Bob Fitzsimmons

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Bob Fitzsimmons
Robert Fitzsimmons.jpg
Fitzsimmons in 1891.
Statistics
Real nameRobert James Fitzsimmons
Nickname(s)Ruby
The Freckled Wonder
Cornishman
Rated atMiddleweight
Light Heavyweight
Heavyweight
Height5 ft 11 12 in (1.82 m)
Reach71.5 in (182 cm)
NationalityBritish
Born(1863-05-26)26 May 1863
Helston, Cornwall, UK
Died22 October 1917(1917-10-22) (aged 54)
Chicago, Illinois, US
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights99
Wins68
Wins by KO59
Losses8
Draws4
No contests19
 
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Bob Fitzsimmons
Robert Fitzsimmons.jpg
Fitzsimmons in 1891.
Statistics
Real nameRobert James Fitzsimmons
Nickname(s)Ruby
The Freckled Wonder
Cornishman
Rated atMiddleweight
Light Heavyweight
Heavyweight
Height5 ft 11 12 in (1.82 m)
Reach71.5 in (182 cm)
NationalityBritish
Born(1863-05-26)26 May 1863
Helston, Cornwall, UK
Died22 October 1917(1917-10-22) (aged 54)
Chicago, Illinois, US
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights99
Wins68
Wins by KO59
Losses8
Draws4
No contests19

Robert James "Bob" Fitzsimmons (26 May 1863 – 22 October 1917) was a British professional boxer who made boxing history as the sport's first three-division world champion.[1] He also achieved fame for beating Gentleman Jim Corbett, the man who beat John L. Sullivan and is in The Guinness Book of World Records as the lightest Heavyweight Champion.[2] Nicknamed "Ruby Robert" and "The Freckled Wonder", he took pride in his lack of scars and appeared in the ring wearing heavy woollen underwear to conceal the disparity between his trunk and leg-development. He was also known for his pure fighting skills due to dislike of training for fights, which would ultimately cost him at times in his career.[citation needed]

Fitzsimmons is ranked as No. 8 on Ring Magazine's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time.

Biography[edit]

Oceanian era[edit]

Fitzsimmons, the youngest of 12 children, was born in Helston, Cornwall. His father was James Fitzsimmons, born in County Armagh, Ireland and his mother was Jane Strongman, born in St Clement, Cornwall.

The birthplace of Bob Fitzsimmons in Helston, Cornwall

Bob emigrated to New Zealand at the age of nine along with his parents, brothers and sisters. His family settled in Timaru, among many other English settlers, and Bob became a blacksmith in his brother Jarrett's smithy.[3] He was a practising blacksmith most of his life [The Village Blacksmith written by Roland Webber]

Between 1880 and 1881, Fitzsimmons reigned as champion of the Jem Mace tournament in New Zealand. Some say[who?] he officially began his career as a professional boxer in New Zealand later in 1881. Records remain unclear whether he received payment for a bout in which he knocked out Herbert Slade in two rounds.

Fitzsimmons had six fights in New Zealand, two of them bare-knuckle events. He won one and lost five. It remains unclear whether any of those bouts involved payment.

Boxing record books show Fitzsimmons officially began boxing professionally in 1883, in Australia. He beat Jim Crawford there by getting a knockout in three rounds. Fitzsimmons had his first 28 definite professional fights in Australia, where he lost for the Australian Middleweight title to Mick Dooley (rumours spoke of a fixed bout) and where he also won a fight by knockout while on the floor: when Edward Starlight Robins dropped Fitzsimmons to the canvas in round nine of their fight, he also broke his hand and could not continue, therefore the referee declared Fitzsimmons the winner by a knockout.

By this stage, Fitzsimmons had established his own style. He developed a certain movement and caginess from one of the greatest bare-knuckle fighters, Jem Mace. Mace had encouraged Bob to develop his punching technique and he revolutionised this, drawing on the enormous power he had gained from blacksmithing. Fitzsimmons delivered short, accurate and usually conclusive punches. He soon built up a reputation as by far the hardest puncher in boxing.

