Betty Friedan

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Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan 1960.jpg
Friedan in 1960
BornBettye Naomi Goldstein
February 4, 1921
Peoria, Illinois, U.S.
DiedFebruary 4, 2006(2006-02-04) (aged 85)
Washington, D.C.
Cause of death
Congestive heart failure
NationalityAmerican
Known forFeminism
Spouse(s)Carl Friedan (1947–69; divorced)
 
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Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan 1960.jpg
Friedan in 1960
BornBettye Naomi Goldstein
February 4, 1921
Peoria, Illinois, U.S.
DiedFebruary 4, 2006(2006-02-04) (aged 85)
Washington, D.C.
Cause of death
Congestive heart failure
NationalityAmerican
Known forFeminism
Spouse(s)Carl Friedan (1947–69; divorced)

Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".

In 1970, after stepping down as NOW's first president, Friedan organized the nationwide Women's Strike for Equality on August 26, the 50th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution granting women the right to vote. The national strike was successful beyond expectations in broadening the feminist movement; the march led by Friedan in New York City alone attracted over 50,000 women and men. In 1971, Friedan joined other leading feminists to establish the National Women's Political Caucus. Friedan was also a strong supporter of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution that passed the United States House of Representatives (by a vote of 354–24) and Senate (84–8) following intense pressure by women's groups led by NOW in the early 1970s. Following Congressional passage of the amendment, Friedan advocated for ratification of the amendment in the states and supported other women's rights reforms: she founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws but was later critical of the abortion-centered positions of many liberal feminists.

Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second Stage (1981), critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of some feminists.

Early life[edit]

Friedan was born Bettye Naomi Goldstein[1][2][3] on February 4, 1921 in Peoria, Illinois,[4] to Harry and Miriam (Horwitz) Goldstein, whose Jewish families were from Russia and Hungary.[5][6] Harry owned a jewelry store in Peoria, and Miriam wrote for the society page of a newspaper when Friedan's father fell ill. Her mother's new life outside the home seemed much more gratifying.

As a young girl, Friedan was active in both Marxist and Jewish circles; she later wrote how she felt isolated from the latter community at times, and felt her "passion against injustice...originated from my feelings of the injustice of anti-Semitism".[7] She attended Peoria High School, and became involved in the school newspaper. When her application to write a column was turned down, she and six other friends launched a literary magazine called Tide, which discussed home life rather than school life.

She attended all-female Smith College in 1938. She won a scholarship prize in her first year for outstanding academic performance. In her second year she became interested in poetry, and had many poems published in campus publications. In 1941, she became editor-in-chief of the college newspaper. The editorials became more political under her leadership, taking a strong antiwar stance and occasionally causing controversy.[7] She graduated summa cum laude in 1942 with a major in psychology.

In 1943 she spent a year at the University of California, Berkeley on a fellowship for graduate work in psychology with Erik Erikson.[8] She became more politically active, continuing to mix with Marxists (many of her friends were investigated by the FBI).[7] In her memoirs, she claimed that her boyfriend at the time had pressured her into turning down a Ph.D. fellowship for further study and abandoning her academic career.

Writing career[edit]

Before 1963[edit]

After leaving Berkeley, Friedan became a journalist for leftist and labor union publications. Between 1943 and 1946 she wrote for The Federated Press and between 1946 and 1952 she worked for the United Electrical Workers' UE News. One of her assignments was to report on the House Un-American Activities Committee.[8]

Friedan was dismissed from the union newspaper UE News in 1952 because she was pregnant with her second child.[9] After leaving UE News she became a freelance writer for various magazines, including Cosmopolitan.[8]

According to Friedan biographer Daniel Horowitz, Friedan started as a labor journalist when she first became aware of women's oppression and exclusion, although Friedan herself disputed this interpretation of her work.[10] In an editorial entitled Feminism's Dirty Secret which appeared in the Jewish World Review, writer David Horowitz claimed that Friedan was a liar and that she had concealed her past as a Stalinist Marxist[11]

