Black people and Mormonism

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Since her baptism in 1997, Gladys Knight has sought to raise awareness of black people in the LDS church.

From the mid-1800s until 1978, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) had a policy against ordaining black men of African descent to the church's lay priesthood. This resulted in black members being unable to participate in some temple ordinances considered necessary for salvation. Though the church had an open membership policy for all races, relatively few black people who were aware of the racial policy joined the church,[1] despite reassurance that the ban would one day be lifted when "all the other descendants of Adam have received the promises and enjoyed the blessings of the priesthood and the keys thereof".[2]

Historically, Mormon attitudes about race were generally close to the national average.[3] Accordingly, before the Civil rights movement, the LDS policy went largely unnoticed and unchallenged.[4][5] Beginning in the 1960s, however, the church was criticized by civil rights advocates and religious groups, and in 1969 several church leaders voted to rescind the policy, but the vote was not unanimous so the policy stood. In 1978, church leaders led by Spencer W. Kimball declared they had received a revelation instructing them to reverse the racial restriction policy. The change seems to have been prompted at least in part by problems facing mixed race converts in Brazil. The church opposes racism in any form[6] and today has no racial policy.

In 1997, there were approximately 500,000 black members of the LDS Church, accounting for about 5% of the total membership; most black members live in Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean.[7] Since 1997, the black membership has grown substantially, especially in West Africa, where two temples have been built.[8]

Contents

Before 1847

Jane Manning was an early African American member who was a servant[9] in Joseph Smith's household in Nauvoo and later followed Brigham Young to the Utah Territory. She petitioned church leadership to allow her to obtain the endowments, but was repeatedly denied because of the ban.[10]

During the early years of the LDS movement, black people were admitted to the church, and there was no record of a racial policy on denying priesthood, since at least two black men became priests, Elijah Abel and Walker Lewis.[11] When the Mormons migrated to Missouri they encountered the pro-slavery sentiments of their neighbors. Joseph Smith upheld the laws regarding slaves and slaveholders, but remained abolitionist in his actions and doctrines.[12]

Beginning in 1842, after he had moved to free-state Illinois, Smith made known his increasingly strong anti-slavery position. In 1842 he began studying some abolitionist literature, and stated, "it makes my blood boil within me to reflect upon the injustice, cruelty, and oppression of the rulers of the people. When will these things cease to be, and the Constitution and the laws again bear rule?"[13] In 1844 Joseph Smith wrote his views as a candidate for President of the United States. The anti-slavery plank of his platform called for a gradual end to slavery by the year 1850. His plan called for the government to buy the freedom of slaves using money from the sale of public lands.[12]

Racial policy under Brigham Young

After Smith's death in 1844, Brigham Young became president of the main body of the church, and led the Mormon Pioneers to what would become the Utah territory. Like the majority of Americans at the time, Young (who was also the territorial governor) promoted discriminatory views about black people.[4] On January 16, 1852 Young made a pronouncement to the Utah Territorial Legislature stating that "any man having one drop of the seed of [Cain] ... in him cannot hold the priesthood and if no other Prophet ever spake it before I will say it now in the name of Jesus Christ I know it is true and others know it."[14]

A similar statement by Young was recorded on February 13, 1849. The statement — which refers to the Curse of Cain — was given in response to a question asking about the African's chances for redemption. Young responded, "The Lord had cursed Cain’s seed with blackness and prohibited them the Priesthood."[14]

William McCary

Some researchers have suggested that the actions of William McCary in Winter Quarters, Nebraska led to Brigham Young's decision to adopt the priesthood ban in the LDS Church. McCary was a half-African American convert who, after his baptism and ordination to the priesthood, began to claim to be a prophet and the possessor of other supernatural gifts.[15] He was excommunicated for apostasy in March 1847 and expelled from Winter Quarters.[16] After his excommunication, McCary began attracting Latter Day Saint followers and instituted plural marriage among his group, and he had himself sealed to several white wives.[15][16]

McCary's behavior angered many of the Latter Day Saints in Winter Quarters. Researchers have stated that his marriages to his white wives "played an important role in pushing the Mormon leadership into an anti-Black position"[15] and may have prompted Young to institute the priesthood and temple ban on black people.[15][16][17] A statement from Young to McCary in March 1847 suggested that race had nothing to do with priesthood eligibility[18] and the earliest known statement about the priesthood restriction from any Mormon leader (including the implication that skin color might be relevant) was made by Apostle Parley P. Pratt a month after McCary was expelled from Winter Quarters.[16] Speaking of McCary, Pratt stated that he "was a black man with the blood of Ham in him which lineage was cursed as regards the priesthood".[19]

Young's personal views

When asked "if the spirits of Negroes were neutral in Heaven," Young is reported in a journal entry to have responded, "No, they were not, there were no neutral [spirits] in Heaven at the time of the rebellion, all took sides …. All spirits are pure that came from the presence of God."[20] Prior to learning about Enoch Lewis's marriage to a woman of European descent (December 1847) Young considered Walker Lewis "one of the best Elders."[21]

On another occasion, Young said, "You see some classes of the human family that are black, uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable and low in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of the intelligence that is generally bestowed upon mankind …. Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been killed, and that would have put a termination to that line of human beings. This was not to be, and the Lord put a mark upon him, which is the flat nose and black skin. Trace mankind down to after the flood, and then another curse is pronounced upon the same race—that they should be the ‘servant of servants’; and they will be, until that curse is removed; and the Abolitionists cannot help it, nor in the least alter that decree."[22] On another occasion, Young taught that, "The Lamanites or Indians are just as much the children of our Father and God as we are. So also are the Africans."[23]

Brigham Young said this despite the LDS scripture verses that state people may be cursed unto the 3rd and 4th generation, but if any were to repent and make restitution they would be forgiven and the curse lifted.[24] This is reiterated in Doctrine and Covenants 124:50&52 as well as Mosiah 13:13,14 and Deut 5:9,10. Brigham Young explained that access to the priesthood would be given to blacks after their resurrection and not on this earth:

"Why are so many of the inhabitants of the earth cursed with a sin of blackness? It comes in consequence of their fathers rejecting the power of the Holy Priesthood, and the law of God. They will go down to death. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we now are entitled to. The volition of the creature is free; this is a law of their existence, and the Lord cannot violate his own law; were he to do that, he would cease to be God. He has placed life and death before his children, and it is for them to choose. If they choose life, they receive the blessings of life; if they chose death, they must abide the penalty. This is a law which has always existed from all eternity, and will continue to exist throughout all the eternities to come. Every intelligent being must have the power of choice, and God brings forth the results of the acts of his creatures to promote his kingdom and subserve his purposes in the salvation and exaltation of his children. If the Lord could have his own way, he would have all the human family to enter into his church and kingdom, receive the Holy Priesthood and come into the celestial kingdom of our Father and God, by the power of their own choice."[25]

President Young proclaimed that the "true eternal principals[sic]" of God are that "a man who has the African blood in him cannot hold one jot nor tittle of Priesthood", and reiterated his conviction that only after death would black men achieve the priesthood: "In the Kingdom of God on the Earth the Africans cannot hold one particle of power in Government."[26]

Slavery

In LDS scripture

It was a commonly held belief in the South that the Bible permitted slavery. For instance, the Old Testament has stories of slavery, and gives rules and regulations on how to treat slaves, while the New Testament tells slaves not to revolt against their masters. However, the Doctrine and Covenants condemns slavery, teaching "it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another." (D&C 101:79) The Book of Mormon heralds righteous kings who did not allow slavery, (Mosiah 29:40) and righteous men who fought against slavery (Alma 48:11). The Book of Mormon also describes an ideal society that lived around AD 34-200, in which it teaches the people "had all things common among them; therefore there were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift" (4 Nephi 4:3), and says that all people are children of God and "he denieth none that come unto him, black and white, bond and free, male and female" (2 Nephi 26:33). The Pearl of Great Price describes a similar society, in which "they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them" (Moses 7:18). Mormons believed they too, were commanded by the Lord to "be one; and if ye are not one ye are not mine" (D&C 38:27). For a short time, Mormons lived in a society with no divisions under the United Order.