Winning the Middleweight title[edit]

Moving on to the United States, Fitzsimmons fought four more times in 1890, winning three and drawing one.

Fitzsimmons knocks down Dempsey in New Orleans, 1891

Then, on 14 January 1891, in New Orleans, he won his first world title from Jack (Nonpareil) Dempsey.[4] Fitzsimmons knocked out Dempsey (from whom the later Jack Dempsey would take his name) in the 13th round to become the World Middleweight Champion. Fitzsimmons knocked Dempsey down at least 13 times and by the finish left him in such a pitiable condition that he begged him to quit. Since Dempsey would not do so, Fitzsimmons knocked him out and then carried him to his corner. On 22 July, police broke off his fight with Jim Hall after he had knocked Hall down several times.

Fitzsimmons spent the next two years fighting non-title bouts and exhibitions until giving Hall a chance at the title in 1893. He retained the crown by a knockout in round four. He spent the rest of that year doing exhibitions, and on 2 June, he had scheduled a two-way exhibition where he would demonstrate in public how to hit the boxing bag and then how to box against a real opponent. Reportedly, two freak accidents happened that day: Fitzsimmons hit the bag so hard that it broke, and then his opponent of that day allegedly slipped, getting hit in the head and the boxing exhibition was cancelled.

After vacating the Middleweight title, Fitzsimmons began campaigning among heavyweight (the light heavyweight division did not exist at that time). On 2 December 1896, the San Francisco Athletic Club sponsored a fight at the Mechanics' Pavilion in San Francisco between Fitzsimmons and Tom Sharkey. Unable to find a referee, they called on former lawman Wyatt Earp. He had officiated 30 or so matches in earlier days, though not under the Marquis of Queensbury rules.[5] The fight may have been the most anticipated fight on American soil that year. Fitzsimmons was favoured to win, and bets flowed heavily his way. Earp entered the ring still armed with his customary Colt .45 and drew a lot of attention when he had to be disarmed. He later said he forgot he was wearing it. Fitzsimmons was taller and quicker than Sharkey and dominated the fight from the opening bell. In the eighth round, Fitzsimmons hit Sharkey with his famed "solar plexus punch," an uppercut under the heart that could render a man temporarily helpless. The punch caught Sharkey, Earp, and most of the crowd by surprise, and Sharkey dropped, clutched his groin, and rolled on the canvas, screamed foul.[6]

Earp stopped the bout, ruling that Fitzsimmons had hit Sharkey when he was down. His ruling was greeted with loud boos and catcalls.[7] Earp based his decision on the Marquis of Queensbury rules, which state in part, "A man on one knee is considered down and if struck is entitled to the stakes." Very few witnessed the foul Earp ruled on. He awarded the decision to Sharkey, who attendants carried out as "...limp as a rag.".[8]

Winning the Heavyweight title[edit]

In 1896, Fitzsimmons won a disputed version of the World Heavyweight Championship in a fight in Langtry, Texas, against the Irish native fighter Peter Maher.[9] On 17 March 1897, in Carson City, Nevada, he knocked out American Jim Corbett, generally recognised as the legitimate World Heavyweight Champion (having won the title from John L. Sullivan in 1892) in round 14.[4] This constituted a remarkable achievement, as Jim Corbett, a skilled boxer, weighed a stone (14 lb) more than Fitzsimmons. He out-boxed Fitzsimmons for several rounds, knocked him down in the sixth round and badly damaged his face with his jab, left hook and right hand, but Fitzsimmons kept coming and Corbett began to tire. In the 14th round, Fitzsimmons won the title with his "solar plexus" punch. Corbett collapsed in agony. Fitzsimmons' "solar plexus" punch became legendary, although he himself may never have used the phrase. The entire fight was filmed by Enoch J. Rector and released to cinemas as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, the longest film ever released at the time. Using her maiden name, it was covered by Nellie Verrill Mighels Davis, the first woman to report a prize fight.[10]

Fitzsimmons spent the rest of 1897 doing paper runs.

