Bobby Driscoll

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Bobby Driscoll
BobbyDriscoll.jpg
Bobby Driscoll, c. 1949
BornRobert Cletus Driscoll
(1937-03-03)March 3, 1937
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.
DiedMarch 30, 1968(1968-03-30) (aged 31)
East Village, Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart Failure
OccupationActor/Artist
Years active1943–60
Spouse(s)Marilyn Jean Rush (1956–1957; 1957–1960)
AwardsAcademy Juvenile Award
Milky Way Gold Star Award
1954 for his TV and Radio work
Hollywood Walk Of Fame
1560 Vine Street
 
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Bobby Driscoll
BobbyDriscoll.jpg
Bobby Driscoll, c. 1949
BornRobert Cletus Driscoll
(1937-03-03)March 3, 1937
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.
DiedMarch 30, 1968(1968-03-30) (aged 31)
East Village, Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart Failure
OccupationActor/Artist
Years active1943–60
Spouse(s)Marilyn Jean Rush (1956–1957; 1957–1960)
AwardsAcademy Juvenile Award
Milky Way Gold Star Award
1954 for his TV and Radio work
Hollywood Walk Of Fame
1560 Vine Street

Robert Cletus "Bobby" Driscoll (March 3, 1937 – March 30, 1968) was an American child actor known for a large body of cinema and TV performances from 1943 to 1960. He starred in some of The Walt Disney Company's most popular live-action pictures of that period, such as Song of the South (1946), So Dear to My Heart (1948), and Treasure Island (1950). He served as animation model and provided the voice for the title role in Peter Pan (1953). In 1950, he received an Academy Juvenile Award for outstanding performance in feature films.

In the mid-1950s, Driscoll's acting career began to decline, and he turned primarily to guest appearances on anthology TV series. He became addicted to narcotics and was sentenced to prison for drug use. After his release he focused his attention on the avant-garde art scene. In ill health from his drug use, and his funds completely depleted, he died on March 30, 1968, less than four weeks after his 31st birthday.

Early life[edit]

He was born Robert Cletus Driscoll in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the only child of Cletus, an insulation salesman, and Isabelle (née Kratz), a former schoolteacher. Shortly after his birth, the family moved to Des Moines,[1] where they stayed until early 1943. When a doctor advised the father to relocate to balmy California due to pulmonary ailments he was suffering from his work-related handling of asbestos, the family moved to Los Angeles.

Driscoll's parents were encouraged to try to get Bobby into films. Their barber's son, an actor, got Bobby an audition at MGM for a bit role in the 1943 family drama Lost Angel, which starred then up-and-coming Margaret O'Brien. While on a tour across the studio lot, five-year-old Driscoll noticed a mock-up ship and asked where the water was. The director was impressed by the boy's curiosity and intelligence, and chose him over forty applicants.[2][3]

Career[edit]

"Wonder Child"[edit]

Driscoll's brief, two-minute debut[4] helped him win the role of young Al Sullivan, the youngest of the five Sullivan brothers, in the 20th Century Fox's 1944 World War II drama The Fighting Sullivans, opposite Thomas Mitchell and Anne Baxter. With his natural acting and talent for memorizing lines at that young age, he was soon considered a new "Wonder Child".[5] One major studio recommended him to another, leading to screen portrayals as the boy who could blow his whistle while standing on his head in Sunday Dinner for a Soldier (1944), the "child brother" of Richard Arlen in The Big Bonanza (1944), and young Percy Maxim in So Goes My Love (1946),[6] with Don Ameche and Myrna Loy. In addition, he had a number of smaller roles in movies such as Identity Unknown in 1945, and Mrs Susie Slagel's, From This Day Forward, and O.S.S. with Alan Ladd, all three of which were released in 1946.

Disney[edit]

Driscoll was the first actor Walt Disney put under contract[citation needed] to play the lead character in 1946's Song of the South, which introduced live action into the producer's films, in addition to extensive animated footage. The film turned Driscoll and his co-star Luana Patten into child stars, and they were discussed for a special Academy Award as the best child actors of the year, but in 1947 it was decided not to present any juvenile awards at all.[7]

Now nicknamed by the American press as Walt Disney's "Sweetheart Team",[8] Driscoll and Patten starred together in So Dear to My Heart, opposite acting balladeer Burl Ives and veteran character actress Beulah Bondi. It was planned as Disney's first all live-action movie, with production beginning immediately after Song of the South,[9] but its release was delayed until late 1948 to meet the demands of Disney's co-producer and long-time distributor RKO Radio Pictures for some animated content in the film.