Statements from church leaders

During a sermon criticizing the federal government, Young said, "If the Government of the United States, in Congress assembled, had the right to pass an anti-polygamy bill, they had also the right to pass a law that slaves should not be abused as they have been; they had also a right to make a law that negroes should be used like human beings, and not worse than dumb brutes. For their abuse of that race, the whites will be cursed, unless they repent."[27]

In 1851, Apostle Orson Hyde said:

We feel it to be our duty to define our position in relation to the subject of slavery. There are several in the Valley of the Salt Lake from the Southern States, who have their slaves with them. There is no law in Utah to authorize slavery, neither any to prohibit it. If the slave is disposed to leave his master, no power exists there, either legal or moral, that will prevent him. But if the slave chooses to remain with his master, none are allowed to interfere between the master and the slave. All the slaves that are there appear to be perfectly contented and satisfied. When a man in the Southern states embraces our faith, the Church says to him, if your slaves wish to remain with you, and to go with you, put them not away; but if they choose to leave you, or are not satisfied to remain with you, it is for you to sell them, or let them go free, as your own conscience may direct you. The Church, on this point, assumes not the responsibility to direct. The laws of the land recognize slavery, we do not wish to oppose the laws of the country. If there is sin in selling a slave, let the individual who sells him bear that sin, and not the Church.[28]

In Utah Territory

Utah Territory (1850)

The Great Compromise of 1850 allowed California into the Union as a free state while permitting Utah and New Mexico territories the option of deciding the issue by "popular sovereignty". In 1852 the Utah Territorial Legislature officially sanctioned slavery in Utah Territory. At that time, Brigham Young was governor, and the Utah Territorial Legislature was dominated by church leaders.[29] The Utah slavery law stipulated that slaves would be freed if their masters had sexual relations with them; attempted to take them from the territory against their will; or neglected to feed, clothe, or provide shelter to them. In addition, the law stipulated that slaves must receive schooling.

Utah was the only western state or territory that had slaves in 1850,[30] but slavery was never important economically in Utah, and there were fewer than 100 slaves in the territory.[4] In 1860, the census showed that 29 of the 59 black people in Utah Territory were slaves.[citation needed] When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Utah sided with the Union, and slavery ended in 1862 when the United States Congress abolished slavery in the Utah Territory.

Racial restriction policy

Under the racial restrictions that lasted from the presidency of Brigham Young until 1978, persons with any black African ancestry could not hold the priesthood in the LDS Church and could not participate in most temple ordinances, including the endowment and celestial marriage. Black people were permitted to be members of the church, and to participate in some temple ordinances, such as baptism for the dead.[31]

The racial restriction policy was applied to black Africans, persons of black African descent, and any one with mixed race that included any black African ancestry. The policy was not applied to Native Americans, Hispanics, Melanesians or Polynesians.

Priesthood

The priesthood restriction was particularly limiting, because the LDS Church has a lay priesthood and all worthy male members may receive the priesthood. Young men are generally admitted to the Aaronic priesthood at age 12, and it is a significant rite of passage. Virtually all white adult male members of the church held the priesthood. Holders of the priesthood officiate at church meetings, perform blessings of healing, and manage church affairs. Excluding black people from the priesthood meant that they could not hold significant church leadership roles or participate in certain spiritual events.

Don Harwell, a black LDS Church member, said, "I remember being in a Sacrament meeting, pre-1978, and the sacrament was being passed and there was special care taken by this person that not only did I not officiate, but I didn't touch the sacrament tray. They made sure that I could take the sacrament, but that I did not touch the tray and it was passed around me. That was awfully hard, considering that often those who were officiating were young men in their early teens, and they had that priesthood. I valued that priesthood, but it wasn't available."[32]

Temple ordinances

Between 1844 and 1977, most black people were not permitted to participate in ordinances performed in the LDS Church temples, such as the endowment ritual, temple marriages, and family sealings. These ordinances are considered essential to enter the highest degree of heaven, so this meant that they could not enjoy the full privileges enjoyed by other Latter-day Saints during the restriction.

Latter-day Saints believe that marriages that are sealed in a celestial marriage would bind the family together forever, whereas those that are not sealed were terminated upon death. President David McKay taught that black people "need not worry, as those who receive the testimony of the Restored Gospel may have their family ties protected and other blessings made secure, for in the justice of the Lord they will possess all the blessings to which they are entitled in the eternal plan of Salvation and Exaltation."[33]

Brigham Young taught that "When the ordinances are carried out in the temples that will be erected, [children] will be sealed to their [parents], and those who have slept, clear up to Father Adam. This will have to be done...until we shall form a perfect chain from Father Adam down to the closing up scene."[34] Once black people were allowed to participate in temple ordinances, they could also perform the ordinances for their ancestors.

Entrance to the highest heaven

A celestial marriage was not required to get into the celestial kingdom, but was required to obtain a fullness of glory within the celestial kingdom.[35] The Doctrine and Covenants reads "In the celestial glory there are three heavens or degrees; And in order to obtain the highest, a man must enter into this order of the priesthood [meaning the new and everlasting covenant of marriage]; And if he does not, he cannot obtain it."(D&C 131:1-3) The righteous who do not have a celestial marriage would still make it into heaven, and live eternally with God, but they would be "appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants."(D&C 132:16)

Some interpreted this to mean black people would be treated as unmarried whites, being confined to only ever live in God's presence as a ministering servant. In 1954, Apostle Mark E. Petersen told BYU students: "If that Negro is faithful all his days, he can and will enter the celestial kingdom. He will go there as a servant, but he will get a celestial resurrection."[36] Apostle George F. Richards in a talk at General Conference similarly taught: "[t]he Negro is an unfortunate man. He has been given a black skin. But that is as nothing compared with that greater handicap that he is not permitted to receive the Priesthood and the ordinances of the temple, necessary to prepare men and women to enter into and enjoy a fullness of glory in the celestial kingdom."[37]

Several leaders, including Joseph Smith,[38] Brigham Young,[39] Wilford Woodruff,[40] George Albert Smith,[41] David O. McKay,[42] Joseph Fielding Smith,[43] Harold B. Lee,[44] and Spencer W. Kimball,[45] taught that black people would eventually be able to receive a fullness of glory in the celestial kingdom.