The Feminine Mystique[edit]

Main article: The Feminine Mystique

For her 15th college reunion in 1957 Friedan conducted a survey of college graduates, focusing on their education, subsequent experiences and satisfaction with their current lives. She started publishing articles about what she called "the problem that has no name," and got passionate responses from many housewives grateful that they were not alone in experiencing this problem.[12]

"The shores are strewn with the casualties of the feminine mystique. They did give up their own education to put their husbands through college, and then, maybe against their own wishes, ten or fifteen years later, they were left in the lurch by divorce. The strongest were able to cope more or less well, but it wasn’t that easy for a woman of forty-five or fifty to move ahead in a profession and make a new life for herself and her children or herself alone."[13]

Friedan then decided to rework and expand this topic into a book, The Feminine Mystique. Published in 1963, it depicted the roles of women in industrial societies, especially the full-time homemaker role which Friedan deemed stifling.[12] In her book, Friedan claimed she was a depressed suburban housewife who dropped out of college at the age of 19 to get married and raise four children.[14] She spoke of her own 'terror' at being alone, wrote that she had never once in her life seen a positive female role-model who worked outside the home and also kept a family, and cited numerous cases of housewives who felt similarly trapped. From her psychological background she criticized Freud's penis envy theory, noting a lot of paradoxes in his work, and offered some answers to women desirous of further education.[citation needed]

The "Problem That Has No Name" was described by Friedan in the beginning of the book:

"The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning [that is, a longing] that women suffered in the middle of the 20th century in the United States. Each suburban [house]wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries … she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — 'Is this all?" [15]

Friedan asserted that women are as capable as men for any type of work or any career path against arguments to the contrary by the mass media, educators and psychologists.[16] The restrictions of the 1950s, and the trapped, imprisoned feeling of many women forced into these roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of oppressive laws and social views that restricted women.

The book became a bestseller, which many historians believe was the impetus for the "second wave" of the women's movement and significantly shaped national and world events.[17]

Friedan originally intended to write a sequel to The Feminine Mystique, which was to be called "Woman: The Fourth Dimension," but instead only wrote an article by that title, which appeared in the Ladies' Home Journal in June 1964.[18][19]

Other works[edit]

Friedan published six books. Her other books include The Second Stage, It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement, Beyond Gender and The Fountain of Age. Her autobiography, Life so Far, was published in 2000.

She also wrote for magazines and a newspaper:

Activism in the women's movement[edit]

National Organization for Women[edit]

Billington, Friedan, Ireton, and Rawalt [22]

In 1966 Friedan founded, and became the first president of, the National Organization for Women.[22] She, with Pauli Murray, the first black female Episcopal priest, wrote its mission statement.[23] Under Friedan, NOW advocated fiercely for the legal equality of women and men.

They lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same affirmative action granted to blacks to women, and for a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme Court. NOW was vocal in support of the legalization of abortion, an issue that divided some feminists. Also divisive in the 1960s among women was the Equal Rights Amendment, which NOW fully endorsed; by the 1970s, women and labor unions opposed to ERA warmed up to it and began to support it fully. NOW also lobbied for national daycare.[24]

Despite the success NOW achieved under Friedan, her decision to pressure Equal Employment Opportunity to use Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to enforce more job opportunities among American women met with fierce opposition within the organization.[25] Siding with arguments from the group's African American members, many of NOW's leaders accepted that the vast number of male and female African Americans who lived below the poverty line needed more job opportunities than women within the middle and upper class.[26] Friedan stepped down as president in 1969.[27]

In 1973, Friedan founded the First Women's Bank and Trust Company.