Driscoll played Eddie Cantor's screen son in the 1948 RKO Studios musical comedy If You Knew Susie, in which he teamed up with former Our Gang member Margaret Kerry.[10] He and Patten appeared with Roy Rogers and the Sons of the Pioneers in the live-action teaser for the Pecos Bill segment of Disney's cartoon compilation Melody Time, which was released in 1948.[11]

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22nd Academy Award Ceremony of March 23, 1950 – excerpt

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Driscoll was "loaned" to RKO[12] to star in The Window, based on Cornell Woolrich's The Boy Cried Murder. However Howard Hughes, who had bought RKO the previous year, considered the film unworthy of release and Driscoll not much of an actor, and delayed its release. When it was released in May 1949, it became a surprise hit and recouped a multiple of its production costs. The New York Times credited Driscoll with the film's success:

"[...]The striking force and terrifying impact of this RKO melodrama is chiefly due to Bobby's brilliant acting, for the whole effect would have been lost were there any suspicion of doubt about the credibility of this pivotal character.[...] "The Window" is Bobby Driscoll's picture, make no mistake about it.[...][13]

So Dear to My Heart and The Window earned Driscoll a special Juvenile Academy Award in March 1950 as the outstanding juvenile actor of 1949.[14][15]

Driscoll was cast to play Jim Hawkins in Walt Disney's version of Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island, with British actor Robert Newton as Long John Silver, the studio's first all-live-action picture. The feature was filmed in the United Kingdom, and during production it was discovered that Driscoll did not have a valid British work permit, so his family and Disney were fined and ordered to leave the country. They were allowed to remain for six weeks to prepare an appeal, during which director Byron Haskin hastily shot all of Driscoll's close-ups,[16] using his British stand-in to film missing location scenes after he and his parents had returned to California.[17] Driscoll's work in this film earned him a star at 1560 Vine Street on the Hollywood Walk Of Fame.

Treasure Island was an international box office hit, and there were several other film projects involving Driscoll under discussion, but none materialized. For example, Haskin recalled in his memoirs that Disney, although interested in Robert Louis Stevenson's pirate story as a full length cartoon, always planned to cast Driscoll as Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer.[18] At that point in time, he was at the perfect age for the role, but because of a story rights ownership dispute with Hollywood producer David O. Selznick, who had previously produced the property in 1938, Disney ultimately had to cancel the entire project.[19] Driscoll was also scheduled to portray a youthful follower of Robin Hood following Treasure Island, again with Robert Newton, who would play Friar Tuck,[20] but Driscoll's run-in with British immigration made this impossible.[21]

Driscoll's second long-run Disney contract allowed him to be loaned to independent Horizon Pictures for the double role of Danny/Josh Reed in When I Grow Up (1951). His casting was suggested by Oscar-winning screenplay writer Michael Kanin.

In addition to his brief guest appearance in Walt Disney's first television Christmas show in 1950, One Hour in Wonderland, Driscoll lent his voice to Goofy, Jr. in the Disney cartoon shorts, Fathers are People and Father's Lion, which were released in 1951 and 1952, respectively.

Driscoll portrayed Robert "Bibi" Bonnard in Richard Fleischer's comedy The Happy Time (1952), which was based on a Broadway play of the same name by Samuel A. Taylor. Cast with acting veterans Charles Boyer, Marsha Hunt, Louis Jourdan, and Kurt Kasznar, he played the juvenile offspring of a patriarch in Quebec of the 1920s, the character upon whom the plot centered.

Driscoll's last major success, Peter Pan, was produced largely between May 1949 and mid-1951.[22] Driscoll was cast opposite Disney's "Little British Lady" Kathryn Beaumont, who was in the role of Wendy Darling; he was used as the reference model for the close-ups and provided Peter Pan's voice, while dancer and choreographer Roland Dupree was the model for the character's motion.[23][24] Scenes were played on an almost empty sound stage with only the most essential props, and filmed for use by the illustrators.