When the priesthood ban was discussed in 1978, apostle Bruce McConkie argued for its change using the Mormon scripture and the Articles of Faith. The Third Article states that "all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel."(Articles of Faith 1:3) From the Book of Mormon he quoted "And even unto the great and last day, when all people, and all kindreds, and all nations and tongues shall stand before God, to be judged of their works, whether they be good or whether they be evil— If they be good, to the resurrection of everlasting life; and if they be evil, to the resurrection of damnation. (3 Nephi 26:4-5) The Book of Abraham in the Pearl of Great Price states that Abraham's seed "shall all the families of the earth be blessed, even with the blessings of the Gospel, which are the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal." (Abraham 2:11) According to his son, Joseph F. McConkie, these scriptures played a great part in changing the policy.[46]

Speculation on rationale for racial restrictions

Author David Persuitte has pointed out that it was commonplace in the 19th century for theologians, including Joseph Smith, to believe that the curse of Cain was a black skin, and that this genetic trait had descended through Noah's son Ham, who was understood to have married a black wife.[47] Mormon historian Claudia Bushman also identifies doctrinal explanations for the exclusion of blacks, with one justification originating in papyrus rolls translated by Joseph Smith as the Book of Abraham, a passage of which links ancient Egyptian government to the cursed Ham through Pharoah, Ham's grandson, who was "of that lineage by which he could not have the right of Priesthood".[48]:pp.93

Another possible reason for racial restriction has been called by Colin Kidd "Mormon karma", where skin color is perceived as evidence of righteousness (or its lack thereof) in a pre-mortal existence.[49]:pp.236 The doctrine of premortal existence is described in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism in this way: "to Latter-day Saints premortal life is characterized by individuality, agency, intelligence, and opportunity for eternal progression. It is a central doctrine of the theology of the Church and provides understanding to the age-old question "Whence cometh man?"[50] This idea is based on the opinions of several prominent church leaders, including Joseph Fielding Smith, tenth president of the LDS Church, who held the view that the pre-mortal life had been a kind of testing ground for the assignment of God's spiritual children to favored or disfavored mortal lineages.[49]:pp.236-237 Bushman has also noted Fielding Smith's long-time teachings that in a pre-mortal war in heaven, blacks were considered to have been those spirits who did not fight as valiantly against Satan and who, as a result, received a lesser earthly stature, with such restrictions as being disqualified from holding the priesthood.[48]:pp.93 According to religious historian Craig Prentiss,[51] the appeal to pre-mortal existence was confirmed as doctrine through statements of the LDS First Presidency in 1949[52] and 1969.[53] However, the church has never sanctioned this position as doctrine, and several church leaders have repudiated this position.[54][55][56][57]

Other racial discrimination

Like most Americans during the 19th and early 20th centuries, many Mormons held racist views, and exclusion from priesthood was not the only discrimination practiced toward black people. In the late 1800s blacks living in Cache Valley were forcibly relocated to Ogden and Salt Lake City. In the 1950s, the San Francisco mission office took legal action to prevent black families from moving into the church neighborhood.[58] In 1965, a black man living in Salt Lake City, Daily Oliver, described how – as a boy – he was excluded from an LDS-led boy scout troop because they did not want blacks in their building.[59] Mormon apostle Mark E. Petersen describes a black family that tried to join the LDS church: "[some white church members] went to the Branch President, and said that either the [black] family must leave, or they would all leave. The Branch President ruled that [the black family] could not come to church meetings. It broke their hearts."[60] Until the 1970s hospitals with connections to the LDS church, including LDS Hospital, Primary Children's and Cottonwood Hospitals in Salt Lake City, McKay-Dee Hospital in Ogden, and Utah Valley Hospital in Provo, kept separate the blood donated by blacks and whites, and even after the Church's volte face in 1978 patients who expressed concern about receiving blood from black donors were given reassurance from hospital authorities that this would not happen.[61]

1880–1950

Under John Taylor's presidency (1880–1887) there was confusion regarding the origin of the racial policy. Abel was living, breathing proof that an African American was ordained to the Priesthood in the days of Joseph Smith. His son, Enoch Abel, had also been conferred the Priesthood.[62] Joseph F. Smith said that Abel's Priesthood had been declared null and void by Joseph Smith himself, though this seems to conflict with Joseph F. Smith's teachings that the Priesthood could not be removed from any man without removing that man from the church.[63] From this point on Joseph Smith was repeatedly referred to as the author of many statements, which had actually been made by Brigham Young, on the subject of Priesthood restriction.[63]

Several black men received the priesthood after the racial restriction policy was put in place, including Elijah Abel's son Enoch Abel, who was ordained an elder on Nov. 10, 1900. Enoch's son and Elijah Abel's grandson — who was also named Elijah Abel — received the Aaronic priesthood and was ordained to the office of priest on July 5, 1934. The younger Elijah Abel also received the Melchizedek priesthood and was ordained to the office of elder on Sept. 29, 1935.[64] One commentator has pointed out that these incidents illustrate the "ambiguities, contradictions, and paradoxes" of the issue during the twentieth century.[64]

In 1949, the First Presidency under the direction of George Albert Smith made a declaration which included the statement that the priesthood restriction was divinely commanded and not a matter of church policy.[65] It stated:

The attitude of the Church with reference to the Negroes remains as it has always stood. It is not a matter of the declaration of a policy but of direct commandment from the Lord, on which is founded the doctrine of the Church from the days of its organization, to the effect that Negroes may become members of the Church but that they are not entitled to the Priesthood at the present time. The prophets of the Lord have made several statements as to the operation of the principle. President Brigham Young said: "Why are so many of the inhabitants of the earth cursed with a skin of blackness? It comes in consequence of their fathers rejecting the power of the holy priesthood, and the law of God. They will go down to death. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the holy priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we now are entitled to."

The declaration goes on to state that the conditions in which people are born are affected by their conduct in a premortal existence, although the details of the principle are said not to be known. It then says that the privilege of mortal existence is so great that spirits were willing to come to earth even though they would not be able to possess the priesthood. It concludes by stating, "Under this principle there is no injustice whatsoever involved in this deprivation as to the holding of the priesthood by the Negroes." [66]

1951–1977

In 1954, Church President David O. McKay taught: "There is not now, and there never has been a doctrine in this church that the negroes are under a divine curse. There is no doctrine in the church of any kind pertaining to the negro. We believe that we have a scriptural precedent for withholding the priesthood from the negro. It is a practice, not a doctrine, and the practice someday will be changed. And that's all there is to it.’[67]

Mark E. Petersen addressed the issue of race and Priesthood in his address to a 1954 Convention of Teachers of Religion at the College Level at Brigham Young University. He said:

The reason that one would lose his blessings by marrying a negro is due to the restriction placed upon them. 'No person having the least particle of negro blood can hold the priesthood' (Brigham Young). It does not matter if they are one-sixth negro or one-hundred and sixth, the curse of no Priesthood is the same. If an individual who is entitled to the priesthood marries a negro, the Lord has decreed that only spirits who are not eligible for the priesthood will come to that marriage as children. To intermarry with a negro is to forfeit a 'nation of priesthood holders'....[68]

Petersen held that male descendants of a mixed-marriage could not become a Mormon priest, even if they had a lone ancestor with African blood dating back many generations.[69] However, he did hold out hope for African Americans, in that a black person baptized into the Mormon faith and who accepted Joseph Smith as a Prophet of God could attain the highest form of salvation known to Mormons, the Celestial Kingdom.[69] Petersen said, "If that negro is faithful all his days, he can and will enter the Celestial Kingdom. He will go there as a servant, but he will get celestial glory."[69]