Women's Strike for Equality[edit]

In 1970 NOW, with Friedan leading the cause, was instrumental in the U.S. Senate's rejection of President Richard M. Nixon's Supreme Court nominee G. Harrold Carswell, who had opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act granting (among other things) women workplace equality with men. On August 26, 1970, the 50th anniversary of the Women's Suffrage Amendment to the Constitution, Friedan organized the national Women's Strike for Equality, and led a march of an estimated 20,000 women in New York City.[28][29][30] While the march's primary objective was promoting equal opportunities for women in jobs and education,[31] protestors and organizers of the event also demanded abortion rights and the establishment of child-care centers.[31]

Friedan spoke about the Strike for Equality:

All kinds of women's groups all over the country will be using this week on August 26 particularly, to point out those areas in women's life which are still not addressed. For example, a question of equality before the law; we are interested in the equal rights amendment. The question of child care centers which are totally inadequate in the society, and which women require, if they are going to assume their rightful position in terms of helping in decisions of the society. The question of a women's right to control her [sic] own reproductive processes, that is, laws prohibiting abortion in the state or putting them into criminal statutes; I think that would be a statute that we would [be] addressing ourselves to.[32]

So I think individual women will react differently; some will not cook that day, some will engage in dialog with their husband[s], some will be out at the rallies and demonstrations that will be taking place all over the country. Others will be writing things that will help them to define where they want to go. Some will be pressuring their Senators and their Congressmen to pass legislations that affect women. I don't think you can come up with any one point, women will be doing their own thing in their own way.[32]

National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws[edit]

Friedan founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws, renamed National Abortion Rights Action League after the Supreme Court had legalized abortion in 1973.

Politics[edit]

In 1970 Friedan led other feminists in derailing the nomination of Supreme Court nominee G. Harold Carswell, whose record of racial discrimination and antifeminism made him unacceptable and unfit to sit on the highest court in the land to virtually everyone in the civil rights and feminist movements. Friedan's impassioned testimony before the Senate helped sink Carswell's nomination.[33]

In 1971 Friedan, along with many other leading women's movement leaders, including Gloria Steinem (with whom she had a legendary rivalry) founded the National Women's Political Caucus.[citation needed]

In 1972, Friedan unsuccessfully ran as a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention in support of Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm. That year at the DNC Friedan played a very prominent role and addressed the convention, although she clashed with other women, notably Steinem, on what should be done there, and how.[34]

Movement image and unity[edit]

One of the most influential feminists of the twentieth century, Friedan (in addition to many others) opposed equating feminism with lesbianism. As early as 1964, very early in the movement, and only a year after the publication of The Feminine Mystique, Friedan appeared on television to address the fact the media was, at that point, trying to dismiss the movement as a joke and centering argument and debate around whether or not to wear bras and other issues considered ridiculous.[35] In 1982, during the second wave, she wrote a book for the post-feminist 1980s called The Second Stage, about family life, premised on women having conquered social and legal obstacles.[23][35][36]

She pushed the feminist movement to focus on economic issues, especially equality in employment and business as well as provision for child care and other means by which both women and men could balance family and work. She tried to lessen the focuses on abortion, as an issue already won, and on rape and pornography, which she believed most women did not consider to be high priorities.[37]

Related issues[edit]

Lesbian politics[edit]

When she grew up in Peoria, Illinois, she knew only one gay man. She said, "the whole idea of homosexuality made me profoundly uneasy."[38] She later acknowledged that she had been very square, and was uncomfortable, about homosexuality. "The women's movement was not about sex, but about equal opportunity in jobs and all the rest of it. Yes, I suppose you have to say that freedom of sexual choice is part of that, but it shouldn't be the main issue ...."[39][a][b] She ignored lesbians in the National Organization for Women (NOW) initially, and objected to what she saw as their demands for equal time.[38] "'Homosexuality ... is not, in my opinion, what the women's movement is all about.'"[40] While opposing all repression, she wrote, she refused to wear a purple armband or self-identify as a lesbian (particularly because she herself was heterosexual) as an act of political solidarity, considering it not part of the mainstream issues of abortion and child care.[41] But in 1977, at the National Women's Conference, she seconded a lesbian rights resolution "which everyone thought I would oppose" in order to "preempt any debate" and move on to other issues she believed were more important and less divisive in the effort to add the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution.[42] She accepted lesbian sexuality ("'Enjoy!'"), albeit not its politicization.[43] In 1995, at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, she found advice given by Chinese authorities to taxi drivers that naked lesbians would be "cavorting" in their cars so that the drivers should hang sheets outside their cab windows, and that lesbians would have AIDS and so drivers should carry disinfectants, to be "ridiculous", "incredibly stupid" and "insulting".[44] In 1997, she wrote that "children ... will ideally come from mother and father."[45] She wrote in 2000, "I'm more relaxed about the whole issue now[.]"[46]

