Black dog (ghost)

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Sidney Paget's illustration of The Hound of the Baskervilles. The story was inspired by a legend of ghostly black dogs in Dartmoor.

A black dog is the name given to a being found primarily in the folklores of the British Isles. The black dog is essentially a nocturnal apparition, often said to be associated with the Devil or a Hellhound. Its appearance was regarded as a portent of death. It is generally supposed to be larger than a normal dog, and often has large, glowing eyes.[1] It is often associated with electrical storms (such as Black Shuck's appearance at Bungay, Suffolk),[2] and also with crossroads, places of execution and ancient pathways.[1][3][4]

The origins of the black dog are difficult to discern. It is impossible to ascertain whether the creature originated in the Celtic or Germanic elements in British culture. Throughout European mythology, dogs have been associated with death. Examples of this are the Cŵn Annwn,[5] Garmr[6] and Cerberus,[7] all of whom were in some way guardians of the underworld. This association seems to be due to the scavenging habits of dogs.[8] It is possible that the black dog is a survival of these beliefs. Black dogs are almost universally regarded as malevolent, and a few (such as the Barghest) are said to be directly harmful. Some, however, like the Gurt Dog in Somerset and the Black Dog of the Hanging Hills in Connecticut, are said to behave benevolently.

Black dogs by locale[edit]

Some of the better-known black dogs are the Barghest of Yorkshire and Black Shuck of East Anglia. Various other forms are recorded in folklore in Britain and elsewhere. Other names are Hairy Jack,[9] Skriker, Padfoot,[9] Churchyard Beast,[citation needed] Shug Monkey, Cu Sith, Galleytrot, Capelthwaite, Mauthe Doog, Hateful Thing,[citation needed] Swooning Shadow,[citation needed] Bogey Beast (Lancashire), Gytrash, Gurt Dog, Oude Rode Ogen, Tibicena (Canary Islands), and Dip (Catalonia). Although a Grim is not a barghest, a Church or Fairy Grim can also take the form of a big black dog.[10]

England[edit]

Black Dogs have been reported from almost all the counties of England, the exceptions being Middlesex and Rutland.[11]

Devon's Yeth Hound[edit]

The yeth hound, also called the yell hound, is a black dog found in Devon folklore. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the yeth hound is a headless dog, said to be the spirit of an unbaptised child, which rambles through the woods at night making wailing noises. The yeth hound is also mentioned in The Denham Tracts. It may have been one inspiration for the ghost dog in The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, described as "an enormous coal-black hound, but not such a hound as mortal eyes have ever seen" - with fire in his eyes and breath (Hausman 1997:47).[24]

Scotland[edit]

The Cù Sìth (Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: kuː ʃiː) is an enormous, otherworldly hound, said to haunt the Scottish Highlands. Roughly the size of a cow or large calf, the Cù Sìth was feared as a harbinger of death and would appear to bear away the soul of a person to the afterlife (similar to the manner of the Grim Reaper). Supernatural dogs in the legends are usually completely black, or white with red ears. The Cù Sìth's coloration is therefore highly unusual because of its light green color, although it may be derived from the green color often worn by Celtic fairies.[citation needed]

Channel Islands and Isle of Man[edit]

"For he was speechless, ghastly, wan
Like him of whom the Story ran
Who spoke the spectre hound in Man."
The monstrous black dog reputed to haunt Bouley Bay in Jersey is depicted on this pub sign.

Wales[edit]

Cornwall[edit]

Ireland[edit]

A black dog is known to haunt an area that was frequented by a local Hellfire Club, and is connected to a spiritual Black Cat. Sightings have persisted for years, and it has been known to attack an inn in the area of the old Hellfire Club's location.[citation needed]

Mainland Europe[edit]

Oude Rode Ogen ("Old Red Eyes") or "The Beast of Flanders" was a spirit reported in Flanders, Belgium in the 18th century who would take the form of a large black dog with fiery red eyes. In Wallonia, the Southern region of Belgium, folktales mentioned the Tchén al tchinne ("Chained Hound" in Walloon language), a hellish dog bound with a long chain, that was thought to roam in the fields at night.[32] In Germany it was said that the devil would appear in the form of a large black dog.[33]

Latin America[edit]