In 1969 church apostle Harold B. Lee blocked the LDS Church from rescinding the racial restriction policy.[70] Church leaders voted to rescind the policy at a meeting in 1969. Lee was absent from the meeting due to travels. When Lee returned he called for a re-vote, arguing that the policy could not be changed without a revelation.[70]

Harold B. Lee, president of the church, stated in 1972: "For those who don't believe in modern revelation there is no adequate explanation. Those who do understand revelation stand by and wait until the Lord speaks...It's only a matter of time before the black achieves full status in the Church. We must believe in the justice of God. The black will achieve full status, we’re just waiting for that time."[71]

Civil Rights movement

In 1958, Joseph Fielding Smith published Answers to Gospel Questions, which stated that "no church or other organization is more insistent than The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, that the negroes should receive all the rights and privileges that can possibly be given to any other in the true sense of equality as declared in the Declaration of Independence." He continues to say they should not be barred from any type of employment or education, and should be free "to make their lives as happy as it is possible without interference from white men, labor unions or from any other source."[72] In the 1963 General Conference, Hugh B. Brown stated: "it is a moral evil for any person or group of persons to deny any human being the rights to gainful employment, to full educational opportunity, and to every privilege of citizenship". He continued: "We call upon all men everywhere, both within and outside the church, to commit themselves to the establishment of full civil equality for all of God's children. Anything less than this defeats our high ideal of the brotherhood of man."[72]

The NAACP attempted to get the LDS church to support civil rights legislation and to reverse its discriminating practices during the Civil Rights era in the 1960s. In 1963 NAACP leadership tried to arrange meetings with church leadership, but the church refused to meet with them.[58] In 1965, the church leadership did meet with the NAACP, and agreed to publish an editorial in church-owned newspaper The Deseret News, which would support civil rights legislation pending in the Utah legislature. The church failed to follow-through on the commitment, and church Apostle N. Eldon Tanner explained "We have decided to remain silent".[58] In March 1965, the NAACP led an anti-discrimination march in Salt Lake City, protesting church policies.[58] In 1966, the NAACP issued a statement criticizing the church, saying the church "has maintained a rigid and continuous segregation stand" and that "the church has made "no effort to conteract the widespread discriminatory practices in education, in housing, in employment, and other areas of life"[73]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Mormons in the West were close to the national averages in racial attitudes.[4] In 1966, Armand Mauss surveyed Mormons on racial attitudes and discriminatory practices. He found that "Mormons resembled the rather "moderate" denominations (such as Presbyterian, Congregational, Episcopalian), rather than the "fundamentalists" or the sects."[74] Negative racial attitudes within Mormonism varied inversely with education, occupation, community size of origin, and youth, reflecting the national trend. Urban Mormons with a more orthodox view of Mormonism tended to be more tolerant.[74]

African-American athletes protested against LDS policies by boycotting several sporting events with Brigham Young University. In 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King, black members of the UTEP track team approached their coach and expressed their desire not to compete against BYU in an upcoming meet. When the coach disregarded the athletes' complaint, the athletes boycotted the meet.[75] In 1969, 14 members of the University of Wyoming football team were removed from the team for planning to protest the policies of the LDS church.[75] In November 1969, Stanford University President Kenneth Pitzer suspended athletic relations with BYU.[76]

Since the early part of the 20th century, each LDS ward has organized its own Boy Scouting troop. Some LDS troops permitted black youths to join, but an LDS policy required that the troop leader to be the deacon quorum president (a priesthood office held by 12 and 13 year old non-black church members), thus excluding black children from that role. The NAACP filed a federal lawsuit in 1974 challenging this practice, and soon thereafter the LDS church reversed its policy.[77][78]

Spencer W. Kimball, LDS apostle and future president of the church taught against racism. In 1972, he said: "Intolerance by Church members is despicable. A special problem exists with respect to black people because they may not now receive the priesthood. Some members of the Church would justify their own un-Christian discrimination against black people because of that rule with respect to the priesthood, but while this restriction has been imposed by the Lord, it is not for us to add burdens upon the shoulders of our black brethren. They who have received Christ in faith through authoritative baptism are heirs to the celestial kingdom along with men of all other races. And those who remain faithful to the end may expect that God may finally grant them all blessings they have merited through their righteousness. Such matters are in the Lord's hands. It is for us to extend our love to all."[79]

There were some LDS church members who protested against the church's discriminatory practices. Two LDS church members, Douglas A. Wallace and Byron Merchant, were excommunicated by the LDS church (1976 and 1977 respectively) after criticizing the church's discrimatory practices.[80][81][82][83] LDS church member Grant Syphers objected to the church's racial policies and, as a consequence, his stake president refused to give Sypher permission to enter the temple. The president said, "Anyone who could not accept the Church's stand on Negroes ... could not go to the temple".[84]

Racial policy ends in 1978

LDS church president Spencer W. Kimball (president 1973-1985) took general conference on the road, holding area and regional conferences all over the world. He also announced many new temples to be built both in the United States and abroad, including one temple in São Paulo, Brazil. The problem of determining priesthood eligibility in Brazil was thought to be nearly impossible due to the mixing of the races in that country. When the temple was announced, church leaders realized the difficulty of restricting persons with African descent from attending the temple in Brazil.[85]

Finally, on June 8, 1978, the First Presidency released to the press an official declaration, now a part of the standard works of the church, which contained the following statement:

He has heard our prayers, and by revelation has confirmed that the long-promised day has come when every faithful, worthy man in the church may receive the Holy Priesthood, with power to exercise its divine authority, and enjoy with his loved ones every blessing that follows there from, including the blessings of the temple. Accordingly, all worthy male members of the church may be ordained to the priesthood without regard for race or color. Priesthood leaders are instructed to follow the policy of carefully interviewing all candidates for ordination to either the Aaronic or the Melchizedek Priesthood to insure that they meet the established standards for worthiness.[86]

According to first-person accounts, after much discussion among the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on this matter, they engaged the Lord in prayer. According to the writing of one of those present, "It was during this prayer that the revelation came. The Spirit of the Lord rested upon us all; we felt something akin to what happened on the day of Pentecost and at the Kirtland Temple. From the midst of eternity, the voice of God, conveyed by the power of the Spirit, spoke to his prophet. The message was that the time had now come to offer the fullness of the everlasting gospel, including celestial marriage, and the priesthood, and the blessings of the temple, to all men, without reference to race or color, solely on the basis of personal worthiness. And we all heard the same voice, received the same message, and became personal witnesses that the word received was the mind and will and voice of the Lord."[87] Immediately after the receipt of this new revelation, an official announcement of the revelation was prepared, and sent out to all of the various leaders of the Church. It was then read to, approved by and accepted as the word and will of the Lord, by a General Conference of the Church in October 1978. Succeeding editions of the Doctrine and Covenants were printed with this announcement canonized and entitled "Official Declaration—2".