Abortion choice[edit]

She supported the concept that abortion is a woman's choice, that it shouldn't be a crime or exclusively a doctor's choice, and helped form NARAL (now NARAL Pro-Choice America) at a time when Planned Parenthood wasn't yet supportive.[47] Death threats against her speaking on abortion led to the cancellation of two events, although subsequently one of the host institutions, Loyola College, invited her back to speak on abortion and other issues and she did so.[48] Her draft of NOW's first statement of purpose included an abortion plank, but NOW didn't include it until the next year.[49] In 1980, she believed abortion should be in the context of "'the choice to have children'", a formulation supported by the Roman Catholic priest organizing Catholic participation in the White House Conference on Families for that year,[50] though perhaps not by the bishops above him.[51] A resolution embodying the formulation passed at the conference by 460 to 114, whereas a resolution addressing abortion, ERA and "'sexual preference'" passed by only 292–291 and that only after 50 opponents of abortion had walked out and so hadn't voted on it.[52] She disagreed with a resolution that framed abortion in more feminist terms that was introduced in the Minneapolis regional conference resulting from the same White House Conference on Families, believing it to be more polarizing, while the drafters apparently thought Friedan's formulation too conservative.[53] As of 2000, she wrote, referring to "NOW and the other women's organizations" as seeming to be in a "time warp", "to my mind, there is far too much focus on abortion.... [I]n recent years I've gotten a little uneasy about the movement's narrow focus on abortion as if it were the single, all-important issue for women when it's not".[54] She asked, "Why don't we join forces with all who have true reverence for life, including Catholics who oppose abortion, and fight for the choice to have children?"[55]

Pornography[edit]

She joined nearly 200 others in Feminists for Free Expression in opposing the Pornography Victims' Compensation Act. "'To suppress free speech in the name of protecting women is dangerous and wrong,' says Friedan. 'Even some blue-jean ads are insulting and denigrating. I'm not adverse to a boycott, but I don't think they should be suppressed.'"[56]

War[edit]

In 1968, Friedan signed the “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.[57]

Influence[edit]

Friedan is credited for starting the contemporary feminist movement and writing a book that is one of the cornerstones of American feminism.[58] Her activist work and her book The Feminine Mystique have been a critical influence to authors, educators, writers, anthropologists, journalists, activists, organizations, unions, and everyday women taking part in the feminist movement.[59] Allan Wolf, in The Mystique of Betty Friedan writes: “She helped to change not only the thinking but the lives of many American women, but recent books throw into question the intellectual and personal sources of her work.”[58] Although there have been some debates on Friedan’s work in The Feminine Mystique since its publication, there is no doubt that her work for equality for women was sincere and committed.

Judith Hennessee (Betty Friedan: Her Life) and Daniel Horowitz, a professor of American Studies at Smith College, have also written about Friedan. Horowitz explored Friedan’s engagement with the women's movement before she began to work on The Feminine Mystique[60] and pointed out that Friedan’s feminism did not start in the 1950s but even earlier, in the 1940s.[60] Focusing his study on Friedan’s ideas in feminism rather than on her personal life[60] Horowitz’s book gave Friedan a major role in the history of American feminism.[60]