In his biography on Disney Marc Elliot described Driscoll as the producer's favorite "live action" child star: "Walt often referred to Driscoll with great affection as the living embodiment of his own youth [...]"[25] However, during a project meeting following the completion of Peter Pan, Disney stated that he now saw Driscoll as best suited for roles as a young bully rather than a likeable protagonist. Driscoll's salary at Disney had been raised to $1750 per week[26] and compared to his salary, Driscoll had little work from 1952 on. In March 1953, the additional two-year option Driscoll had been extended (which would have kept him at Disney into 1956) was canceled, just weeks after Peter Pan was released theatrically. A severe case of acne accompanying the onset of puberty[27] and explaining why it was necessary for Driscoll to use heavy makeup for his performances on dozens of TV shows, was officially provided as the final reason for the termination of his connection with the Disney Studios.

TV and radio[edit]

Driscoll encountered increasing indifference from the other Hollywood studios. Still perceived as "Disney’s kid actor",[28] he was unable to get movie roles as a serious character actor. Beginning in 1953 and for most of the next three years, the bulk of his work was on television, on such anthology and drama series as Fireside Theatre, Schlitz Playhouse of Stars, Front Row Center, Navy Log, TV Reader's Digest, Climax!, Ford Theatre, Studio One, Dragnet, Medic, 'and Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater. On another series, Men of Annapolis, he appeared with John Smith, future second husband of Driscoll's Song of the South co-star, Luana Patten.

In some special star-focusing series, Driscoll appeared with Loretta Young, Gloria Swanson, and Jane Wyman.

Between 1948 and 1957, he performed on a number of radio productions, which included a special broadcast version of Treasure Island in January 1951 and of Peter Pan in December 1953. And as it was common practice in this business, Driscoll and Luana Patten did promotional radio gigs (starting in late 1946 for Song of the South) and toured the country for various parades and charity events through the years.[29]

In 1947, he recorded a special version of "So Dear to My Heart" at Capitol Records. In 1954, he was awarded a Milky Way Gold Star Award, chosen in a nationwide poll for his work on television and radio.[30]

Post-Disney[edit]

After he left the Disney studios, Driscoll's parents withdrew him from the Hollywood Professional School which served child movie actors,[31][32][33][34] and sent him to the public Westwood University High School instead. There his grades dropped substantially, he was the target of ridicule for his previous film career, and he began to experiment with drugs.[35][36] He said later, "The other kids didn't accept me. They treated me as one apart. I tried desperately to be one of the gang. When they rejected me, I fought back, became belligerent and cocky — and was afraid all the time."[37][38] At his request, Driscoll's parents returned him the next year to Hollywood Professional School, where in May 1955 he graduated.[39]

However, his drug use increased. In an interview years later, he stated, "I was 17 when I first experimented with the stuff. In no time I was using whatever was available, ... mostly heroin, because I had the money to pay for it."[40] In 1956, he was arrested for the first time for possession of marijuana, but the charge was dismissed.[41] On July 24, 1956, Hedda Hopper wrote in the Los Angeles Times: "This could cost this fine lad and good actor his career."[42] In 1957, he had only one television part, that of the loyal brother of a criminal immigrant in M Squad, a long-running crime series starring Lee Marvin.

In December 1956, Driscoll and his girlfriend Marilyn Jean Rush (occasionally misspelled as "Brush") eloped to Mexico to get married, to avoid their parents' objections. The couple was later re-wed in a Los Angeles ceremony that took place in March 1957.[43] They had three children, but the relationship didn't last. They separated, then divorced in 1960.[44]

Later roles[edit]

Driscoll began using the name "Robert Driscoll"[45] to distance himself from his youthful roles as "Bobby" (since 1951, he had been known to friends and family as "Bob",[46] and in Schlitz Playhouse of Stars – Early Space Conquerors, 1952, was credited as "Bob Driscoll"[47]). He landed two final screen roles: with Cornel Wilde in the 1955 release The Scarlet Coat, and performing opposite Mark Damon, Connie Stevens and Frances Farmer in The Party Crashers (1958).[48]

He was charged with "disturbing the peace" and "assault with a deadly weapon", the latter after hitting one of two hecklers with a pistol, who made insulting remarks while he was washing a girlfriend's car; the charges were dropped.[49]

Late in 1961, he was sentenced as a drug addict and imprisoned at the Narcotic Rehabilitation Center of the California Institution for Men in Chino, California. His last known appearances on TV were, among others, small roles in two single-season series: The Best of the Post, a syndicated anthology series adapted from stories published in The Saturday Evening Post magazine, and The Brothers Brannagan, an unsuccessful crime series starring Stephen Dunne and Mark Roberts. Both were originally aired on November 5, 1960.

