Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) is a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mode used during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. It delivers a preset inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). BPAP can be described as a continuous positive airway pressure system with a time-cycled or flow-cycled change of the applied CPAP level. CPAP, BPAP and other non-invasive ventilation modes have been shown to be effective management tools for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure. Another term for bilevel positive airway pressure, and the term becoming increasingly adopted by the medical community, is non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV).
Vf: on many machines a respiratory rate is set as a guarantee for intermittent bursts of IPAP.
Biphasic/bilevel as a mode of ventilation was first presented in 1988 by Professor Benzer of Innsbruck and his group. His theory consisted of alternating PEEP levels. This was the first time the acronym BIPAP was used and was followed in 1989 with the publication of a new approach to ventilatory technique by Baum & Benzer which was also the first full year of commercial introduction of "Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure" as an integrated mode of ventilation on the Evita ventilator. This concept was introduced as a positive adjunct to weaning from ventilator support.
^Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System; Oleh Wasyl Hnatiuk, MD, Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD (6 June 2011). "Noninvasive Ventilation". Archived from the original on 2010-06-07. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
^Williams AM, Abramo TJ, Shah MV, Miller RA, Burney-Jones C, Rooks S et al. (2011). "Safety and clinical findings of BiPAP utilization in children 20 kg or less for asthma exacerbations.". Intensive Care Med37 (8): 1338–43. doi:10.1007/s00134-011-2238-9. PMID21567114.