Justine Blau was also greatly influenced by Friedan. In Betty Friedan: Feminist Blau wrote of the feminist movement's influence on Friedan's personal and professional life.[61] Lisa Fredenksen Bohannon, in Woman’s work: The story of Betty Friedan, went deep into Friedan’s personal life and wrote about her relationship with her mother.[62] Sandra Henry and Emily Taitz (Betty Friedan, Fighter for Woman’s Rights) and Susan Taylor Boyd (Betty Friedan: Voice of Woman’s Right, Advocates of Human Rights), wrote biographies on Friedan’s life and works. Journalist Janann Sheman wrote a book called Interviews with Betty Friedan containing interviews with Friedan for the New York Times, Working Women and Playboy, among others. Focusing on interviews that relate to Friedan's views on men, women and the American Family, Sheman traced Friedan's life with an analysis of The Feminine Mystique.[63]

Friedan (among others) was featured in the 2013 documentary Makers: Women Who Make America, about the women's movement.[64]

In 2014, a biography of Friedan was added to the American National Biography Online (ANB).[18][65]

Personality[edit]

The New York Times obituary for Friedan noted that she was "famously abrasive", and that she could be "thin-skinned and imperious, subject to screaming fits of temperament." And in February 2006, shortly after Friedan's death, the feminist writer Germaine Greer published an article in The Guardian,[66] in which she described Friedan as pompous and egotistic, somewhat demanding and sometimes selfish, citing several incidents during a 1972 tour of Iran.[67]

Betty Friedan "changed the course of human history almost single-handedly." Her ex-husband, Carl Friedan, believes this; Betty believed it too. This belief was the key to a good deal of Betty's behaviour; she would become breathless with outrage if she didn't get the deference she thought she deserved. Though her behaviour was often tiresome, I figured that she had a point. Women don't get the respect they deserve unless they are wielding male-shaped power; if they represent women they will be called "love" and expected to clear up after themselves. Betty wanted to change that for ever.

— Germaine Greer, "The Betty I Knew," The Guardian (February 7, 2006)

Indeed, Carl Friedan had been quoted as saying "She changed the course of history almost singlehandedly. It took a driven, super aggressive, egocentric, almost lunatic dynamo to rock the world the way she did. Unfortunately, she was that same person at home, where that kind of conduct doesn't work. She simply never understood this."[68]

Writer Camille Paglia, who had been denounced by Friedan in a Playboy interview, wrote a brief obituary for her in Entertainment Weekly:

Betty Friedan wasn't afraid to be called abrasive. She pursued her feminist principles with a flamboyant pugnacity that has become all too rare in these yuppified times. She hated girliness and bourgeois decorum, and never lost her earthly ethnicity.

— Camille Paglia, December 29, 2006/January 5, 2007 double End of the Year issue,[citation needed] section Farewell, pg. 94

The truth is that I've always been a bad-tempered bitch. Some people say that I have mellowed some. I don't know....

— Betty Friedan, Life So Far[69]

Personal life[edit]

She married Carl Friedan (né Friedman), a theater producer, in 1947 while working at UE News. She continued to work after marriage, first as a paid employee and, after 1952, as a freelance journalist. The couple divorced in May 1969, and Carl died in December 2005.

Friedan stated in her memoir Life So Far (2000) that Carl had beaten her during their marriage; friends such as Dolores Alexander recalled having to cover up black eyes from Carl's abuse in time for press conferences (Brownmiller 1999, p. 70). But Carl denied abusing her in an interview with Time magazine shortly after the book was published, describing the claim as a "complete fabrication".[70] She later said, on Good Morning America, "I almost wish I hadn't even written about it, because it's been sensationalized out of context. My husband was not a wife-beater, and I was no passive victim of a wife-beater. We fought a lot, and he was bigger than me."