When Driscoll left Chino in early 1962, he was unable to find acting work. Embittered by this, he said, "I have found that memories are not very useful. I was carried on a silver platter ... and then dumped into the garbage."[50]

New York City[edit]

In 1965, a year after his parole expired, he relocated to New York, hoping to revive his career on the Broadway stage, but was unsuccessful.[51] He became part of Andy Warhol's Greenwich Village art community known as The Factory,[52] where he began focusing on his artistic talents. He had previously been encouraged to do so by famed artist and poet Wallace Berman, whom he had befriended after joining Berman's art circle (now also known as Semina Culture) in Los Angeles in 1956. Some of his works were considered outstanding,[53][54] and a few of his surviving collages and cardboard mailers were temporarily exhibited in Los Angeles at the Santa Monica Museum of Art.[55][56] In 1965, early in his tenure at The Factory, Driscoll gave his last known film performance, in experimental filmmaker Piero Heliczer's underground movie Dirt.[57]

Death[edit]

In late 1967 or early 1968, the penniless Driscoll left The Factory and disappeared into Manhattan's underground. On March 30, 1968, about three weeks after his 31st birthday, two boys playing in a deserted East Village tenement at 371 East 10th St. found his body. The medical examination determined that he had died from heart failure caused by an advanced hardening of the arteries[58] because of his longtime drug abuse. There was no identification on the body, and photos taken of it and shown around the neighborhood yielded no positive identification. When Driscoll's body went unclaimed, he was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave in New York City's Potter's Field on Hart Island.[59][60]

Late in 1969, about nineteen months after his death, Driscoll's mother sought the help of officials at the Disney studios to contact him for a hoped-for reunion with his father, who was nearing death. This resulted in a fingerprint match at NYPD, which located his burial on Hart Island. Although his name appears on his father's gravestone at Eternal Hills Memorial Park in Oceanside, California, it is a cenotaph[61] since his remains still rest on Hart Island. Driscoll's death was not reported until the re-release of his first Disney film, Song of the South, in 1971–1972, when reporters researched the whereabouts of the film's major cast members, and his mother revealed the tragic outcome.[62][63][64]

Tributes[edit]

In February 2009, singer-songwriter Benjy Ferree released Come Back to the Five and Dime Bobby Dee Bobby Dee, a concept album based in part on Driscoll's life.[65]

In September 2011, American singer-songwriter Tom Russell released the song "Farewell Never Neverland" on the album "Mesabi", an elegy for Bobby Driscoll as Peter Pan.[66]

Selected filmography[edit]

Film and television[edit]

If you knew SusieJunior

YearTitleRoleNotes
1944The Fighting SullivansAl Sullivan as a childUncredited
1945Identity UnknownToddy Loring
1946So Goes My LovePercy MaximAlternative title: A Genius in the Family
1946O.S.S.Gerard
1946From This Day ForwardBilly Beesley
1946Song of the SouthJohnny
1948So Dear to My HeartJeremiah Kincaid
1949The WindowTommy WoodryWon Academy Juvenile Award
1950Treasure IslandJim Hawkins
1951The Lux Video TheatreBilly CrandallEpisode: "Tin Badge"
1952The Happy TimeRobert "Bibi" Bonnard
1952Father's LionGoofy Jr.Voice
1953Peter PanPeter PanVoice and close-up model
1955The Scarlet CoatBen Potter
1956CrusaderJosefEpisode: "Fear"
1956Climax!GaryEpisode: "The Secret of River Lane"
1957M SquadStephen/Steve WikowskiEpisode: "Pete Loves Mary"
1958Frontier JusticeTrumpeter JonesEpisode: "Death Watch"
1958The Party CrashersJosh Bickford
1958The MillionaireLew ConoverEpisode: "The Norman Conover Story"
1959TrackdownMike HardestyEpisode: "Blind Alley"
1959RawhideWill MasonEpisode: "Incident of Fear in the Streets"
1960The Brothers BrannaganJohnnyEpisode: "The Twisted Root"
1960RawhideBilly ChanceEpisode: "Incident of the Captive"
1965DirtUnknownProduced by Andy Warhol

Stage[edit]

YearPerformanceRoleDates
1954The Boy With a Cart[67]The boyFebruary 1954
1954Ah, Wilderness![68]Richard MillerAugust 1954 (Pasadena Playhouse)
1957Girls of Summer[69]unknownMay 1957 (Players Ring Theatre)

Radio shows[edit]

(This is not necessarily a complete list; it displays all those that could be located and verified.)

