Black rice

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Black rice as sold in China

Black rice (also known as purple rice or forbidden rice) is a range of rice types, some of which are glutinous rice. Varieties include but are not limited to Indonesian black rice and Thai jasmine black rice. Black rice is high in nutritional value and contains 18 amino acids, iron, zinc, copper, carotene, and several important vitamins[citation needed]. The grain has a similar amount of fiber to brown rice[1] [2][unreliable source?] and like brown rice, has a mild, nutty taste. In China, black rice is claimed to be good for the kidney, stomach and liver[citation needed]; these claims have not been independently verified.

Black rice is a deep black color and usually turns deep purple when cooked. Its dark purple color is primarily due to its anthocyanin content, which is higher by weight than that of other colored grains but more limited in the number of different anthocyanin species present.[3][4] It is suitable for making porridge and it can also be used for making dessert, traditional Chinese black rice cake or bread.

Black rice was proclaimed as a 'superfood' worldwide largely thanks to an important piece of research by Dr. Zhimin Xu, titled "Black rice rivals pricey blueberries as source of healthful antioxidants". The research stated that “just a spoonful of black rice bran contains more health promoting anthocyanin antioxidants than are found in a spoonful of blueberries, but with less sugar and more fiber and vitamin E antioxidants". Several value-added products have since been launched using Black Rice. These include noodles and Black Rice Cracker Chips.

In China, noodles made from black rice have been produced.

Thai black jasmine rice, while not as prevalent as the white and brown varieties, adds more vibrant color to meals, as well as providing additional health benefits.[5]

Economic importance[edit]

The black and white aromatic rices (Chakhao amubi and Chakhao poireiton' and Chakhao angouba) of Manipur have their importance as a glutinous or sticky rice and are used for the community feast as well as ceremonial purposes as delicacy. Chak means rice and ahaoba means delicious, therefore, Chakhao means delicious rice. It is sold in the local markets at about Rs. 125 per kg of rice[when?]. The black aromatic rice of Manipur is served in standard hotels as a top rated variety of rice[citation needed]. Rice flake prepared from black rice is becoming popular[when?]. As the black glutinous aromatic rices of Manipur ;;??are poor yielders (about 2,500 kg/ha as paddy), these rices cover only less than 10% of the rain-fed wetland area under local cultivars, although there is a premium in the price of these rices[citation needed].

History[edit]

It is believed[by whom?] that Chakhao of Manipur came with the people of Manipur, particularly Meiteis when they first settled on this land.[6] The words Amubi and Angouba stand for black and white, respectively, in Manipuri. Hence, Chakhao amubi and Chakhao angouba were named after the black and white color glutinous aromatic rice endosperm of these cultivars.

Forbidden Rice earned its name because it was once reserved for the Chinese Emperor, for whom it was meant to ensure health and longevity.[citation needed]

Improvement[edit]

No systematic work on the improvement of black glutinous aromatic rice of Manipur has so far been taken up. However, germplasm collection, characterization and evaluation of these aromatic rice cultivars of have been made. The black glutinous aromatic rice of Manipur have been characterized for 34 morphological characters. These aromatic rice cultivars have been evaluated for eleven morpho-agronomic characters along with reaction to major diseases and pests of local importance.[citation needed]

As the domestic demand for the black glutinous aromatic rice of Manipur increases, efforts are to be made for developing high yielding varieties without losing the grain quality characters, cooking quality and aroma. The black glutinous aromatic rice of Manipur are in demand in the domestic market as well as are having possibilities for export.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Food Grains of India. 232-234 1892. p. 234. 
  2. ^ Willett, Brian (14 September 2011). "Nutrition Differences in Black Rice Vs. Brown Rice". LIVESTRONG (in English) (Lance Armstrong Foundation). Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Takashi Ichiyanagi, Bing Xu, Yoichi Yoshii, Masaharu Nakajima, Tetsuya Konishi, "Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Black Rice." Journal of Medicinal Food. December 1, 2001, 4(4): 211-218.
  4. ^ Abdel-aal El-Sayed M.; Young J. Christopher; Rabalski Iwona. "Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2006, vol. 54: 13, p. 4696-4704.
  5. ^ Lynch, William (14 June 2011). "Jasmine Black Rice Nutrition". LIVESTRONG (in English) (Lance Armstrong Foundation). Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Singh, R.K.; Baghel, S.S. (2003), "Aromatic Rices of Manipur", A Treatise on the Scented Rices of India (in English) (1st. ed.), New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers, pp. 347–354, ISBN 8127210315 

Published research in American Chemical Society

External links[edit]

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