In 1899, Fitzsimmons and James J. Jeffries succeeded in boxing in New York City without the police intervening, probably at an underground club. Most people gave Jeffries little chance, even though at 15 stones (95 kg) he massively outweighed his opponent and was far younger, but Jeffries lifted the World Heavyweight Champion from Fitzsimmons with an 11th-round knockout.

In June 1901 Fitzsimmons took part in a wrestling match against Gus Ruhlin. He lost and went back to boxing. He then enjoyed legitimate boxing knockouts of both Ruhlin and Sharkey.

In 1901 he published a book Physical Culture and Self-Defense (Philadelphia: D. Biddle).

In 1902, he and Jeffries had a rematch, once again with the World Heavyweight Champion at stake. Fitzsimmons battered Jeffries, who suffered horrible punishment. With his nose and cheek bones broken, most would have sympathised with Jeffries had he quit, but he kept going until his enormous weight advantage and youth told and Bob suffered a knockout in round eight.

Winning the Light Heavyweight title[edit]

September 1903 proved a tragic month for Fitzsimmons, as his rival, Con Coughlin, died the day after suffering a one-round knockout at the hands of Fitzsimmons. But less than two months later, Fitzsimmons made history by defeating World Light Heavyweight Champion George Gardiner by a decision in 20 rounds,[4] thus becoming the first boxer to win titles in three weight-divisions.[1]

Soon afterward, he went back to the Heavyweights, where he kept fighting until 1914, with mixed results. Fitzsimmons fought Jack Johnson in 1907, during the time period in which reigning champion James J. Jeffries refused to fight Johnson. The bout between Johnson and Fitzsimmons ended in a second round knockout.[11]

Retirement[edit]

Although Fitzsimmons became a world champion in each of the Middleweight, Light Heavyweight and Heavyweight divisions, historians do not consider him the first world Light Heavyweight Champion to become World Heavyweight Champion, because he won the Heavyweight title before winning the Light Heavyweight belt. Michael Spinks counts as the first Light Heavyweight World Champion to win the Heavyweight belt as well. However, Fitzsimmons was the first Middleweight Champion to win the Heavyweight title and the only Heavyweight Champion to drop down and win the Light Heavyweight title. In 2003, Roy Jones Jr. joined Fitzsimmons, Michael Moorer and Spinks as the only men to have won world championships at both light heavyweight and heavyweight.

Fitzsimmons had a final professional record of 66 wins with 59 by knockout, 8 losses, 4 draws, 19 no contests and 2 no decisions (Newspaper Decisions: 2–0–0).

Fitzsimmons's exact record remains unknown, as the boxing world often kept records poorly during his era, but Fitzsimmons said he had had more than 350 fights (which could have involved exaggeration on his part).

The statue Peace on the Dewey Arch was modelled on Fitsimmons by the sculptor Daniel Chester French.[3]

He died in Chicago of pneumonia in 1917, survived by his fourth wife. His grave lies in the Graceland Cemetery, Chicago. Having four wives, a gambling habit and a susceptibility to confidence tricksters, he did not hold on to the money he made.

The International Boxing Hall of Fame has made Bob Fitzsimmons a member in its "Old Timer" category.

In 2003 Ring Magazine named Fitzsimmons number eight of all time among boxing's best punchers.