YearShowRoleDates/Notes
1946Song of the South – Promo-Interview[70]Bobby Driscoll and Luana Patten, hosted by Johnny MercerAired in late 1946
1946Song of the South – Promo-Interview[70]Bobby Driscoll, Luana Patten, Walt Disney and James Baskett, hosted by Johnny MercerAired in late 1946
1946The Dennis Day Show (aka A Day in the Life of Dennis Day) – "The Boy Who Sang For A King"Cecil (a little carol-boy)Aired on December 25
1948Family Theater – "As the Twig is Bent"Aired in February 1948
1948Family Theatre – "The Future is Yours"Aired on February 19
1948Family Theatre – "Jamie and the Promise"Aired on August 19
1948Family Theater – "A Daddy for Christmas"Aired on December 15
1950Family Theater – "Mahoney's Lucky Day"Aired on April 19 – hosted by himself
1950Hallmark Playhouse – "Knee Pants"Aired on June 25
1950Movietown Radio Theater – "The Throwback"Aired on July 6
1951Lux Radio Theater – "Treasure Island"Jim HawkinsAired on January 29
1951Cavalcade of America – "The Day They Gave Babies Away"Aired on December 25
1953Family Theater – "The Courtship of John Dennis"Aired on April 8
1953Lux Radio Theater – "Peter Pan"Peter PanAired on December 10
1955Family Theater – "The Penalty"Aired on October 12
1956Family Theatre – "Fair Exchange"Aired on September 19
1957Family Theatre – "A Shot in the Dark"Aired on August 7

Recordings[edit]

YearPerformanceRoleOther notes
1946/47"So Dear to My Heart"Jeremiah KincaidCapitol Records (CDF 3000) – narrated by John Beal
1950"Treasure Island"Jim HawkinsRCA Victor (Y-416) – narrated by Bobby Driscoll
1964"Treasure Island"Jim HawkinsDisneyland Records (DQ-1251) – condensed version of the original motion picture soundtrack – narrated by Del McKennon