Gordon B. Hinckley (a participant in the meetings to reverse the ban), in a churchwide fireside said, "Not one of us who was present on that occasion was ever quite the same after that. Nor has the Church been quite the same. All of us knew that the time had come for a change and that the decision had come from the heavens. The answer was clear. There was perfect unity among us in our experience and in our understanding."[88]

Later in 1978, McConkie said:[89]

There are statements in our literature by the early brethren which we have interpreted to mean that the Negroes would not receive the priesthood in mortality. I have said the same things, and people write me letters and say, "You said such and such, and how is it now that we do such and such?" And all I can say to that is that it is time disbelieving people repented and got in line and believed in a living, modern prophet. Forget everything that I have said, or what President Brigham Young or President George Q. Cannon or whomsoever has said in days past that is contrary to the present revelation. We spoke with a limited understanding and without the light and knowledge that now has come into the world.... We get our truth and our light line upon line and precept upon precept. We have now had added a new flood of intelligence and light on this particular subject, and it erases all the darkness and all the views and all the thoughts of the past. They don’t matter any more.... It doesn’t make a particle of difference what anybody ever said about the Negro matter before the first day of June of this year.

Critics of the LDS church state that the church's 1978 reversal of the racial restriction policy was not divinely inspired as the church claimed, but simply a matter of political convenience,[90] as the reversal of policy occurred as the LDS church began to expand outside the United States into countries such as Brazil that have ethnically mixed populations, and that the policy reversal was announced just a few months before the church opened its new temple in São Paulo, Brazil.[91]

Interracial marriages

During a sermon criticizing the federal government, Church president Brigham Young said "If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so."[27] The seed of Cain generally referred to those with dark skin of African descent. Some modern Mormon apologists argue that he was condemning the abuse of black women by white men; in particular, the relations between a slaveowner and his female slaves.[92]

LDS Apostle Mark E. Petersen said in 1954: "I think I have read enough to give you an idea of what the Negro is after. He is not just seeking the opportunity of sitting down in a cafe where white people eat. He isn't just trying to ride on the same streetcar or the same Pullman car with white people. It isn't that he just desires to go to the same theater as the white people. From this, and other interviews I have read, it appears that the Negro seeks absorption with the white race. He will not be satisfied until he achieves it by intermarriage. That is his objective and we must face it."[93]

In a 1965 address to BYU students, President Kimball told BYU students: "Now, the brethren feel that it is not the wisest thing to cross racial lines in dating and marrying. There is no condemnation. We have had some of our fine young people who have crossed the lines. We hope they will be very happy, but experience of the brethren through a hundred years has proved to us that marriage is a very difficult thing under any circumstances and the difficulty increases in interrace marriages."[94]

The official newspaper of the LDS Church[95] – the Church News – printed an article in entitled "Interracial marriage discouraged". This article was printed on June 17, 1978, in the same issue that announced the policy reversal.

There was no written church policy on interracial marriages, which had been permitted since before the 1978 reversal.[94] In 1978, church spokesman Don LeFevre said "So there is no ban on interracial marriage. If a black partner contemplating marriage is worthy of going to the Temple, nobody's going to stop him... if he's ready to go to the Temple, obviously he may go with the blessings of the church."[96]

On the LDS Church website, Dr. Robert Millet writes: "[T]he Church Handbook of Instructions... is the guide for all Church leaders on doctrine and practice. There is, in fact, no mention whatsoever in this handbook concerning interracial marriages. In addition, having served as a Church leader for almost 30 years, I can also certify that I have never received official verbal instructions condemning marriages between black and white members."[97]

A church lesson manual for adolescent boys that is in use in 2012 contains a 1976 quote from Spencer W. Kimball that says "We recommend that people marry those who are of the same racial background generally, and of somewhat the same economic and social and educational background (some of those are not an absolute necessity, but preferred), and above all, the same religious background, without question".[98]

1985 to present

MormonAd promoting racial equality in the church

Since the Revelation on the Priesthood in 1978, the church has made no distinctions in policy for black people, but it remains an issue for many black members of the church. Alvin Jackson, a black Bishop, puts his focus on "moving forward rather than looking back."[99] In an interview with Mormon Century, Jason Smith expresses his viewpoint that the membership of the church was not ready for black people to have the Priesthood at the time of the Restoration, because of prejudice and slavery. He draws analogies to the Bible where only the Israelites have the gospel.[100] Officially the church also uses Biblical history to justify the prior ban:

Ever since biblical times, the Lord has designated through His prophets who could receive the priesthood and other blessings of the gospel. Among the tribes of Israel, for example, only men of the tribe of Levi were given the priesthood and allowed to officiate in certain ordinances. Likewise, during the Savior's earthly ministry, gospel blessings were restricted to the Jews. Only after a revelation to the Apostle Peter were the gospel and priesthood extended to others (see Acts 10:1–33; 14:23; 15:6–8).[101]

The church opposes racism among its membership. It is currently working to reach out to black people, and has several predominantly black wards inside the United States.[102] They teach that all are welcome to come unto Christ, and speak against those who harbor ill feelings towards another race. Gordon B. Hinckley, the President of the LDS church, stated:

I remind you that no man who makes disparaging remarks concerning those of another race can consider himself a true disciple of Christ. Nor can he consider himself to be in harmony with the teachings of the Church of Christ. Let us all recognize that each of us is a son or daughter of our Father in Heaven, who loves all of His children."[103]

In the July 1992 edition of the New Era, the church published a MormonAd promoting racial equality in the church. The photo contained several youth of a variety of ethic backgrounds with the words "Family Photo" in large print. Underneath the picture are the words "God created the races—but not racism. We are all children of the same Father. Violence and hatred have no place in His family. (See Acts 10:34.)"[104]

Instances of discrimination after 1978 revelation

LDS historian Wayne J. Embry interviewed several black LDS church members in 1987 and reported "All of the interviewees reported incidents of aloofness on the part of white members, a reluctance or a refusal to shake hands with them or sit by them, and racist comments made to them." Embry further reported that one black church member "was amazingly persistent in attending Mormon services for three years when, by her report, no one would speak to her." Embry reports that "she [the same black church member] had to write directly to the president of the LDS Church to find out how to be baptized" because none of her fellow church members would tell her.[105]

Black LDS church member Darron Smith wrote in 2003: "Even though the priesthood ban was repealed in 1978, the discourse that constructs what blackness means is still very much intact today. Under the direction of President Spencer W. Kimball, the First Presidency and the Twelve removed the policy that denied black people the priesthood but did very little to disrupt the multiple discourses that had fostered the policy in the first place. Hence there are Church members today who continue to summon and teach at every level of Church education the racial discourse that black people are descendants of Cain, that they merited lesser earthly privilege because they were "fence-sitters" in the War in Heaven, and that, science and climatic factors aside, there is a link between skin color and righteousness" [106]

Journalist and church member Peggy Fletcher Stack in 2007 wrote "Today, many black Mormons report subtle differences in the way they are treated, as if they are not full members but a separate group. A few even have been called 'the n-word' at church and in the hallowed halls of the temple. They look in vain at photos of Mormon general authorities, hoping to see their own faces reflected there.[107]

White church member Eugene England, a professor at Brigham Young University, wrote in 1998:

This is a good time to remind ourselves that most Mormons are still in denial about the ban, unwilling to talk in Church settings about it, and that some Mormons still believe that Blacks were cursed by descent from Cain through Ham. Even more believe that Blacks, as well as other non-white people, come color-coded into the world, their lineage and even their class a direct indication of failures in a previous life.... I check occasionally in classes at BYU and find that still, twenty years after the revelation, a majority of bright, well-educated Mormon students say they believe that Blacks are descendants of Cain and Ham and thereby cursed and that skin color is an indication of righteousness in the pre-mortal life. They tell me these ideas came from their parents or Seminary and Sunday School teachers, and they have never questioned them. They seem largely untroubled by the implicit contradiction to basic gospel teachings.[108]

In an interview for the PBS documentary The Mormons, Jeffrey R. Holland, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, specifically denounced the perpetuation of folklore suggesting that race was in any way an indication of how faithful a person had been in the pre-existence.[109]

Church asked to repudiate past declarations

In 1995, black church member A. David Jackson asked church leaders to issue a declaration repudiating past doctrines that denied various privileges to black people. In particular, Jackson asked the church to disavow the 1949 "Negro Question" declaration from the church Presidency which stated "The attitude of the church with reference to negroes ... is not a matter of the declaration of a policy but of direct commandment from the Lord ... to the effect that negroes ... are not entitled to the priesthood...".[110]

The church leadership did not issue a repudiation, and so in 1997 Jackson, aided by other church members including Armand Mauss, sent a second request to church leaders, which stated that white Mormons felt that the 1978 revelation resolved everything, but that black Mormons react differently when they learn the details. He said that many black Mormons become discouraged and leave the church or become inactive. "When they find out about this, they exit... You end up with the passive African Americans in the church".[111]

Other black church members think giving an apology would be a "detriment" to church work and a catalyst to further racial misunderstanding. African-American church member Bryan E. Powell says "There is no pleasure in old news, and this news is old." Gladys Newkirk agrees, stating "I've never experienced any problems in this church. I don't need an apology. . . . We're the result of an apology."[112] The large majority of black Mormons say they are willing to look beyond the previous teachings and remain with the church in part because of its powerful, detailed teachings on life after death.[113]

Hinckley, then church president, told the Los Angeles Times "The 1978 declaration speaks for itself ... I don't see anything further that we need to do". Church leadership did not issue a repudiation.[110] Church apostle Dallin H. Oaks said: "It's not the pattern of the Lord to give reasons. We can put reasons to commandments. When we do we're on our own. Some people put reasons to [the ban] and they turned out to be spectacularly wrong. There is a lesson in that.... The lesson I've drawn from that, I decided a long time ago that I had faith in the command and I had no faith in the reasons that had been suggested for it... I'm referring to reasons given by general authorities and reasons elaborated upon [those reasons] by others. The whole set of reasons seemed to me to be unnecessary risk taking... Let's [not] make the mistake that's been made in the past, here and in other areas, trying to put reasons to revelation. The reasons turn out to be man-made to a great extent. The revelations are what we sustain as the will of the Lord and that's where safety lies."[114]

Humanitarian aid in Africa

The church has been involved in several humanitarian aid projects in Africa. On January 27, 1985, members across the world joined together in a fast for "the victims of famine and other causes resulting in hunger and privation among people of Africa." They also donated the money that would have been used for food during the fast to help those victims, regardless of church membership.[115] Together with other organizations such as UNICEF and the American Red Cross, the church is working towards eradicating measles. Since 1999, there has been a 60 percent drop in deaths from measles in Africa.[116] Due to their efforts, the American Red Cross bestowed the First Presidency with the organization's highest financial support honor, the American Red Cross Circle of Humanitarians award.[117] The church has also been involved in humanitarian aid in Africa by sending food boxes,[118] digging wells to provide clean water,[119] distributing wheelchairs,[120] fighting AIDS,[citation needed] providing Neonatal Resuscitation Training,[121] and setting up employment resources service centers.[122]

Black membership

The church has never kept official records on the race of its membership, so exact numbers are unknown. Black people have been members of Mormon congregations since its foundation, but before 1978 its black membership was small. It has since grown, and in 1997, there were approximately 500,000 black members of the church (about 5% of the total membership), mostly in Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean.[123] Black membership has continued to grow substantially, especially in West Africa, where two temples have been built.[8]