Professional boxing record[edit]

63 Wins (59 Knockouts), 8 Defeats (7 Knockouts), 4 Draws, 7 No Contests[12]
Res.RecordOpponentTypeRd., TimeDateLocationNotes
NC- Jersey BellewND61914-02-20United States South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
WinN/AUnited States KO SweeneyNWS61914-01-29United States Athletic Club, Williamsport, PennsylvaniaNewspaper Decision
Loss63–8–4Australia Bill LangKO12 (20)1909-12-27Australia Sydney Stadium, Sydney, New South Wales
Draw63–7–4Canada Jim PaulPTS31908-09-22United States Benson Mines, New York
Loss63–7–3United States Jack JohnsonKO2 (6)1907-07-17United States Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win63–6–3United States Charlie HagheyKO4 (6)1906-01-31United States Recreation Park, Webster, Massachusetts
Loss62–6–3United States Philadelphia Jack O'BrienRTD13 (20)1905-12-20United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San FranciscoLost World Light Heavyweight Title
Win62–5–3United States Philadelphia Jack O'BrienTKO6 (6), 1:221904-07-23United States Baker Bowl, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win61–5–3Republic of Ireland George GardnerPTS201903-11-25United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San FranciscoWon World Light Heavyweight Title
WinN/AUnited States Joe GrimNWS61903-11-25United States Southern A.C., Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaNewspaper Decision
Win60–5–3Republic of Ireland Con CoughlinTKO1 (6), 2:521903-09-30United States Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win59–5–3 Mike RankeKO2 (4), 0:151902-12-27United States Bozeman, Montana
Win58–5–3 ? StewardKO1 (4)1902-12-19United States Butte, Montana
Loss57–5–3United States James J. JeffriesKO8 (20)1902-07-25United States The Arena, California, San FranciscoFor World Heavyweight Title
Win57–4–3Republic of Ireland Tom SharkeyKO2 (25), 2:061900-08-24United States Coney Island A.C., Brooklyn, New York
Win56–4–3United States Gus RuhlinKO6 (25)1900-08-10United States Madison Square Garden, New York City
Win55–4–3United States Ed DunkhorstKO2 (25), 2:251900-04-30United States Hercules A.C., Brooklyn, New York
Win54–4–3United States Jim DalyTKO1 (6)1900-03-27United States First Regiment Armory, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win53–4–3United Kingdom Geoff ThorneKO1 (6)1899-10-28United States Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois
Loss52–4–3United States James J. JeffriesKO11 (20)1899-06-09United States Coney Island A.C., Brooklyn, New YorkLost World Heavyweight Title
Win52–3–3United States Lew JoslinKO2 (4)1897-06-05United States Leadville, Colorado
Win51–3–3United States James J. CorbettKO141897-03-17United States The Race Track Arena, Carson City, NevadaWon World Heavyweight Title
Loss50–3–3Republic of Ireland Tom SharkeyDQ8 (10)1896-12-02United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San Francisco
Win50–2–3Republic of Ireland Peter MaherKO1, 1:351896-02-21Mexico Coahuila de Zaragoza
Win49–2–3United States Mike ConnorsKO1 (4)1895-04-19United States New York City
Win48–2–3 Al AllichKO3 (4)1895-04-16United States New York City
Win47–2–3New Zealand Dan CreedonKO2 (20)1894-09-26United States Olympic A.C., New Orleans, LouisianaRetained World Middleweight Title
Win46–2–3United States Frank KellarKO2 (4)1894-07-28United States Driving Park, Buffalo, New York
Win45–2–3United States Joe ChoynskiTKO5 (5)1894-06-18United States Boston Theater, Boston, Massachusetts
Win44–2–3Republic of Ireland Jack HickeyTKO3 (4)1893-09-05United States Caledonian Park, Newark, New Jersey
Win43–2–3United States Dan ConerKO1 (4)1893-05-30United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win42–2–3United States Mike BrennanKO4 (4)1893-05-06United States Boston, Massachusetts
Win41–2–3United States Joe GodfreyKO1 (4)1893-04-21United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win40–2–3United States Mike MonoghanKO1 (4)1893-04-21United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win39–2–3United States Alexander KilpatrickKO4 (4)1893-04-21United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win38–2–3 Jack SheridanTKO1 (4)1893-04-15United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win37–2–3United States Dan CurryKO2 (4)1893-04-12United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win36–2–3United States Hank SmithKO2 (4)1893-04-12United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win35–2–3United States Alexander KilpatrickKO3 (4)1893-04-12United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win34–2–3United States Jack WarnerTKO1 (4)1893-03-31United States Baltimore, Maryland
Win33–2–3 Phil MayoKO2 (4)1893-03-25United States 2nd Regiment Armory, Chicago, Illinois
Draw32–2–3United States Dan BayliffPTS41893-03-15United States Indianapolis, Indiana
Win32–2–2Australia Jim HallKO41893-03-08United States Crescent City Club, New Orleans, Louisiana
Win31–2–2United States Jack BrittonRTD2 (4)1892-12-10United States Newark, New Jersey
Win30–2–2 Millard ZenderKO1 (4)1892-09-03United States Anniston, Alabama
Win29–2–2United States Jerry SlatteryKO2 (4)1892-05-11United States Miners 8th St Theater, New York City