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Longden, Tom (January 6, 3005). "Driscoll, Bobby". Des Moines Register. Retrieved January 20, 2012. 
  2. ^ Peregrine, Peggy (1949-11-19). "Studio Round-Up meets Bobby Driscoll". Picturegoer. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  3. ^ Cini, Zelda (March 1977). "Hot-Rod Stage Shares Affections of Bobby Driscoll" 2 (4). Hollywood Studio Magazine. p. 12. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  4. ^ "LOST ANGEL – Bobby's very first filmrole". www.bobbydriscoll.net. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  5. ^ "Youthful Find Signed By 20th Century Fox". Los Angeles Times. 1944-02-05. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  6. ^ Schallert, Edwin (1946-05-24). "SO GOES MY LOVE – Engaging Trumpery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  7. ^ Parsons, Luella (1960-02-28). "That Little Girl in 'Song of the South' a Big Girl Now". Lincoln Sunday Journal and Star. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  8. ^ "Walt's "Sweetheart Team"". Lincoln Sunday Journal and Star. 1946-11-10. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  9. ^ "SO DEAR TO MY HEART – actual production dates". http://tcm.com. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  10. ^ "Margaret Kerry – Official Homepage". Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  11. ^ "Melody Time". www.bobbydriscoll.net. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  12. ^ "THE WINDOW – A Fansite". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  13. ^ "The Window, "Depicting Terror of Boy in Fear of His Life [...]". The New York Times (via www.nytimes.com). 1949-08-08. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  14. ^ "Baby Oscar For Young Star". The Daily Courier, Conellesville (Pennsylvania). 1950-03-31. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "Winners Of Honors Named". The News, Frederick (Maryland). 1950-03-24. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  15. ^ "Oscar-Winners and Nominees of 1949". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  16. ^ "British Court Upholds Bobby Driscoll Fine". unknown. October 1949. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , Adamson, Joe (1984). Byron Haskin, interviewed by. Metuchen, N.Y. and London: The Directors Guild of America and The Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-8108-1740-3. 
  17. ^ Adamson, Joe (1984). Byron Haskin – interviewed by ... Metuchen, N.Y. and London: The Directors Guild Of America and The Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-8108-1740-3. 
  18. ^ Adamson, Joe (1984). Byron Haskin – interviewed by ... Metuchen, N.Y. and London: The Directors Guild Of America and The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 168. ISBN 0-8108-1740-3. 
  19. ^ On June 7, 1950 the Los Angeles Times wrote: "Walt Disney would like to star Bobby Driscoll in Tom Sawyer, but David O. Selznick has the property tied up and heaven only knows what he wants for it.""Tom Sawyer". Los Angeles Times. 1950-06-07. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  20. ^ "Walt Disney Will Follow Up 'Treasure Island'". Los Angeles Times. 1950-01-18. Retrieved 2008-09-02. Schallert, Edwin (1950-07-22). "Disney Again to Wed Cartoons, Live Action". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. Hopper, Hedda (1951-02-21). "Robert Néwton to Portray Friar Tuck". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  21. ^ "Bobby Driscoll Says Farewell'". Film Illustrated Monthly (paragraph: "Watch Out For These"). November 1950. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  22. ^ "PETER PAN – actual production data". Turner Classic Movies (Official Homepage). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  23. ^ "Who is Roland Dupree? (Biography)". www.supreedance.com. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  24. ^ "Memorablia & Collectibles (signed production photographs with detailed captions". Tinker Bell Talks – Official Homepage of Margaret Kerry (Tinker Bell). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  25. ^ Elliot, Marc (1993, 1994, 1995). Walt Disney – Hollywood's Dark Prince – A Biography. London: Andre Deutsch (publisher) Ltd., First (UK) Paperback edition. p. 203. ISBN 0-233-98961-7. 
  26. ^ "$300-A-Week Smile – There Is a Film Santa". Syracuse Herald Journal. 1946-02-22. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "$400-A-Week". Reno Evening Gazette. 1947-02-14. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "New Contract For Boy Film Actor Approved". unknown. February 1949. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  27. ^ Berch Jamison, Barbara (April 1953). "The Dangerous Years". Motion Picture And Television Magazine. pp. 47, 84. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  28. ^ "A Tribute to Shirley Booth, paragraph: Dean Martin on Shirley Booth – Dean Martin recalling an encounter with Driscoll at a party in the mid-1950s, literally terming him ... that Disney kid actor ...". Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  29. ^ "Flower Classes Open Tomorrow". Los Angeles Times. 1948-01-11. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , Hopper, Hedda (1950-11-28). "Santa Claus Lane Parad". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. "Block-long Flag to Mark Dimes Parade". Los Angeles Times. 1952-01-18. Retrieved 2008-09-02. "Back-To-School Show". Los Angeles Times. 1950-08-24. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  30. ^ "Radio-TV Youth Win Top Awards". Los Angeles Times. 1954-03-18. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  31. ^ Mosby, Aline (1956-02-19). "Pupils In Hollywood School Drew More pay Than Their Teachers". The Coshocton Tribune (Ohio). Retrieved 2008-09-02. Mosby, Aline (1956-02-18). "Strangest Grammar School In Nation Found In Hollywood". The Daily Courier, Cornellsville (Pennsylvania). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  32. ^ "Hollywood Professional School". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  33. ^ Hollywood Professional School at Wikipedia:Hollywood Professional School
