-066-9. 
  61. ^ "Silvia Saint Bomis T-shirt Gallery". Bomis Magazine. Archived from the original on March 2, 2000. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Bomis T-shirt Gallery". Bomis Magazine. Archived from the original on March 1, 2000. Retrieved January 22, 2014. "Welcome to the T-shirt gallery! Please feel free to use any of these images on your own web site. All we ask is that you include a link back to Thanks!" 
  63. ^ Cadenhead, Rogers (December 20, 2005). "Bomis Denuded of Erotic Content". Workbench. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. 
  64. ^ Soriano, Csar G. (February 26, 1999). "The faithful have a galaxy of Web sites to visit". USA Today (Gannett Company, Inc.). p. 2E. 
  65. ^ Jackson, Kathy Merlock (Winter 2000). "Playing It Again and Again: Casablanca's Impact on American Mass Media and Popular Culture". Journal of Popular Film and Television (Taylor & Francis Ltd.) 27 (4): 33. doi:10.1080/01956050009602813. 
  66. ^ Chester R (July 23, 1998). "Synthetic high". Courier Mail (Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited). p. 25; Section: What's on. 
  67. ^ Ward, Cotton (September 9, 2000). "Living in the '70s; R2 The '70s Reviews". The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney: John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd). p. 8; Section: Computers, Icon. 
  68. ^ LaPointe (Hamilton Spectator), Kirk (June 10, 1998). "How to find spicy stuff on the Web". The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec, Canada: CanWest Interactive, a division of CanWest Global Communications Corp.). p. F10; Section: The Web Page. 
  69. ^ Chester R (October 1, 1998). "More like snake oil". Courier Mail (Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited). p. 21; Section: What's on. 
  70. ^ QNP (November 19, 1998). "Buffy slays 'em". Courier Mail (Queensland, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited). p. 17; Section: What's on. 
  71. ^ Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West. Routledge. pp. 60, 181. ISBN 978-0-415-35182-9. 
  72. ^ Bhaskar, Michael (2013). The Content Machine: Towards a Theory of Publishing from the Printing Press to the Digital Network. Anthem Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-0-85728-111-1. 
  73. ^ Spirrison, Brad (December 4, 2006). "For the record, Wikipedia has some roots in Chicago". Chicago Sun-Times (Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Sun-Times, Inc.). p. 62. 
  74. ^ a b Finkelstein, Seth (December 18, 2008). "Technology: Read me first: Sting in the Scorpions tale is the exposure of Wiki's weakness". The Guardian (Guardian Newspapers Limited). p. 2. 
  75. ^ a b Beveridge, John (April 26, 2007). "Looking up your own entry". Herald Sun (Nationwide News Pty Limited). p. 68. 
  76. ^ Semuels, Alana (March 13, 2008). "Wikipedia Experiences Growing Pains". Los Angeles Times (LATWP News Service). 
  77. ^ Bergstein, Brian (March 22, 2007). "Wikipedia co-founder seeks to start all over again – this time with contributors' real names". Associated Press Archive. 
  78. ^ Kopytoff, Verne (July 19, 2007). "You could look it up". San Francisco Chronicle. p. C1. 
  79. ^ a b Forman, Bill (November 19, 2010). "The Seven Faces of Wikipedia". Colorado Springs Independent. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  80. ^ a b c Schilling, Chelsea (December 17, 2012). "Here's your correction, Wikipedia founder". WorldNetDaily (, Inc.). Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  81. ^ a b Reagle, Joseph Michael (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia. The MIT Press. pp. 35–36, 41, 120. ISBN 978-0-262-01447-2. 
  82. ^ Lievrouw, Leah (2011). Alternative and Activist New Media. Polity. pp. 202–205. ISBN 978-0-7456-4183-6. 
  83. ^ a b Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "Technology: Inside IT: This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian (London, England: Guardian Newspapers Limited). p. 5. 