Carl and Betty Friedan had three children, Daniel, Emily and Jonathan. She was raised in a Jewish family, but was an agnostic.[71] In 1973, Friedan was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II.[72]

Death[edit]

Friedan died of congestive heart failure at her home in Washington, D.C., on February 4, 2006, her 85th birthday.[67]

Papers[edit]

Some of Friedan's papers are held at the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.[73]

Awards and Honors[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On equal opportunity in jobs: equal opportunity employment, access to jobs without suffering discrimination on certain grounds
  2. ^ On freedom of sexual choice: human female sexuality#Feminist concepts, how feminism addresses a wide range of sexual issues

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fox, Margalit (Feb. 5, 2006). Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85. N.Y. Times, Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  2. ^ Sweet, Corinne (Feb. 7, 2006). Ground-Breaking Author of 'The Feminine Mystique' Who Sparked Feminism's Second Wave. The (London, Eng., U.K.) Independent (obit), Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  3. ^ Betty Friedan, in 300 Women Who Changed the World. Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  4. ^ Wing Katie Loves Jason, Liz (Summer 2006). "NOW Mourns Foremothers of Feminist, Civil Rights Movements". National Organization for Women. Retrieved February 19, 2007. 
  5. ^ History of American Political Thought - Google Books
  6. ^ Women advocates of reproductive rights: eleven who led the struggle in the ... - Moira Davison Reynolds - Google Books
  7. ^ a b c h[citation needed] (sampling of History suggests 1st appearance in Wikipedia was as it is now)
  8. ^ a b c Henderson, Margaret (July 2007). "Betty Friedan 1921–2006". Australian Feminist Studies 22 (53): 163–166. doi:10.1080/08164640701361725. 
  9. ^ Betty Friedan Biography – Biography.com
  10. ^ Daniel Horowitz (2000) Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique: The American Left, the Cold War and Modern Feminism. University of Massachusetts Press, ix–xi.
  11. ^ David Horowitz
  12. ^ a b Spender, Dale (1985). For the Record: The Making and Meaning of Feminist Knowledge. London: Women's Press. pp. 7–18. ISBN 0704328623. 
  13. ^ Gilbert, Lynn (2012-12-10). Particular Passions: Betty Friedan. Women of Wisdom Series (1st ed.). New York City: Lynn Gilbert Inc. ISBN 978-1-61979-593-8. 
  14. ^ David Farber (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 161. ISBN 141271009X. 
  15. ^ Friedan, Betty (1963). "1 The Problem That Has No Name". The Feminine Mystique. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 15. 
  16. ^ Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  17. ^ Davis, Flora (1991). Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 50–53. 
  18. ^ a b American National Biography Online: Friedan, Betty
  19. ^ Mass Media and the Shaping of American Feminism, 1963-1975 - Patricia Bradley - Google Books
  20. ^ Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 (ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), pp. 90–91 & nn. 51–53 (author Ph.D. & fellow, Woodhull Institute for Ethical Leadership).
  21. ^ Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted, op. cit., p. 90.
  22. ^ a b "(left to right): Billington; Betty Naomi Goldstein Friedan (1921-2006); Barbara Ireton (1932-1998); and Marguerite Rawalt (1895-1989)". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  23. ^ a b Betty Friedan Biography – life, family, children, name, wife, mother, young, book, information, born, college, husband, house, year
  24. ^ Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  25. ^ David Farber (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 141271009X. 
  26. ^ David Farber (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 257. ISBN 141271009X. 
  27. ^ NOW statement on Friedan's death
  28. ^ Nation: Women on the March, Time Magazine, September 2, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013
  29. ^ 1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality, Mary Breasted, Village Voice, September 3, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013
  30. ^ Local Photographer Remembers Fight for Gender Equality, Demonstration on Liberty Island, Matt Hunger, Jersey City Independent, Accessed December 28, 2013
  31. ^ a b Nation: Who's Come a Long Way, Baby?, Time Magazine, August 31, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013
  32. ^ a b anon, 1970 Year in Review: 50th Anniversary of Women's Suffrage, UPI (United Press International), as accessed June 18, 2013.
  33. ^ Gifts of Speech – Betty Friedan
  34. ^ Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. 
  35. ^ a b CBCtv interview of Betty Friedan on YouTube, from CBCtv (Canadian television)
  36. ^ Hulu – PBS Indies: Sisters of '77 – Watch the full episode now
  37. ^ Friedan, Betty; ed. Brigid O'Farrell. Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Work and Family. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Ctr. Press (Woodrow Wilson Ctr. Spec. Studies ser.), cloth, (ISBN 0-943875-84-6) [1st printing?] 1997. E.g., pp. 8–9.