  34. ^ "Hollywood Professional School". Seeing Stars. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  35. ^ Berch Jamison, Barbara (April 1953). "The Dangerous Years". Motion Picture And Television Magazine. pp. 47, 84. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  36. ^ Epstein, Barbara (July 1972). "The Lonely Death Of a Star". Movie Digest. p. 104. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  37. ^ "Little Discipline". Violette Messenger, Valparaiso (Indiana). 1958-05-27. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  38. ^ Epstein, Barbara (July 1972). "The Lonely Death of a Star". Movie Digest. pp. 100–107. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  39. ^ "Bobby's graduation at Hollywood Professional School". www.bobbydriscoll.net. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  40. ^ "The Long Road Back – Bobby Driscoll, a Film Star at 6, an Addict at 17, Sent to Chino". The Los Angeles Times. 1961-10-19. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  41. ^ "Bobby Driscoll, Friend Denies Narcotic Charge – This Is No Act". Los Angeles Times. 1956-07-12. Retrieved 2008-09-02. Hopper, Hedda (1956-07-24). "Serious Matter". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. "Actor Bobby Driscoll, 19, Seized On Dope Charge". Los Angeles Times. 1956-07-11. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "Narcotic Charge Dismissed". Reno Evening Gazette. 1956-07-17. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  42. ^ Hopper, Hedda (1956-07-24). "Serious Matter". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  43. ^ "Actor Driscoll reveals To Plan To Rewed Girl, 19". Los Angeles Times. 1957-03-09. Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "Actor Driscoll Needs Job As Clerk To Finance Marriage". Newport Daily News (Rhode Island). 1957-03-09. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  44. ^ "The Long Road back – Bobby Driscoll, a Film Star At 6, An Addict At 17, Sent To Chino". Los Angeles Time. 1961-10-19. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  45. ^ Thomas, Bob (1958-05-27). "Hollywood ...". Violette Messenger, Valparaiso (Indiana). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  46. ^ Driscoll, Bobby (1951-11-30). "A personal Letter to his girl friend of then, which he closes with "Bob".)". The Park Sheraton Hotel, New York City. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  47. ^ Schlitz Playhouse of Stars at the Internet Movie Database
  48. ^ Thomas, Bob (1958-05-27). "Bobby Driscoll Hopes To Rebuild Film Life". Violette Messenger, Valparaiso (Indiana). Retrieved 2008-09-02. , "Actors Seem More Intent, State Stars". Van Nuys News (California). 1958-08-21. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  49. ^ "Bobby Driscoll pleads guilty". Indiana Evening Gazette. 1960-10-19. Retrieved 2008-11-18.  "Ex-Child Actor Cleared in Court". Indiana Evening Gazette. 1960-10-24. Retrieved 2008-11-18.  "Bobby Driscoll Freed On Bail After Fracas". Los Angeles Times. 1960-06-19. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  50. ^ "Bobby Driscoll Won't Be Around For Reissue Of "Song Of The South" (last column)". Los Angeles Times. 1972-02-13. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  51. ^ "His mother on his downslide". The Lonely Death Of A Star (on www.bobbydriscoll.net). Movie Digest. July 1972. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  52. ^ "Bobby Driscoll sitting on a couch (on portfolio, page 38, third row – it's the last known photograph of him, ca. late) 1967". OvoWorks, New York City – Official Homepage. Archived from the original on 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  53. ^ "SEMINA CULTURE – Wallace Berman & His Circle". Umbrella Exhibition Catalogue, vol. 28, no.2-3. October 2005. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  54. ^ Cotter, Holland (1972-01-26). "A Return Trip to a Faraway Place Called Underground". The New York Times online. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  55. ^ "Santa Monica Museum Of Art – Official Homepage". Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  56. ^ Duncan, Michael; McKenna, Christine (2005). SEMINA CULTURE – Wallace Berman & His Circle. Los Angeles: Santa Monica Museum Of Art. pp. 132–135, 233. 
  57. ^ "DIRT- Review and a downloadable clip of the so-called "Bath-sequence"". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  58. ^ "The cause of his death". www.bobbydriscoll.net. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  59. ^ "Hart Island (Potter's Field) – Official Homepage (controlled by the "Department Of Correction" and wth that inaccessible to visitors)". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  60. ^ "The Hart Island Project". Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  61. ^ "Bobby Driscoll's page". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  62. ^ Beck, Marylin (1971-07-14). "With Re-Release Of Disney Film – Child Star's Tragic Death Described". The Lima News (California). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  63. ^ Larson, Donna (1972-02-13). "Bobby Driscoll Won't Be Around For Reissue Of Song of the South". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  64. ^ Epstein, Barbara (July 1972). "The Lonely Death Of a Star". Movie Digest. pp. 98–107. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  65. ^ "Benjy Ferree – Come Back To The Five and Dime". Retrieved 2009-01-01.  "Benjy Ferree Announces New Album, Channels Former Child Star Bobby Driscoll". Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  66. ^ "Mesabi". Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  67. ^ "The Boy With a Cart 1953–54". oyla20.de. 
  68. ^ "Pasadena Playhouse – Ah, Wilderness!". oyla20.de. 
  69. ^ "Players Ring Theatre – Girl of Summer, 1957". oyla20.de. 
  70. ^ a b "Audio-Archive at songofthesouth.net". Retrieved 2011-12-11. 

Literature (selected)[edit]

External links[edit]