  84. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (2009). Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. Penguin Books. pp. 156–157. ISBN 0-14-311613-4. 
  85. ^ a b c d e Myers, Ken S. (Fall 2006). "Wikimmunity: fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia". Harvard Journal of Law & Technology (Harvard Law School) 20 (1): 163. 
  86. ^ Gobillot, Emmanuel (2011). Leadershift: Reinventing Leadership for the Age of Mass Collaboration. Kogan Page. pp. 84–86. ISBN 978-0-7494-6303-8. 
  87. ^ a b Rollins, Deborah (May 15, 2000). "Nupedia". Booklist (American Library Association) 96 (18): 1786. 
  88. ^ a b c Frauenfelder, Mark (November 27, 2000). "The New Encyclopedia Salesmen". The Industry Standard 3 (49): 110. 
  89. ^ a b "Nupedia Launches Open-Content Model". School Library Journal (Library Journals, LLC. A wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc.) 46 (8): S6. August 2000. 
  90. ^ a b c Koerner, Brendan I. (2006). The Best of Technology Writing 2006. University of Michigan Press. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-0-472-03195-5. 
  91. ^ a b Curley, Robert (2012). Issues in Cyberspace: From Privacy to Piracy. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 35–38. ISBN 978-1-61530-738-8. 
  92. ^ a b c d e Lewis, John P. (Fall 2013). "Wikipedia: Is it the Library of Babel?". The Torch Magazine (International Association of Torch Clubs; North Carolina Sociological Association; ISSN 0040–9440 (print); ISSN 2330–9261 (online)) 87 (1). Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  93. ^ Meyers, Peter (September 20, 2001). "Fact-driven? Collegial? This site wants you". The New York Times. p. D2. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  94. ^ Richardson, Joanne (2004). Anarchitexts: A Subsol Anthology. Autonomedia. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-57027-142-7. 
  95. ^ Twose, Helen (November 10, 2007). "Mr Wikipedia's knowledge quest". The New Zealand Herald (Auckland, New Zealand: APN Newspapers Pty Ltd.). p. 5. 
  96. ^ a b c Kleeman, Jenny (March 2, 2007). "You couldn't make it up". The Times (London, England: Times Newspapers Limited). p. 4; Section: Features, Times2. 
  97. ^ a b Finkelstein, Seth (September 24, 2008). "Read me first: Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  98. ^ Peterson, Kim (May 6, 2002). "Encyclopedias go digital Educational tomes shrink in size, but grow in number". U-T San Diego (Union-Tribune Publishing Co.). p. C-1. 
  99. ^ a b c Wan Chern, Kang (December 1, 2008). "Net Value: Building the Wiki brand". The Edge (The Edge Communications Sdn. Bhd.). 
  100. ^ "Feature". Computer Weekly 203 (TechTarget). January 13, 2009. 
  101. ^ Brooks, David (August 4, 2004). "Online, interactive encyclopedia not just for geeks anymore". The Telegraph (Nashua, New Hampshire). 
  102. ^ a b c d e Romero, Frances (January 13, 2011). "Top 10 Wikipedia Moments - World Wide Wiki: Who Founded Wikipedia?". Time. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  103. ^ Bergstein, Brian (March 22, 2007). "Citizendium founder Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia, but don't tell that to Jimmy Wales". Associated Press Archive. 
  104. ^ Buckland, Jason (May 12, 2011). "The humble beginnings of CEO big shots: Jimmy Wales". MSN Money (Microsoft). p. 1. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  105. ^ a b Greenwald, Ted (March 19, 2013). "How Jimmy Wales' Wikipedia Harnessed the Web as a Force for Good". Wired 21.4: 82. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  106. ^ a b "Truth in Numbers: The World According to Wikipedia - Summary". Paley Center for Media ( 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  107. ^ Tai, Elizabeth (June 19, 2013). "Features: The encyclopaedia salesman". The Star (Star Publications). Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  108. ^ a b Scott Glosserman, Nic Hill (2010). Truth in Numbers? (Documentary film). United States: Underdog Pictures; GlenEcho Entertainment. Event occurs at 34:30. 

Further reading[edit]

Primary sources

External links[edit]