Win28–2–2United States Joe GodfreyRTD2 (4)1892-05-06United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win27–2–2United States James FarrellPTS2 (4)1892-04-29United States Newark, New Jersey
Win26–2–2United States Thomas RobbinsRTD3 (4)1892-04-28United States Newark, New Jersey
Win25–2–2United States Tom BurnsRTD3 (4)1892-04-28United States Newark, New Jersey
Win24–2–2United States James MaloneRTD2 (4)1892-04-27United States Newark, New Jersey
Win23–2–2United States Charles PuffKO2 (4)1892-04-26United States Newark, New Jersey
Win22–2–2Republic of Ireland Peter MaherRTD121892-03-02United States Olympic Club, New Orleans, Louisiana
NC-United States Harris MartinND41891-05-01United States Washington Rink, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Win21–2–2 Abe CoughleTKO2 (3)1891-04-27United States Battery D Armory, Chicago, Illinois
Win20–2–2Republic of Ireland Nonpareil Jack DempseyRTD131891-01-14United States Olympic Club, New Orleans, LouisianaWon World Middleweight Title
Win19–2–2United States Arthur UphamKO91890-07-28United States Audubon Club, New Orleans, Louisiana
Win18–2–2Australia Billy McCarthyKO51890-05-29United States California A.C., California, San Francisco
Win17–2–2United States Frank AllenRTD1 (3)1890-05-17United States California A.C., California, San Francisco
Win16–2–2New Zealand Professor Jack WestKO1 (4)1890-03-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win15–2–2Australia Edward Starlight RollinsTKO91890-02-22Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Loss14–2–2Australia Jim HallKO4 (20)1890-02-11Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
DrawN/AAustralia Edward Starlight RollinsNWS41890-02-10Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Win14–1–2 Dave ConwayKO4 (15)1890-02-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win13–1–2New Zealand Dick EllisRTD3 (20)1889-12-16Australia Royal Standard Theatre, Sydney, New South Wales
Win12–1–2New Zealand Professor Jack WestKO1 (8)1889-11-30Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
DrawN/AAustralia Pat KielyNWS41889-11-26Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Win11–1–2Australia Jim HallRTD5 (8)1889-01-19Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
WinN/AAustralia McEwanNWS31888-12-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
DrawN/AAustralia Jim HallNWS41888-11-24Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
WinN/AAustralia Jim HallNWS41888-11-10Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
NC-Australia Mick DooleyND41888-05-08Australia Amateur Athletic Club, Sydney, New South Wales
DrawN/AAustralia Bill SlavinNWS41888-11-24Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
DrawN/AAustralia Bill SlavinNWS41888-03-17Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Win10–1–2Australia Bill SlavinTKO7 (8)1888-03-05Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
DrawN/AAustralia Billy McCarthyNWS41888-02-11Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
DrawN/AAustralia Tom TaylorNWS41888-01-26Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Draw9–1–2Australia Dan HickeyPTS41888-01-23Australia Athletic Ground, Sydney, New South Wales
NC-Australia Frank SlavinND41888-01-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win9–1–1Australia Dave TraversKO31887-09-24Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
LossN/AAustralia Jim HallNWS41887-05-28Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Win8–1–1 George EagerKO2 (4)1887-04-04Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win7–1–1Australia Bill SlavinTKO5 (8)1887-03-21Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win6–1–1New Zealand Dick SandallRTD4 (4)1887-03-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Win5–1–1Australia George SealePTS41887-02-15Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
WinN/AAustralia Jack BonnerNWS41887-02-12Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
DrawN/AAustralia Frank SlavinNWS41887-01-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Draw4–1–1Australia Jack MalloyPTS41886-11-01Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
NC-Australia McArdleND41886-10-09Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
NC-Australia Australian Billy SmithND41886-10-07Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
LossN/AAustralia Tom LeesNWS41886-08-25Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
WinN/AAustralia McArdleNWS41886-08-07Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
LossN/AAustralia Mick DooleyNWS41886-06-05Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
LossN/AAustralia Mick DooleyNWS41886-06-02Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
NC-Australia Steve O'DonnellND41886-10-07Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
Loss4–1Australia Mick DooleyRTD3 (4)1886-05-15Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales
DrawN/AAustralia BrinsleyNWS41886-05-08Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South WalesNewspaper Decision
Win4–0Australia Pablo FanqueKO2 (4)1886-02-02Australia The Green, Sydney, New South Wales
Win3–0 Jack GreentreeKO3 (4)1885-05-01Australia Sydney, New South Wales
Win2–0Australia Alf BrinsmeadKO2 (4)1885-04-01Australia Sydney, New South Wales
Win1–0Australia Joe RiddlePTS41885-03-01Australia Sydney, New South Wales

