ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)

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The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels.[1] A pressure component designed and fabricated in accordance with this standard will have a long, useful service life, and one that ensures the protection of human life and property. Volunteers, who are nominated to its committees based on their technical expertise and on their ability to contribute to the writing, revising, interpreting, and administering of the document, write the BPVC.[2] The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) works as an Accreditation Body and entitles independent third parties such as verification, testing and certification agencies to inspect and ensure compliance to the BPVC.[3]

History[edit]

The BPVC was created in response to public outcry after several serious explosions in the state of Massachusetts. A fire-tube boiler exploded at the Grover Shoe Factory in Brockton, Massachusetts on March 20, 1905 which resulted in the deaths of 58 people and injured 150. Then on December 6, 1906 a boiler in the factory of the P.J. Harney Shoe Company exploded in Lynn, Massachusetts. As a result the state of Massachusetts enacted the first legal code based on ASME's rules for the construction of steam boilers in 1907.[4][5]

ASME convened the Board of Boiler Rules before it became the ASME Boiler Code Committee which was formed in 1911. This committee put in the form work for the first edition of the ASME Boiler Code - Rules for the Construction of Stationary Boilers and for the Allowable Working Pressures, which was issued in 1914 and published in 1915.[5]

The first publication was known as the 1914 edition, and it developed over time into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code, which today has over 92,000 copies in use, in over 100 countries around the world.[5]

The first edition of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1914 edition) consisted of one book, 114 pages long, measuring 5 x 8 inches[6] which evolved into today's edition which consists of 28 books, including twelve dedicated to the construction and inspection of nuclear power plant components and two Code Case books. (The 2001 edition of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is more than 16,000 pages.) The 28 books are either standards that provide the rules for fabricating a component or they are support documents, such as Materials, Nondestructive Examination, and Welding and Brazing Qualifications.[7]

After the first edition of the Code, the verifications that the manufacture was to the Code was performed by independent inspectors, which resulted in a wide range of interpretations. Hence in February 1919, the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors was formed.[5]

ASME BPVC TIMELINE[5][8]
YearActivity
1880The American Society of Mechanical Engineers is founded
1884First performance test code: Code for the Conduct of Trials of Steam Boilers
1900First revision of an ASME standard, Standard Method of Conducting Steam Boiler Tests
1911Establishment of a committee to propose a Boiler Code
1913New Committee to revise the Boiler Code
1914Issuance of the first Boiler Code
1915Standards for Specifications and Construction of Boilers and Other Containing Vessels in Which High Pressure is Contained
1919National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors formed
1924Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels
1930Test Code of Complete Steam-Electric Power Plants
1956Committee established for ASME Pressure Vessel Code for Nuclear Age
1963Section III (Nuclear Power) of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
1968ASME Nuclear Power Certificate of Authorization Program commences
1972ASME expands its certification program worldwide; first ASME manufacturer certification issued outside of North America
1978First ASME publication of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee interpretations
1983ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code published in both conventional and metric units
1989Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code published on CD-ROM
1992First Authorized Inspection Agency accredited
1996Risk technology introduced into the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
1997High Pressure Vessel Code
2000C&S Connect (on-line balloting and tracking system) launched for Boiler and_Pressure Vessel Committees
2007ISO TC11 Standard 16528—Boilers and Pressure Vessels published, establishing performance requirements for the construction of boilers and pressure vessels and facilitating registration of BPV Codes to this standard
2008Polyethylene plastic pipe introduced into the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III
2009ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee reorganized from one consensus body to ten consensus bodies

Code Sections[edit]

LIST OF SECTIONS[9]

ADDENDA

An addenda, which includes additions and revisions to the individual Sections of the Code are issued accordingly for a particular edition of the code up until the next edition.[9]

INTERPRETATIONS

ASME's interpretations to submitted technical queries relevant to a particular Section of the Code are issued accordingly. Interpretations are also available through the internet.[10]

CODES CASES

Code Cases provide rules that permit the use of materials and alternative methods of construction that are not covered by existing BPVC rules.[11] For those Cases that have been adopted will appear in the appropriate Code Cases book: "Boilers and Pressure Vessels" and "Nuclear Components."[9]

Codes Cases are usually intended to be incorporated in the Code in a later edition. When it is used, the Code Case specifies mandatory requirements which must be met as it would be with the Code. There are some jurisdictions that do not automatically accept Code Cases.[9]

ASME BPVC Section II - Materials[edit]

The section of the ASME BPVC consists of 4 parts.

Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications

This Part is a supplementary book referenced by other sections of the Code. It provides material specifications for ferrous materials which are suitable for use in the construction of pressure vessels.[12]

The specifications contained is this Part specify the mechanical properties, heat treatment, heat and product chemical composition and analysis, test specimens, and methodologies of testing. The designation of the specifications start with 'SA' and a number which is taken from the ASTM 'A' specifications.[12]

Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications

This Part is a supplementary book referenced by other sections of the Code. It provides material specifications for nonferrous materials which are suitable for use in the construction of pressure vessels.[12]

The specifications contained is this Part specify the mechanical properties, heat treatment, heat and product chemical composition and analysis, test specimens, and methodologies of testing. The designation of the specifications start with 'SB' and a number which is taken from the ASTM 'B' specifications.[12]

Part C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals

This Part is a supplementary book referenced by other sections of the Code. It provides mechanical properties, heat treatment, heat and product chemical composition and analysis, test specimens, and methodologies of testing for welding rods, filler metals and electrodes used in the construction of pressure vessels.[12]

The specifications contained is this Part are designated with 'SFA' and a number which is taken from the American Welding Society (AWS) specifications.[12]

Part D - Properties (Customary/Metric)

This Part is a supplementary book referenced by other sections of the Code. It provides tables for the design stress values, tensile and yield stress values as well as tables for material properties (Modulus of Elasticity, Coefficient of heat transfer et al.)[12]

ASME BPVC Section III - Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components[edit]

Section III of the ASME Code Address the rules for construction of nuclear facility components and supports. The components and supports covered by section III are intended to be installed in a nuclear power system that serves the purpose of producing and controlling the output of thermal energy from nuclear fuel and those associated systems essential to safety of nuclear power system. Section III provides requirements for new construction of nuclear power system considering mechanical and thermal stresses due to cyclic operation. Deterioration, which may occur in service as result of radiation effects, corrosion, or instability of the material, is typically not addressed.

ASME BPVC Section V - Nondestructive Examination[edit]

The section of the ASME BPVC contains the requirements for nondestructive examinations which are referred and required by other sections of the Code.[13]

The section also covers the suppliers examination responsibilities, requirements of the authorized inspectors (AI) as well as the requirements for the qualification of personnel, inspection and examinations.[13]

ASME BPVC Section VIII - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels[edit]

The section of the ASME BPVC consists of 3 divisions.[14]

Division 1[edit]

This division covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and nonmandatory guidance for materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure which exceeds 15 psi (100 kPa).[9]

The pressure vessel can be either fired or unfired.[14] The pressure may be from external sources, or by the application of heating from an indirect or direct source, or any combination thereof.[9]

The Division is not numbered in the traditional method (Part 1, Part 2 etc.) but is structured with Subsections and Parts which consist of letters followed by a number. The structure is as follows:[9]

Division 2 - Alternative Rules[edit]

This division covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and nonmandatory guidance for materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure which exceeds 15 psi (103 kPa).[15]

The pressure vessel can be either fired or unfired.[14] The pressure may be from external sources, or by the application of heating from an indirect or direct source as a result of a process, or any combination of the two.[15]

The rules contained in this section can be used as an alternative to the minimum requirements specified in Division 1. Generally the Division 2 rules are more onerous than in Division 1 with respect to materials, design and nondestructive examinations but higher design stress intensity values are allowed.[14] Division 2 has also provisions for the use of finite element analysis to determine expected stress in pressure equipment, in addition to the traditional approach of design by formula (Part 5: "Design by Analysis requirements").

Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels[edit]

This division covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and nonmandatory guidance for materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure which exceeds 10,000 psi (70,000 kPa).[16]

The pressure vessel can be either fired or unfired.[14] The pressure may be from external sources, by the application of heating from an indirect or direct source, process reaction or any combination thereof.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Antaki, George A. (2003). Piping and pipeline engineering: design, construction, maintenance, integrity, and repair. Marcel Dekker Inc. 
  2. ^ ASME Codes and Standards
  3. ^ Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection According to ASME
  4. ^ Balmer, Robert T (2010). Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. 13.10 Modern Steam Power Plants: Academic Press. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-12-374996-3. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Varrasi, John (June 2009). "To Protect and Serve - Celebrating 125 Years Of Asme Codes & Standards". MEMagazine. 
  6. ^ Canonico, Domenic A. (February 2000). "The Origins of ASME's Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code". MEMagazine. 
  7. ^ "Setting the Standard". ASME. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Standards and Certification Chronology". History of ASME Standards. ASME. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g An International Code - 2010 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 1. ASME. July 1, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Codes & Standards Interpretations On-Line". Codes and Standards Electronic Tools. ASME International. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Code Cases of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code". ASME. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "II. Materials". Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 2010 Edition. ASME. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "V. Nondestructive Examinations". Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 2010 Edition. ASME. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "VIII. Pressure Vessels - Division 1". Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - 2010 Edition. ASME. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  15. ^ a b An International Code - 2010 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 2: Alternative Rules. ASME. July 1, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b An International Code - 2010 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 3: Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels. ASME. July 1, 2011.