See also

References

Primary sources

Secondary sources

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hamil R. Harris (February 17, 2012). "Mindful of history, Mormon Church reaches out to minorities". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/mindful-of-history-mormon-church-reaches-out-to-minorities/2012/02/13/gIQAZKJrKR_story.html. Retrieved February 29, 2012. "a period of more than 120 years during which black men were essentially barred from the priesthood and few Americans of color were active in the faith." 
  2. ^ Ostling, Richard, and Joan K. Ostling (2007). Mormon America - Revised and Updated Edition: The Power and the Promise. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 102. ISBN 978-0061432958. http://books.google.com/books?id=5h6paNzoIOIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  3. ^ Mauss (2003, pp. 261-264)
  4. ^ a b c d Mauss, Armand The LDS Church and the Race Issue: A Study in Misplaced Apologetics 2003
  5. ^ Mormonism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 111. 
  6. ^ Gordon B. Hinckley, "The Need for Greater Kindness", 2006-04-01.
  7. ^ Adherents.com quoting Deseret News 1999-2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998); pg. 119. "A rough estimate would place the number of Church members with African roots at year-end 1997 at half a million, with about 100,000 each in Africa and the Caribbean, and another 300,000 in Brazil."
  8. ^ a b The Church Continues to Grow in Africa
  9. ^ "Saints, Slaves, and Blacks" by Bringhurst. Table 8 on p.223
  10. ^ Coleman, Ronald G. (2008). "Is There No Blessing For Me? Jane Elizabeth Manning James, a Mormon African American Woman", in African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000. ed. by Quintard Taylor and Shirley Ann Wilson Moore.. Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 151-155. ISBN 978-0806139791. http://books.google.com/books?id=uwKuLlDDT-wC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. "Jane Elizabeth James never understood the continued denial of her church entitlements. Her autobiography reveals a stubborn adherence to her church even when it ignored her pleas." 
  11. ^ Mauss (2003, p. 213)
  12. ^ a b Bush, Lester E., Jr. (Spring 1973), "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 8 (1), https://www.dialoguejournal.com/wp-content/uploads/sbi/articles/Dialogue_V08N01_13.pdf 
  13. ^ History of the Church, 4:544
  14. ^ a b Bush & Mauss 1984: 70
  15. ^ a b c d Larry G. Murphy, J. Gordon Melton, and Gary L. Ward (1993). Encyclopedia of African American Religions (New York: Garland Publishing) pp. 471–472.
  16. ^ a b c d Newell G. Bringhurst (1981). Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People within Mormonism (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press).
  17. ^ Connell O’Donovan, "The Mormon Priesthood Ban & Elder Q. Walker Lewis: 'An example for his more whiter brethren to follow', John Whitmer Historical Association Journal, 2006.
  18. ^ "Its nothing to do with the blood for [from] one blood has God made all flesh, we have to repent [to] regain what we have lost — we have one of the best Elders, an African in Lowell [referring to Walker Lewis].": Brigham Young Papers, March 26, 1847, LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.
  19. ^ General Minutes, April 25, 1847, LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.
  20. ^ Journal History, 25 December 1869, citing Wilford Woodruff's journal. See also http://www.blacklds.org/mormon/history.html
  21. ^ Brigham Young Papers, March 26, 1847, LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah
  22. ^ Journal of Discourses, 7:290.
  23. ^ Journal of Discourses Volumes 11-12
  24. ^ D&C 98: 45-47
  25. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Journal_of_Discourses/Volume_11/Delegate_Hooper%E2%80%94Beneficial_Effects_of_Polygamy,_etc. Journal of Discourses Volume 11]
  26. ^ Collier, Fred C., ed. (1987). The Teachings of President Brigham Young. Vol 3. 1852-1854. Salt Lake City, UT: Collier's Publishing Co.. pp. 43. ISBN 978-0934964012. 
  27. ^ a b Journal of Discourses 10:104–111.
  28. ^ Millennial Star, February 15, 1851. Quoted in BlackLDS.org
  29. ^ Bigler, David L. (1998). Forgotten Kingdom: The Mormon Theocracy in the American West, 1847-1896. Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 0-87062-282-X. 
  30. ^ Negro Slaves in Utah by Jack Beller, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 4, 1929, pp. 124-126
  31. ^ In her autobiography, Jane Elizabeth Manning James says she "had the privilege of going into the temple and being baptized for some of my dead." http://www.blacklds.org/manning Life History of Jane Elizabeth Manning James as transcribed by Elizabeth J.D. Round
  32. ^ Rosemary Winters, "Black Mormons Struggle for Acceptance in the Church", Salt Lake Tribune, November 4, 2004
  33. ^ Mormonism and the Negro, pp. 23
  34. ^ Chapter 41: Temple Ordinances, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young, 299
  35. ^ Church leader Bruce McConkie wrote "Baptism is the gate to the celestial kingdom; celestial marriage is the gate to an exaltation in the highest heaven within the celestial world."(Mormon Doctrine, 1966, p 118)
  36. ^ Address at Convention of Teachers of Religion, BYU, Utah, August 27, 1954.
  37. ^ Elder George F. Richards, Conference Report, April 1939, p. 58.
  38. ^ In regards to black people, Joseph Smith taught that "They have souls, and are subjects of salvation." Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected by Joseph Fielding Smith, (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1976), 269. ISBN 0-87579-243-X
  39. ^ Brigham Young said "when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the Priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we are now entitled to." quoted by the First Presidency, August 17, 1949.
  40. ^ Wilford Woodruff said "The day will come when all that race will be redeemed and possess all the blessings which we now have" quoted by the First Presidency on August 17, 1949.
  41. ^ George Albert Smith reiterated what was said by both Brigham Young and Wilford Woodruff in a statement by the First Presidency on August 17, 1949
  42. ^ David McKay taught "Sometime in God's eternal plan, the Negro will be given the right to hold the Priesthood. In the meantime, those of that race who receive the testimony of the Restored Gospel may have their family ties protected and other blessings made secure, for in the justice of the Lord they will possess all the blessings to which they are entitled in the eternal plan of Salvation and Exaltation."(Mormonism and the Negro, pp. 23)
  43. ^ In reference to black people, Apostle Joseph Fielding Smith taught: "Every soul coming into this world came here with the promise that through obedience he would receive the blessings of salvation. No person was foreordained or appointed to sin or to perform a mission of evil. No person is ever predestined to salvation or damnation. Every person has free agency." (Joseph Fielding Smith Jr., Doctrines of Salvation, Vol.1, p. 61)
  44. ^ In 1972, Harold B. Lee said, "It's only a matter of time before the black achieves full status in the Church. We must believe in the justice of God. The black will achieve full status, we're just waiting for that time." (Kimball, Lengthen Your Stride, working draft chapter 20, page 22; citing Goates, Harold B. Lee, 506, quoting UPI interview published November 16, 1972.)
  45. ^ Official Declaration 2
  46. ^ Hallelujah! The 25th Anniversary of the Revelation of Priesthood
  47. ^ Persuitte, David (2000). Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon. Jefferson NC: McFarland. pp. 237. ISBN 978-0786408269. http://books.google.com/books?id=5Zx9qOay304C&pg=PA237&lpg=PA237&dq=cain+black+skin+mormon&source=bl&ots=TjU7uOPVE5&sig=jwXfVjBNXG9wbhUKyoXoCShf2aY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7_mCUJOCJ-Ww2wXr64HoAg&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=cain%20black%20skin%20mormon&f=false. 
  48. ^ a b Bushman, Claudia (2006). Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-day Saints in Modern America. Westport CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98933-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=t6W5xYse3j8C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  49. ^ a b Kidd,, Colin (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600–2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521793247. http://books.google.com/books?id=aNT3q1HjY_MC&pg=PA236&lpg=PA236&dq=book+of+abraham+ham's+descendants&source=bl&ots=4kMDO9T0rd&sig=qarQtFXjV79ELFLmsKfPDE_9L9s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zxeDUI7dN_Pk2wXkwoHYDQ&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=book%20of%20abraham%20ham's%20descendants&f=false. 
  50. ^ Brown, Gayle Oblad (1992). "Premortal Life", in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow. New York: Macmillan. pp. 1125. http://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Premortal_Life. 