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Robert Fitzsimmons". Encyclopædia Britannica. "British-born boxer of Irish descent, the first fighter to hold the world boxing championship in three weight divisions." 
  2. ^ McWhirter, Norris. The Guinness Book of World Records 1997. p.467. " Lightest heavyweight champion Robert James "Bob" Fitzsimmons of Great Britain, weighed 165 pounds when he won the title by knocking out James J. Corbett". Random House Publishing Group, 1997
  3. ^ a b Anne Pimlott Baker, 'Fitzsimmons, Robert Prometheus [Bob] (1862–1917)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005 accessed 25 March 2010
  4. ^ a b c Box rec.com. boxer: Bob Fitzsimmons
  5. ^ Reilly, Joe. "Born To Uphold The Law: Frank Sulloway’s Principles Applied to the Earp-Clanton Feud of 1879–1882". Drexel E-Repository and Archive. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  6. ^ Barra, Alan (26 November 1995). "BACKTALK;When Referee Wyatt Earp Laid Down the Law". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Rasmussen, Cecilia (4 June 2000). "LA Then and Now: Mrs. Wyatt Earp Packed Her Own Punch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  8. ^ Shillingberg, William B. (Summer 1976). "Wyatt Earp and the Buntline Special Myth". Kansas Historical Quarterly 42 (2): 113–154. 
  9. ^ Sonnichsen, C.L. (1968). Pass of the North: Four Centuries on the Rio Grande. Texas Western Press. pp. 358–362. 
  10. ^ "Nellie Mighels Davis". Nevada Women's History Project. University of Nevada, Reno. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Ken Burns, Unforgivable Blackness
  12. ^ Bob Fitzsimmons' Professional Boxing Record. BoxRec.com. Retrieved on 3 May 2014.

External links[edit]

Achievements
Preceded by
Nonpareil Jack Dempsey
World Middleweight Champion
14 January 1891 – 26 September 1894
Vacated
Succeeded by
Kid McCoy
Preceded by
James J. Corbett
World Heavyweight Champion
17 March 1897 – 9 June 1899
Succeeded by
James J. Jeffries
Preceded by
George Gardiner
World Light Heavyweight Champion
25 September 1903 – 20 December 1905
Succeeded by
Philadelphia Jack O'Brien
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Peter Maher
World Heavyweight Champion
21 February 1896 – 2 December 1896
Succeeded by
Tom Sharkey