  38. ^ a b Friedan, Betty. Life So Far: A Memoir. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone Book), © 2000, pbk., 1st Touchstone ed. (ISBN 0-7432-0024-1) [1st printing?] 2001, p. 221.
  39. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p.  223.
  40. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 222.
  41. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., pp. 248–249.
  42. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 295.
  43. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage: With a New Introduction. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, © 1981 1986 1991 1998, 1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. (ISBN 0-674-79655-1) 1998, pp. 307–308.
  44. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 365.
  45. ^ Friedan, Betty. Beyond Gender, op. cit., p. 91.
  46. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 249.
  47. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., pp. 212–216.
  48. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 219.
  49. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 176.
  50. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit., pp. 94–95
  51. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit., p. 98.
  52. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit., pp. 95–96.
  53. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit., pp. 97–98.
  54. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 377.
  55. ^ Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, op. cit., pp. 246–248, esp. p. 247.
  56. ^ Puente, Maria, Bill Holds Porn Producers Liable For Sex Crimes, in USA Today, April 15, 1992, p. 09A (Final ed.).
  57. ^ “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” January 30, 1968 New York Post
  58. ^ a b Wolf, Allan. The Mystique of Betty Friedan. http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99sep/9909friedan.htm
  59. ^ National Organization for Women. Tributes to Betty Friedan. http://www.now.org/history/friedan-tribute-compilation.html
  60. ^ a b c d Daniel Horowitz. Betty Friedan and the Making of "The Feminine Mystique". University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.
  61. ^ Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist. Chelsea House Publications, 1990.
  62. ^ Bohannon, Lisa Fredenksen. Woman’s work: The story of Betty Friedan. Morgan Reynolds, 2004.
  63. ^ Sheman, Janann. Interviews with Betty Friedan. University Press of Mississippi, 2002.
  64. ^ Regina Weinreich: Gloria Steinem and the Faces of Feminism: MAKERS: Women Who Make America
  65. ^ History News Network | Betty Friedan, Norman Mailer among new biographies added to the American National Biography Online
  66. ^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  67. ^ a b Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause In 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-31. Betty Friedan, the feminist crusader and author whose searing first book, The Feminine Mystique, ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world, died yesterday, her 85th birthday, at her home in Washington. The cause was congestive heart failure, said Emily Bazelon, a family spokeswoman. ... For decades a familiar presence on television and the lecture circuit, Ms. Friedan, with her short stature and deeply hooded eyes, looked for much of her adult life like a 'combination of Hermione Gingold and Bette Davis,' as Judy Klemesrud wrote in The New York Times Magazine in 1970. 
  68. ^ Ginsberg L., "Ex-hubby fires back at feminist icon Betty," New York Post, July 5, 2000
  69. ^ Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, op. cit., p. 379.
  70. ^ Fox, Margalit (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique', Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  71. ^ Daniel Horowitz (2000). Betty Friedan and the Making of the Feminine Mystique: The American Left, the Cold War, and Modern Feminism with a New Preface by the Author. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 170. ISBN 9781558492769. As an agnostic Jew many of whose Jewish friends had become Unitarians, she arranged a Bar Mitzvah celebration for Daniel. 
  72. ^ "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Retrieved October 9, 2012. 
  73. ^ Friedan, Betty. Additional papers of Betty Friedan, 1937-1993 (inclusive), 1970-1993 (bulk): A Finding Aid
  74. ^ Fifty Jewish Women Who Changed The World - Deborah G. Felder - Google Books
  75. ^ Humanists of the Year
  76. ^ a b Women's Equity Resource Center
  77. ^ For Friedan, a Life on the Run
  78. ^ http://lydia.bradley.edu/advising/pdfs/GeneralInfo.pdf
  79. ^ Search the Hall - National Womens Hall of Fame
  80. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol19/vol19_iss30/record1930.23

Further reading[edit]

Obituaries[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
(none)
President of the National Organization for Women
1966–1970
Succeeded by
Aileen Hernandez