  51. ^ Prentiss, Craig (2003). Religion and the Creation of Race and Ethnicity: An Introduction. New York: NYU Press. pp. 135. ISBN 978-0814767016. http://books.google.com/books?id=ap8wa_YmT2QC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  52. ^ Bush, Jr., Lester, and Armand L. Mauss, eds.. "Neither White nor Black". The Signature Books Library. Signature Books. http://signaturebookslibrary.org/?p=457. Retrieved 22 October 2012. "The position of the Church regarding the Negro may be understood when another doctrine of the Church is kept in mind, namely, that the conduct of spirits in the premortal existence has some determining effect upon the conditions and circumstances under which these spirits take on mortality and that while the details of this principle have not been made known, the mortality is a privilege that is given to those who maintain their first estate; and that the worth of the privilege is so great that spirits are willing to come to earth and take on bodies no matter what the handicap may be as to the kind of bodies they are to secure; and that among the handicaps, failure of the right to enjoy in mortality the blessings of the priesthood is a handicap which spirits are willing to assume in order that they might come to earth. Under this principle there is no injustice whatsoever involved in this deprivation as to the holding of the priesthood by the Negroes.-- Excerpt from statement from First Presidency signed by President George Albert Smith, 17 August 1949" 
  53. ^ Bush, Jr., Lester, and Armand L. Mauss, eds.. "Neither White nor Black". The Signature Books Library. Signature Books. http://signaturebookslibrary.org/?p=457. Retrieved 22 October 2012. "Our living prophet, President David O. McKay, has said, 'The seeming discrimination by the Church toward the Negro is not something which originated with man; but goes back into the beginning with God…. Revelation assures us that this plan antedates man’s mortal existence, extending back to man’s pre-existent state.'-- excerpt from statement by First Presidency, 12 December 1969, signed by Hugh B. Brown and N. Eldon Tanner" 
  54. ^ Dallin H. Oaks (5 June 1988), Interview with Associated Press, Daily Herald (Utah) 
  55. ^ Jeffrey R. Holland (March 4, 2006), The Mormons, http://www.pbs.org/mormons/interviews/holland.html 
  56. ^ Gordon B. Hinckley (May 2006), "The Need for Greater Kindness", Ensign 
  57. ^ Sterling M. McMurrin affidavit, March 6, 1979. See David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism by Greg Prince and William Robert Wright. Quoted by Genesis Group
  58. ^ a b c d Glen W. Davidson, "Mormon Missionaries and the Race Question," The Christian Century, 29 Sept. 1965, pp. 1183-86.
  59. ^ Utah Chronicle, May 28, 1965
  60. ^ "Race Problems As They Affect The Church", presentation by Mark E. Petersen to the Convention of Teachers of Religion", 27 August 1954, p. 16
  61. ^ Lederer, Susan E. (2008). Flesh and Blood:Organ Transplantation and Blood Transfusion in 20th Century America: Organ Transplantation and Blood Transfusion in 20th Century America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-516150-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=JaZn25Uv6XwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  62. ^ Elijah Abel | Blacklds.org
  63. ^ a b Bush & Mauss 1984: 76-86
  64. ^ a b Newell G. Bringhurst, "The 'Missouri Thesis' Revisisted: Early Mormonism, Slavery, and the Status of Black People" in Newell G. Bringhurst and Darron T. Smith (eds.) (2006). Black and Mormon (Urbana: University of Illinois Press) pp. 13–33 at p. 30.
  65. ^ Ostling, Richard and Joan (1999). Mormon America. pp. 101–102. 
  66. ^ First Presidency Letter of the First Presidency August 17, 1949
  67. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named mckay; see the help page.
  68. ^ Racism in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
  69. ^ a b c Peterson, Mark E. "Race Problems -- As They Affect The Church", 27 August 1954
  70. ^ a b Quinn, Michael D. The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power Salt Lake City: 1994 Signature Books Page 14
  71. ^ Kimball, Lengthen Your Stride, working draft chapter 20, page 22; citing Goates, Harold B. Lee, 506, quoting UPI interview published November 16, 1972.
  72. ^ a b LDS Black History Timeline
  73. ^ The Deseret News, May 3, 1966
  74. ^ a b Armand L. Mauss, "Mormonism and Secular Attitudes toward Negroes", Pacific Sociological Review 9 (Fall 1966)
  75. ^ a b Fried, Gil; Michael Hiller (1997). "ADR in youth and intercollegiate athletics". Brigham Young University Law Review. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_199701/ai_n8735454/pg_1. , p. 1, p. 10
  76. ^ James J. Kilpatrick (December 11, 1969). "A Sturdy Discipline Serves Mormons Well". Evening Independent. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=EfYLAAAAIBAJ&sjid=i1cDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3753,2673063&dq=kenneth-pitzer+brigham-young. 
  77. ^ http://www.bsa-discrimination.org/html/lds-top.html Exclusionary Practices & Policies of the Boy Scouts of America
  78. ^ Mauss, Armand L. (2003). All Abraham's Children: Changing Mormon Conceptions of Race and Lineage. University of Illinois Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-252-02803-1. 
  79. ^ The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p.237, emphasis in original
  80. ^ Salt Lake Tribune, April 13, 1976
  81. ^ Salt Lake Tribune, October 4, 1976
  82. ^ Salt Lake Tribune, April 3, 1978
  83. ^ Dallas Morning News, October 20, 1977
  84. ^ Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Winter 1967, p. 6
  85. ^ Mark L. Grover, "The Mormon Priesthood Revelation and the São Paulo Brazil Temple", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 23:39–53 (Spring 1990).
  86. ^ Official Declaration 2, emphasis added.
  87. ^ Priesthood, pp. 127-128, Deseret Book Co., 1981.
  88. ^ Priesthood Restoration, an edited version of a talk given 15 May 1988 at the Churchwide fireside commemorating the 159th anniversary of the restoration of the priesthood.
  89. ^ Bruce R. McConkie, 1978 (All Are Alike Unto God, A SYMPOSIUM ON THE BOOK OF MORMON, The Second Annual Church Educational System Religious Educator's Symposium, August 17–19, 1978
  90. ^ Tanner, Jerald and Sandra (1979). The Changing World of Mormonism. Moody Press. pp. 319–328. ISBN 0-8024-1234-3. 
  91. ^ Ostling, Richard and Joan (1999). Mormon America. Harper Collins. p. 95. 
  92. ^ http://en.fairmormon.org/Mormonism_and_racial_issues/Brigham_Young/Race_mixing_punishable_by_death
  93. ^ Race Problems - As They Affect The Church, Convention of Teachers of Religion on the College Level, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, August 27, 1954
  94. ^ a b "Interracial Marriage Discouraged", Church News, June 17, 1978, p. 2.
  95. ^ (Roberts 1983, p. 7)
  96. ^ Don LeFevre, Salt Lake Tribune, 14 June 1978
  97. ^ Robert L. Millet, "Church Response to Jon Krakauer's Under the Banner of Heaven", 27 June 2003
  98. ^
  99. ^ Page Johnson Alvin B. Jackson, Jr—The Bishop is Always In Meridian Magazine
  100. ^ Ken Kuykendall, Past racial issues and the Church today[dead link] Mormon Century
  101. ^ LDS Gospel Topics: Priesthood Ordination before 1978
  102. ^ Wilcox, Lauren, The Saints Go Marching In Washington Post May 13, 2007
  103. ^ The Need for Greater Kindness
  104. ^ Diamond, Craig (July 1992). Family Photo. New Era. http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=024644f8f206c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=445405e063feb010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1. 
  105. ^ Smith, Darron (2004). Black and Mormon. University of Illinois Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 0-252-02947-X. 
  106. ^ Smith, Darron (March 2003). "The Persistence of Racialized Discourse in Mormonism". Sunstone. 
  107. ^ "New film and revived group help many feel at home in their church" by Peggy Fletcher Stack, The Salt Lake Tribune, July 6, 2007
  108. ^ England, Eugene (June 1998). Sunstone: 54–58. 
  109. ^ trnascript of interview with Holland for the PBS documentary
  110. ^ a b Ostling, Richard and Joan (1999). Mormon America. Harper Collins. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-06-066371-5. 
  111. ^ Ostling, Richard and Joan (1999). Mormon America. Harper Collins. pp. 105. ISBN 0-06-066371-5. 
  112. ^ Broadway, Bill (1998-05-30). "Black Mormons Resist Apology Talk". Washington Post. http://www.ldshistory.net/1990/mhablack.htm. 
  113. ^ Ramirez, Margaret (2005-07-26). "Mormon past steeped in racism: Some black members want church to denounce racist doctrines". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-blackmormons,1,708682.story?page=1&ctrack=1&cset=true. 
  114. ^ Dallin H. Oaks, Interview with Associated Press, in Daily Herald, Provo, Utah, 5 June 1988
  115. ^ Kimball, Spencer, Romney, Marion, Hinckley, Gordon, Letters of the First Presidency January 11, 1985
  116. ^ Church Works to Eradicate Measles in Africa
  117. ^ American Red Cross Recognizes Church for Support of Measles Initiative in Africa
  118. ^ Food Boxes Rushed to Ease Starvation in Africa
  119. ^ Clean Water Projects
  120. ^ Wheelchair Distribution
  121. ^ church Works to Save Infants Through Neonatal Resuscitation Training
  122. ^ Employment Resource Service Centers
  123. ^ Adherents.com quoting Deseret News 1999-2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998); pg. 119.

Further reading

External links