Black dogs with fiery eyes are reported throughout Latin America from Mexico to Argentina under a variety of names including the Perro Negro (Spanish for Black Dog), Nahual (Mexico), Huay Chivo and Huay Pek (Mexico) - alternatively spelled Uay/Way/Waay Chivo/Pek, Cadejo (Central America), the dog Familiar (Argentina) and the Lobizon (Paraguay and Argentina). They are usually said to be either incarnations of the Devil or a shape-changing sorcerer.[34]

Islam[edit]

In Islam the pure black dog is regarded with particular disdain. In Sahih Muslim Book 004, Hadith Number 1032. Sahih Muslim Book 04. Prayer

Chapter : The excellence of the prayer and the way it is begun and the excellence of Ruku' and moderation in it and prostration and moderation in it, etc. Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of 'Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When any one of you stands for prayer and there is a thing before him equal to the back of the saddle that covers him and in case there is not before him (a thing) equal to the back of the saddle, his prayer would be cut off by (passing of an) ass, woman, and black Dog. I said: O Abu Dharr, what feature is there in a black dog which distinguish it from the red dog and the yellow dog? He said: O, son of my brother, I asked the Messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) as you are asking me, and he said: The black dog is a devil.

In another hadith in Sahih Muslim Book 10. Business Transactions it mentions the following.

Chapter : Riba (Usury). Abu Zubair heard Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) saying: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) ordered us to kill dogs, and we carried out this order so much so that we also kill the dog coming with a woman from the desert. Then Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade their killing. He (the Holy Prophet further) said: It is your duty the jet-black (dog) having two spots (on the eyes), for it is a devil.

A third narration in Abu Dawud Book 010, Hadith Number 2840. Abu Dawud Book 10. Game

Chapter : To have a dog for hunting and some other purposes.

Narrated By Jabir ibn Abdullah : The Prophet of Allah (pbuh) ordered to kill dogs, and we were even killing a dog which a woman brought with her from the desert. Afterwards he forbade to kill them, saying: Confine yourselves to the type which is black.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Simpson & Roud 2000, 2003, p.25.
  2. ^ Westwood & Simpson 2005, pp.687-688.
  3. ^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.36-37.
  4. ^ McEwan 1986, p.147.
  5. ^ a b Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, p.53.
  6. ^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.44-45.
  7. ^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, p.38.
  8. ^ Stone, Alby Infernal Watchdogs, Soul Hunters and Corpse Eaters in Trubshaw 2005, pp.54-55.
  9. ^ a b c Bord & Bord 1980, 1981, p.78.
  10. ^ Briggs, 1976.
  11. ^ Trubshaw 2005, p. 2.
  12. ^ Barber & Barber 1988, 1990, p.3.
  13. ^ "The Dark Huntsman". Legendarydartmoor.co.uk. 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  14. ^ Fields 1998, p. 37.
  15. ^ Simpson & Roud 2000, 2003, p. 366.
  16. ^ Crosby 2000, pp. 14, 19, 26, 165.
  17. ^ Feldwick 2006, 2007, pp89-90
  18. ^ Codd, Daniel. Haunted Lincolnshire. Tempus Publishing Ltd (2006) pp. 75-78. ISBN 0-7524-3817-4
  19. ^ Clark 2007, pp. 86–87.
  20. ^ Matthews 2004, p. 35–36.
  21. ^ Janaway 2005, p.10.
  22. ^ Stewart 1990, pp. 49–50.
  23. ^ The Tollesbury Midwife
  24. ^ Brewer. Hausemen & Hausemen 1997.
  25. ^ Evans-Wentz 1966, 1990, p. 129.
  26. ^ Bord & Bord 1980, 1981, p. 95.
  27. ^ Jersey Maritime Museum for references to the folklore of the Black Dog
  28. ^ Gantz 1976, pp. 46–47.
  29. ^ Pugh 1990, pp. 19, 67
  30. ^ Deane & Shaw 2003, p. 82.
  31. ^ Deane & Shaw 2003, p. 44; also Semmens, Jason. ‘“Whyler Pystry”: A Breviate of the Life and Folklore-Collecting Practices of William Henry Paynter (1901–1976) of Callington, Cornwall.” Folklore 116, No. 1 (2005) pp. 75–94.
  32. ^ Warsage, Rodolphe de Sorcellerie et Cultes Populaires en Wallonie, Noir Dessein, 1998.
  33. ^ Varner, Gary R. Creatures in the mist: little people, wild men and spirit beings around the world : a study in comparative mythology in Algora Publishing 2007, pp. 114–115.
  34. ^ Burchell 2007, pp. 1, 24.

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