Blood, toil, tears, and sweat

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For the band, see Blood, Sweat & Tears

The phrase blood, toil, tears and sweat became famous in a speech given by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 13 May 1940.

Contents

Background

It was Churchill's first speech to the House after taking over as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the first year of World War II, having replaced Neville Chamberlain on 10 May, and the first of three speeches which he gave during the period of the Battle of France.

History of the phrase

Churchill had used similar phrases earlier, as "Their sweat, their tears, their blood" in 1931[1][2] and "new structures of national life erected upon blood, sweat, and tears".[2]

Churchill's phrase has been called a paraphrase of one uttered on 2 July 1849 by Giuseppe Garibaldi when rallying his revolutionary forces in Rome: "I offer hunger, thirst, forced marches, battle, and death." As a young man, Churchill had considered writing a biography of Garibaldi.[3] Theodore Roosevelt uttered a phrase more similar to Churchill's in an address to the Naval War College on June 2, 1897, following his appointment as Assistant Secretary of the Navy: "Every man among us is more fit to meet the duties and responsibilities of citizenship because of the perils over which, in the past, the nation has triumphed; because of the blood and sweat and tears, the labor and the anguish, through which, in the days that have gone, our forefathers moved on to triumph."[4] Churchill's line has been called a "direct quotation" from Roosevelt's speech.[5] Churchill, a keen soldier, was likely to have read works by Theodore Roosevelt, who was a widely published military historian; it is also possible he read the speech after being appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, a position similar to Roosevelt's.

Other versions of the phrase are "It [poetry] is forged slowly and painfully, link by link, with blood and sweat and tears" (Lord Alfred Douglas, 1919), "Blood, sweat, and tear-wrung millions" (Lord Byron, 1823), and "...mollifie/ It with thy teares, or sweat, or blood" (John Donne, 1611).[1] In Latin, Cicero and Livy had used the phrase "sweat and blood".[6]

Excerpts

We are in the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history.... That we are in action at many points — in Norway and in Holland —, that we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. That the air battle is continuous, and that many preparations have to be made here at home.

I would say to the House as I said to those who have joined this government: I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering.

You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory. Victory at all costs — Victory in spite of all terror — Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.

(Text transcription as originally read by Churchill)

Reaction

Churchill was not the preferred choice of most Conservatives to succeed Chamberlain. He had been unpopular since the 1930s, and most MPs had ignored his speeches denouncing the prime minister's appeasement policy toward Germany; even others who opposed Chamberlain avoided him. One historian has described the speech's effect on Parliament, however, as "electrifying ... He was still speaking at the House of Commons, but it was now listening, and cheering."[7] Other great speeches followed, including the "We shall fight on the beaches" speech of 4 June and the "This was their finest hour" speech of 18 June, and were a great inspiration to country after its defeats in the first year of the war.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Bohle, Bruce. Quoted in Morris, William; Morris, Mary (1988). Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins (Second ed.). HarperCollins. p. 69. ISBN 0-06-015862-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=7cWonMsQ4sIC&pg=PA69. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  2. ^ a b Langworth, Richard, ed. (2011). Churchill by Himself: The Definitive Collection of Quotations. PublicAffairs. p. 591. ISBN 1-58648-957-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=vbsU21fEhLAC&pg=PA591. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  3. ^ John Lukacs. 2008. Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: The Dire Warning: Churchill's First Speech as Prime Minister. New York: Basic Books, p. 47. "Offro fame, sete, marce forzate, battaglie e morte." Garibaldi's line has appeared in other versions.
  4. ^ James A. Billington. 2010. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Courier Dover Publications, p. 6.
  5. ^ Walker, Martin. 2000. Makers of the American Century. London: Chatto and Windus, p.6
  6. ^ Keyes, Ralph (2006). The Quote Verifier: Who Said What, Where, and When. Macmillan. p. 15. ISBN 0-312-34004-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=d6JZryGvfxYC&pg=PA15. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  7. ^ James, Robert Rhodes (1993). "Churchill the Parliamentarian, Orator, and Statesman". In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 513,515. ISBN 0-19-820626-7. 

Further reading

External links